Economic and cultural regions of the United States of America

The administrative structure of the USA. The main economic regions and their main industries: the Northeast, the Great Lakes, the South, the Plains, the Rocky Mountains, the Pacific Region. Cultural achievements: literature, philosophy, painting.

Рубрика География и экономическая география
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 22.06.2014
Размер файла 6,2 M

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The Native Americans played the first folk music in what is now the United States, using a wide variety of styles and techniques. Some commonalities are near universal among Native American traditional music, however, especially the lack of harmony and polyphony, and the use of vocables and descending melodic figures. Traditional instrumentations uses the flute and many kinds of percussion instruments, like drums, rattles and shakers. Since European and African contact was established, Native American folk music has grown in new directions, into fusions with disparate styles like European folk dances and Tejano music. Modern Native American music may be best known for powwow gatherings, pan-tribal gatherings at which traditionally styled dances and music are performed. [12, p.413]

The Thirteen Colonies of the original United States were all former English possessions, and Anglo culture became a major foundation for American folk and popular music. Many American folk songs are identical to British songs in arrangements, but with new lyrics, often as parodies of the original material. American-Anglo songs are also characterized as having fewer pentatonic tunes, less prominent accompaniment (but with heavier use of drones) and more melodies in major. Anglo-American traditional music also includes a variety of broadside ballads, humorous stories and tall tales, and disaster songs regarding mining, shipwrecks and murder. Legendary heroes like Joe Magarac, John Henry and Jesse James are part of many songs. Folk dances of British origin include the square dance, descended from the quadrille, combined with the American innovation of a caller instructing the dancers. The religious communal society known as the Shakers emigrated from England during the 18th century and developed their own folk dance style. Their early songs can be dated back to British folk song models. Other religious societies established their own unique musical cultures early in American history, such as the music of the Amish, the Harmony Society, and of the Ephrata Cloister in Pennsylvania.

The ancestors of today's African American population were brought to the United States as slaves, working primarily in the plantations of the South. They were from hundreds of tribes across West Africa, and they brought with them certain traits of West African music including call and response vocals and complexly rhythmic music, as well as syncopated beats and shifting accents. The African musical focus on rhythmic singing and dancing was brought to the New World, and where it became part of a distinct folk culture that helped Africans "retain continuity with their past through music". The first slaves in the United States sang work songs, field hollers and, following Christianization, hymns. In the 19th century, a Great Awakening of religious fervor gripped people across the country, especially in the South. Protestant hymns written mostly by New England preachers became a feature of camp meetings held among devout Christians across the South. When blacks began singing adapted versions of these hymns, they were called Negro spirituals. It was from these roots, of spiritual songs, work songs and field hollers, that blues, jazz and gospel developed.

Blues and spirituals. Spirituals were primarily expressions of religious faith, sung by slaves on southern plantations. In the mid to late 19th century, spirituals spread out of the U.S. South. In 1871 Fisk University became home to the Jubilee Singers, a pioneering group that popularized spirituals across the country. In imitation of this group, gospel quartets arose, followed by increasing diversification with the early 20th-century rise of jackleg and singing preachers, from whence came the popular style of gospel music.

Blues is a combination of African work songs, field hollers and shouts. It developed in the rural South in the first decade of the 20th century. The most important characteristics of the blues is its use of the blue scale, with a flatted or indeterminate third, as well as the typically lamenting lyrics; though both of these elements had existed in African American folk music prior to the 20th century, the codified form of modern blues (such as with the AAB structure) did not exist until the early 20th century. [12, p.414]

Other immigrant communities. The United States is a melting pot consisting of numerous ethnic groups. Many of these peoples have kