History of british theatre

Theatre in British history as an integral part of the cultural heritage. Stages of professional development of the theater from the first theater and the trivial to the most modern experimental projects. Famous people of British theater for centuries.

06.12.2013
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In 1956, the Royal Court Theatre was taken over by the newly formed English Stage Company, under the artistic directorship of George Devine. Initially formed to promote new and experimental drama, the company soon established itself as the determinant of English dramatic developments. The Court's production of John Osborne's "Look Back in Anger"(1956) has been held generally to mark a watershed in postwar British theatre. Jimmy Porter, Osborne's working-class antihero, expresses a social rage and disillusionment that immediately identified the spirit of the "Angry Young Men". The phrase was originally coined by the Royal Court Theatre's press officer to promote John Osborne's scandalous play and It was destined to define a group of mostly working and middle class British playwrights and novelists who became prominent in the 1950s. Their political views were usually seen as identifying with the left, sometimes anarchistic, and they described social alienation of different kinds. They also often expressed their critical views on society as a whole, criticizing certain behaviors or groups in various ways [19, p. 87-88].

Already enshrined in theatre history for causing a watershed in British theatre with "Look Back in Anger"(1956), John Osborne was to make history again as the author of a "Patriot for Me"(1965) at the Royal Court. The play's depiction of a homosexual sex scene and a transvestites' ball aroused the authorities' ire as expected. To avoid any restrictions, the director of the playhouse, George Devine turned a Court into a club theatre and the performance went ahead. This was a turning point in a battle against censorship

The 1970's. The end of censorship gave playwrights and directors a new freedom [2, p.89]. Sex, swearing and less-than-flattering representations of the monarchy, the government and their political allies became the order of the day as a new generation of middle- and working-class writers and actors tried to express the contemporary living experience. Women were given a significant and sustained voice on the stage for the first time since the Restoration, exploring the boundaries of gender and sexuality in "Cloud Nine"(1979)

During the late 1970's and the following two decades British theatre became far more inclusive. Female dramatists took a prominent role in theatre, and a great number of regional, multiethnic, and lesbian and gay theatre groups were established. New forms of cultural creativity gave voice to formerly silent sections of society. However in the late 1980's such groups resulted in funding cuts. It happened because of acceptance of Margaret Thatcher's government's legislated Clause 78, which limited discussion of homosexuality in the arts and education

Black theatre. The term Black theatre is used to a dramatic movement encompassing plays written by, for, and about ethnic minorities. New black theatre companies of the 1970's and 1980's included Carib, Temba, and the Black Theatre Co-operative. Temba presented new plays such as "Back Street Mommy"(1989) by Trish Cooke, portraying adolescent pregnancy, and "The Pirate Princess"(1981) by Barbara Gloudon, with Jamaican pantomime [20, p. 24]. There was directed a number of successful productions. Black theatre in Britain began to achieve recognition in the mid-1980's with the establishment of the Talawa Theatre, founded in 1985 by Yvonne Brewster, Mona Hammond and Carmen Munroe. The most notable and successful contemporary plays suggest the future direction of British theatre in the new millennium. Contemporary fine plays represent a progressive spirit of inclusion and cultural and historical reconciliation that moves past trends forward and gives hope for the continued development of British theatre.

British theatre today. There are several thousands of amateur dramatic societies in Britain (some 200 amateur youth theatres among them). Most Universities have active amateur drama clubs and societies. People throughout Great Britain participate in amateur theatre as performers, crew or audience members and many children first experience live theatre during local amateur performances of the annual Christmas pantomime. Amateur theatre can sometimes be a springboard for the development of new performing talent

The centre of theatrical activity in Britain is London. There are some 48 principal theatres in or near the West End and some 8 in the suburbs. Most of the theatres are let to producing managements on a commercial basis but some are occupied by important subsided companies, including the National Theatre and Royal Shakespeare Companies. The former stages classical and modem plays from all countries; the latter presents Shakespearean plays in Stratford-upon-Avon and a mixed repertoire in London. Many non-repertoire theatres outside London present all kinds of drama and many also put on variety shows and other entertainment.

London's vibrant West End theatre scene. London's legendary West End Theatre scene, the finest in the world. With numerous celebrities making their way across the ocean to embrace London's theatre crowd and to complement their acting profiles. Though New York's Broadway may have all the flamboyant decorations, the West End theatre scene has become increasingly vibrant in the past years. With shows such as; 'The Jerry Springer Musical', 'Daddy Cool' and 'Billy Elliot' just to mention a few. All drawing in hordes of theatre goers from all over the world, and attracting the non-theatre crowds in addition [9, pp. 47-48].

Today the West End has something for everyone; no longer is it associated with the aristocratic upper class, but a sanctuary for all types of people seeking no more than a thrilling production and electrifying performances by the old and new actors of today. Even more than New York, London is the theatre capital of the world. The number and array of productions, the standards of acting and world renowned directors have gone unrivalled in the world. London's West End theatre scene plays host to both the traditional and the avant-garde. Importantly London's Theatre scene is accessible and very reasonably priced. The West End has just welcomed the new Globe Theatre, which has become another exciting addition to the already amazing theatre district. The world's longest running production is 'The Mousetrap' by Agatha Christie, the play has been running for 54 years and is still going strong drawing in crowds from afar. Some of the West End's most famous productions are 'Les Miserables', 'The Phantom of the Opera', 'Blood Brothers', 'The Woman In Black', 'Chicago', 'The Lion King' and 'Stomp'.

The term West End theatre is a popular expression for mainstream professional theatre in London. It is considered to correspond to the highest level of commercial theatre in the English speaking world. Catching a West End production is a very prevalent tourist activity in London, which surpassed 12 million visitors in 2002 and since has increased every year.

2. FAMOUS PEOPLE OF THE BRITISH THEATRE THROUGHOUT THE CENTURIES

Christopher Marlowe (1564 - 1593). Born the same year as Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe was to become the first great poet. His life, much like the lives of his characters, would be short and violent.

The son of a shoemaker, Marlowe attended King's School, Canterbury and Corpus Christi College where he received his Bachelor of Arts in 1584 and his Masters degree three years later. According to university records, Marlowe disappeared frequently during his last years at school, exceeding the number of absences permitted him by statute and putting his degree in jeopardy. Apparently, much of this time was spent in Rheims among the Catholics who were plotting against Queen Elizabeth's protestant regime. Because of his absences and the fact that he refused to take holy orders, the university refused, for a time, to confer his degree, but the authorities intervened, and the degree was eventually granted.

Although we cannot be certain, Marlowe may have fought in the wars in the Low Country after graduation. What we can be certain of is that he settled in London in 1587 and began his career as a playwright--although he may still have been in the employ of the secret service as well. The young poet plunged himself into a social circle that included such colorful literary figures as Sir Phillip Sidney and Sir Walter Raleigh. He shared a room with fellow playwright Thomas Kyd and was often seen frequenting the taverns of London with the likes of Robert Greene and Thomas Nashe. His magnificent appearance, impulsiveness, and bejeweled costumes soon became the talk of the town.

Primed by this new-found intellectual stimulation, Marlowe soon wrote Tamburlaine, the first notable English play in blank verse. Elizabethan drama had reached the foothills and was beginning its final ascent when Marlowe came onto the scene. All that was needed was a bold leap such as no one had yet dared or been able to make--and Marlowe was determined to make that leap. He had the advantage of having his plays presented by the Lord Admiral's company. While his contemporaries were watching their work performed by church boys, Marlowe saw his dramas staged by full-chested men such as the seven-foot-tall, majestic Edward Alleyn. No playwright had hitherto invoked the world, the flesh, and the devil so magnificently in plays such as Dr. Faustus, The Jew of Malta, and Edward II. The young poet, however, had neither wealth nor position, and the disparity between his dreams and the reality of his situation began to weigh upon him. He grew more and more restless and irritable until even his friends began to lose patience with him.

In 1593, after pointing out what he considered to be inconsistencies in the Bible, Marlowe fell under suspicion of heresy. His roommate, Thomas Kyd, was tortured into giving evidence against him, but before he could be brought before the Privy Council, the twenty-nine-year-old poet was found dead at Dame Eleanore Bull's tavern in Deptford. On May 30, 1593, he had gone to the tavern to have dinner with some friends. According to witnesses, there was a quarrel over the bill and Marlowe drew his dagger on another man who, defending himself, drove the dagger back into the young poet's eye, mortally wounding him. There is reason to believe, however, that Marlowe may have been deliberately provoked and murdered in order to prevent his arrest. Had he been brought before the Privy Council, he might have implicated men of importance such as Raleigh.

Christopher Marlowe's contribution to the drama, however, was complete. He had returned high poetry to its rightful place on the stage and left us characters as fiery and passionate as their creator, preparing the way for a poet even greater than himself--William Shakespeare.

William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616). William Shakespeare [Appendix B] was born in April of 1564. There is no specific date of birth because at that time the only date of importance was the date of baptism, though infants often were baptized when they were three days old. Shakespeare's baptismal date was April 26, 1564.

Shakespeare was born in the village of Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire. At the time of his birth, the village had a population of 1500 people, and only 200 houses. Shakespeare's father, John Shakespeare, came from a family of yeomen, and he gained many prestigious positions in the community. Shakespeare's mother, Mary Arden, came from an ancient family of landed gentry. The whole family was Anglican. The family's financial situation was well off. Not much information is known about Shakespeare's youth, although undoubtedly he was educated in the local school, where he studied Latin and Greek, among other subjects, during a school day that often lasted from dawn to dusk. Shakespeare's first exposure to the theatre probably occurred when he was young. As a child his father probably took him to see plays when traveling troupes of actors came to town, although that was not often [5, pp. 27-35].

Shakespeare was married to Anne Hathaway in 1582, when he was 18; she was 26, eight years his senior. The exact wedding date is uncertain, but the marriage certificate was issued on November 27,1582. Anne was the daughter of a respected yeoman farmer. William and Anne had their first child, Susanna, in May of 1583. This was followed by the birth of twins, Hamnet and Judith, in January of 1585. Most historians believe that Shakespeare was not often around his family in Stratford after that because historical records show him in London during the following years [17, pp. 54-72].

The first written reference to Shakespeare's existence in London occurred in 1592, when Shakespeare was in his late twenties. He seems to have been fairly well established in the theatre by that point, since the reference, written by another playwright, hints of jealousy at Shakespeare's success. With his two patrons, the Earls of South Hampton and Pembrooke, Shakespeare rose quickly in the theatre as both an actor and an author. He joined the Lord Chamberlin's Men, an acting company which was protected by the Queen, becoming a shareholder and senior member in 1595. Because of his success in London, he was able to purchase New Place, the largest and most elegant house in his home town of Stratford, when he was in his early thirties (1597). In addition to his popularity as both an actor and playwright, Shakespeare became joint owner of the famous Globe theatre when it opened in 1599. His share of the company's management added heavily to his wealth. Shakespeare's financial success in the London theatre enabled him to retire and return to his home in Stratford around 1610. He lived there comfortably until his death on April 23, 1616 (it is popularly believed that he died on his birthday). He is buried in Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon.

Aphra Behn (1640-1689). Aphra Behn was an English dramatist, poetess, and novel writer, highly popular in the reign of Charles II, when nothing could exceed the licentiousness of the public stage, but the licentiousness of private manners.

She was born in the reign of Charles I., but the year is not known, and, as is stated, of a good family in Canterbury, of the name Johnson. While she was yet very young, her father was appointed governor of Surinam, but he died on the voyage out, leaving behind him a large family who were with him on the way to the West Indies. They proceeded on their expedition, and resided at Surinam for some years, where Aphra Johnson became intimately acquainted with prince Oroonoko, whose history she afterwards molded into the novel that Southern used in writing his tragedy of that name. In Surinam she lost several other relations, and returned to London, where her beauty and abilities procured her a husband in Mr. Behn, an English merchant of a Dutch family. Not long afterwards (her husband, probably, having died in the interval) it is asserted that she was employed by the court of England, at the instance, it would seem, of Charles II himself, to proceed to the Low Countries, in order to procure and transmit information as to the designs of the Dutch. She went to Antwerp, and there formed, or renewed, an acquaintance with a person of influence and information, named Vander Albert, who let her into the secret of the intention of the Dutch, under de Witt and de Ruyter, to sail up the Thames and burn the English ships at Chatham. This is broadly stated in the Memoirs of Mrs. Behn, but it seems very doubtful, as unquestionably the intelligence that she is reported to have sent over was not credited in London. It looks like an endeavor to give importance to Mrs. Behn's character after the attempt had been made by the Dutch, and to cast an imputation upon the English government for not availing itself of her information.

She continued to reside for some time in Antwerp, and is said to have entered all the gaieties and gallantries of the city. Why she returned to England does not appear; but sailing from Dunkirk she was wrecked on our coast, and was only saved by boats from the shore. At this period she could not have been much more than twenty-three or twenty-four years old, and it seems probable that during the rest of her life she was mainly indebted to her pen for support. That she was a woman of beauty and gallantry cannot be doubted; and it is asserted, with some appearance of truth, that she devoted herself much to the pleasures of the town. Two of her plays were printed in 1671, The Amorous Prince and The Forced Marriage; and between that year and 1687, she produced no fewer than thirteen other comedies or tragi-comedies, and one tragedy, entitled Abdelazar, which made its appearance in 1677. It is founded upon the old play, long falsely attributed to Marlowe, called Lust's Dominion. Two of her dramas, The Widow Ranter, and The Younger Brother, were posthumous; the first having been brought out at the Theatre Royal in 1690, and the second at Drury-lane Theatre in 1696. There is no one of her plays totally devoid of merit, although it is evident that she sometimes wrote under the pressure of necessity. Their indecency she seeks to excuse in the preface to her Lucky Chance, 1687, which says that she offended in this respect no more than her neighbors, and that her productions ought not to be examined with greater severity. She had, however, probably better talents than many of these worthless neighbors, and was, besides, a woman.

Oscar Wilde (1854-1900). Born in Dublin in 1854, of cultured and well-to-do Irish parents, Oscar Wilde spent his early youth in his native country. For three years he attended Trinity College in Dublin, but completed his university education at Oxford, where he devoted himself to classical studies. After traveling in Italy and Greece he came to London. His first book was a volume of poems (1881); these were followed by his first play, Vera, or the Nihilists, which was performed in the United States in 1883. The Duchess of Padua, a verse tragedy, was performed in the United States in 1891. Meantime Wilde had been in Paris, there making the acquaintance of many prominent literary men of the period. In 1884 he married, and was enabled thereby, as his wife was a woman of means, to devote his time to lecturing, writing poetry, essays, stories, and plays. The important plays - Lady Windermere's Fan, A Woman of No Importance, An Ideal Husband, and The Importance of Being Earnest -- were produced between 1892 and 1895. In 1895, Wilde was sentenced to two years' imprisonment with hard labor as the result of a trial instigated by him against the Marquess of Queensberry. On leaving prison, he adopted the name of Sebastian Melmoth and went to France; there, and at Naples, where he later went and wrote The Ballad of Reading Gaol, he dragged out the few remaining years of his life. He died at Paris in 1900. In De Profundis, Wilde said: "I took the drama, the most objective form known to art, and made of it as personal a mode of expression as the lyric or the sonnet; at the same time I widened its range and enriched its characterization." He refers to his "social" plays and speaks rather of what he intended to do than of actual accomplishment. In his poetic plays and fragments - The Duchess of Padua, A Florentine Tragedy, and Salom - he wrote fairly effective pieces and some good pseudo-Elizabethan poetry; in his other plays, with the exception of Vera, comedies which for their cleverness, their ingenuity, and above all, their wit, are unsurpassed in modern times.

George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950). The first published work of the noted satirist and playwright, George Bernard Shaw [see Appendix C], was inspired by the American "revival" team, Moody and Sankey. Young Shaw attended one of their revival services in Dublin, and on his return home was moved to write a letter to Public Opinion in which he remarked that "if this sort of thing is religion, then I am an atheist."

Shaw was the son of a financially impractical father and a remarkable mother whose musical talent not only helped out the family income but provided young George with an excellent musical background. In his regular schooling which ended when he was fifteen, Shaw was generally near the bottom of the class [15, pp. 38-46]. When Shaw was fifteen, a friend secured him a position in the office of a Dublin land agent where he endured the drudgery of routine and figures for five years. At twenty he followed his mother to London where she had set up as a music teacher and joined the ranks of unpublished novelists with five novels that nobody would buy. During the first nine years of his London sojourn, Shaw's literary efforts brought him something like 30 and an ardent interest in the socialistic theories that fill most of his subsequent plays [7, pp. 90-105].

Shaw was first acted on the stage of the Royalty Theatre, London, in 1892, but created not even a little ripple. He continued his efforts with Widower's Houses and Mrs. Warren's Profession which latter play was refused London production by the censor. His first success came when, on September 17, 1894, Arms and the Man, a strictly realistic comedy was presented by Richard Mansfield at the Herald Square Theatre, New York. From that point on, Shaw's rise to popularity, both on the American and world stages, was steady and swift. He was not, however, conclusively accepted in the English theatre until 1904.

Candida written in 1894 won a decisive success on the German stage with Frau Edith Sorma. London would have none of it, and in America Richard Mansfield lacked the courage to produce it even after he had gone so far as to put it into rehearsal. It was left for Arnold Daly to make theatrical history with his production of Candida in the season of 1903-4, thus marking the real beginning of the Shaw vogue. Man and Superman was the success of the season of 1904-5 both in London and New York. Shaw's other important plays include Caesar and Cleopatra (1899), Major Barbara (1905), Pygmalion (1914), Heartbreak House (1920), and Saint Joan (1923).

John Osborne (1929-1941). Born on December 12, 1929, in London, John Osborne [see Appendix D] would eventually change the face of British theatre. His father, an advertising copywriter, died in 1941, leaving Osborne an insurance settlement which he used to finance a boarding school education at Belmont College in Devon. Still heartbroken, however, over his father's death, Osborne could not focus on his studies and left after striking the headmaster.

He returned to London and lived briefly with his mother, a barmaid. He became involved in the theatre when he took a job tutoring a touring company of young actors. Osborne went on to serve as actor-manager for a string of repertory companies and soon decided to try his hand at playwriting. When George Devine placed a notice in The Stage in 1956, Osborne decided to submit one of his plays, Look Back in Anger. Not only was his play produced, but it is considered by many critics to be the turning point in postwar British theatre. Osborne's protagonist, Jimmy Porter, captured the angry and rebellious nature of the postwar generation, a dispossessed lot who were clearly unhappy with things as they were in the decades following World War II. Jimmy Porter came to represent an entire generation of "angry young men" [10, pp. 389-395].

In his next play, The Entertainer (1957), Osborne continued to examine the state of the country, this time using three generations of a family of entertainers to symbolize the decline of England after the war. Laurence Olivier played Archie Rice, a struggling comedian, and the role resulted in one of his most famous performances. An experimental piece, The Entertainer alternated realistic scenes with Vaudeville performances, and most critics agreed that it was an appropriate follow-up to the wild success of Look Back in Anger. After this, however, the quality of Osborne's output became erratic. Although he produced a number of hits including Luthor (1961), a play about the leader of the Reformation, and Inadmissible Evidence (1965), the study of a frustrated solicitor at a law firm, he also produced a string of unimportant works. Critics began to accuse him of not fulfilling his early potential, and audiences no longer seemed effected by Osborne's rage. Recognizing this, Osborne described himself in his last play as "a churling, grating note, a spokesman for no one but myself, with deadening effect, cruelly abusive, unable to be coherent about my despair."

Osborne died as a result of complications from Diabetes on December 24, 1994, in Shropshire, England. He left behind a large body of works for the stage as well as several autobiographical works. Several of his plays were also adapted for film including Look Back in Anger and The Entertainer. In 1963, Osborne won an Academy Award for his screenplay for Tom Jones.

Tom Stoppard (Born 1937. )Tom Stoppard [see Appendix E] was born "Tom Straussler" in Zlin, Czechoslovakia on July 3, 1937. His family moved to Singapore in 1939 to escape the Nazis. Then, shortly before the Japanese invasion of Singapore in 1941, young Tom fled to Darjeeling, India with his mother and brother. His father, however, Eugene Straussler, remained behind and was killed during the invasion. In 1946, the family emigrated to England after Tom's mother married Kenneth Stoppard, a major in the British army.

At the age of 17, after just his second year of high school, Stoppard left school and began working as a journalist for the Western Daily Press (1954-58) and the Bristol Evening World (1958-60). He began to show a talent for dramatic criticism and served for a time as freelance drama critic for Scene (1962-3), a British literary magazine, writing both under his own name and the pseudonym William Boot. He also started writing plays for radio and television and soon managed to secure himself a literary agent.

Stoppard's first television play, A Walk on the Water (1963) would later be adapted for the stage as Enter a Free Man (1968). Over the next few years, he wrote various works for radio, television and the theatre including "M" is for Moon Among Other Things (1964), A Separate Peace (1966), and If You're Glad I'll Be Frank (1966). He also wrote 70 episodes of A Student's Diary: An Arab in London for the BBC World Service.

His first major success came with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead (1966) which catapulted him into the front ranks of modern playwrights overnight when it opened in London in 1967. The play, which chronicles the tale of Hamlet as told from the worm's-eye view of the bewildered Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two minor characters in Shakespeare's play, was immediately hailed as a modern dramatic masterpiece. Over the next ten years, Stoppard wrote a number of successful plays, the most popular of which include Jumpers (1972) and Travesties (1974). He also translated a number of plays including those of Mrozek, Nestroy, Schnitzler and Havel, and was heavily influenced by the work of the Polish and Czech absurdists. Then, in 1977, after visiting Russia with a member of Amnesty International, Stoppard became concerned with a number of human rights issues which have manifested themselves in his work. Every Good Boy Deserves Favour (1977) was actually written at the request of Andr Previn and was inspired by a meeting with Russian exile Viktor Fainberg. And Professional Foul (1977), a television play, was Stoppard's contribution to Amnesty International's declaration of 1977 as Prisoner of Conscience Year. Other works such as Dogg's Hamlet, Cahoot's Macbeth (1979) and Squaring the Circle (1984) are direct attacks on the oppressive old regimes of Eastern Europe. Not all of Stoppard's plays, however, are political. One of his most recent works, The Invention of Love (1997), examines the relationship between famous scholar and poet A.E. Housman and the man he loved his entire life, Moses Jackson--a handsome athlete who could not return his feelings. The play opened to rave reviews at the Royal National Theatre in 1997.

In addition to his work for the stage, Stoppard has written a number of screenplays including The Human Factor (1979), Empire of the Sun (1987), and Billy Bathgate (1991). His screenplay for Brazil (1985), which he coauthored with Terry Gilliam and Charles McKeown, was nominated for an Academy Award in 1985, and in 1999, he won an Oscar for "Best Screenplay" for Shakespeare in Love (1998) which he coauthored with Marc Norman. Other awards include the John Whiting Award (1967), the Evening Standard Award (1967, 1973, 1975, 1979, 1983), the Italia Prize for radio plays (1968), three Tony Award (1968, 1976, 1984), the Shakespeare Prize (1979), an Outer Circle Award (1984), and a Drama Desk Award (1984).

CONCLUSION

The purpose of this research term paper was to define the main characteristics of the development of the British theatre. I tried to tell of the many aspects and stages of the professional evolution of the theatre beginning from the very first trivial stage plays and up to modern most experimental projects.

My work depicts the British theatre history as it's an essential moment in understanding its role in the history o the United Kingdom. Great Britain has always been associated with certain things characterizing the country and the character of its people. Just think about tea, umbrellas, Big Ben, red telephone booths and other symbolic things. Famous British theatre stage may be included in this list as well for it perfectly reflects all the historical steps the country has undergone. More than that theatre is a great art dealing with living beings and their energy. Paintings are fixed impressions and thoughts, music may be recorded and copied and theatre is absolutely different art. One will never see a play performed twice in the same manner, because stage and its servers are living creatures.

Throughout the centuries theatre has been the place of the outburst of people's most strong ideas and social protests. Unsuccessful monarchs would be laughed at, revolutionary ideas would be acted out, strong patriotic calls would go into masses and it moved people forward. Times went by and so new tendencies appeared till it came to nowadays. It's no secret that from the 20th century on times weren't easy. Many questions turned up such as Nazism, racism, feminism, homosexuality as well as public attitude towards it and many others. Their appearance gave soil for new genres and new authors who weren't afraid of bringing painful problems to public vision.

Nowadays British theatre continues to develop and brings its audience many surprises. I tried my best to collect the most useful information and analyze it in order to make the theme clear. I also hope that my work will be useful for those who are interested in British culture and its origin and for those who will take up a course of British studies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1 , . / . , .. - ., 1991. - 45 .

2 , .. IX- . / .. . - ., 1984. 89 c.

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6 Bellinger, M.F. A Short History of the Drama / M.F. Bellinger. - New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1927. pp. 207-213, 246-259

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8 Clark, B.H. European Theories of the Drama / B.H. Clark. - Cincinnati: Stewart & Kidd Company, 1918. pp. 101-113

9 Clark, B.H. The British and American Drama of Today / B.H. Clark. - New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1915. pp. 47-48

10 Cody, G.H. The Columbia encyclopedia of modern drama / G.H. Cody, E. Sprinchorn. - New York: University Press, 2007. pp. 389-395

11 Ferguson, R. Henrik Ibsen: A New Biography / R. Ferguson. - London: Richard Cohen Books, 1996. pp. 34-45

12 Fort, A.B. Minute History of the Drama / A.B. Fort, H.S. Kates. - New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1935. pp. 10-11

13 Gassner, J. The Reader's Encyclopedia of World Drama / J. Gassner, E. Quinn. - London: Methuen, 1969. pp. 203-204.

14 Moody, W.V. A History of English Literature / W.V. Moody, R.M. Lovett. - New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902. p. 34

15 Ohmann, R.M. Shaw: The Style and the Man / R.M. Ohmann. - Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1962. pp. 38-46

16 Potter, R. The English Morality Play / R.Potter. - London: Routlede & Kegan Paul, 1975. p. 38

17 Pressly, W.L. The Ashbourne Portrait of Shakespeare: Through the Looking Glass / W.L. Pressly. - Shakespeare Quarterly. - 1993. - pp. 54-72

18 Shaw, Th.B. A Complete Manual of English Literature / Th.B. Shaw. - New York: Sheldon & Company, 1867. p. 75

19 Toril, M. Henrik Ibsen and the Birth of Modernism: Art, Theatre, Philosophy / M. Toril. - Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 2006. p. 87-88

20 Walters, M. Feminism: A very short introduction / M. Walters. - London: Oxford University, 2005. p. 24

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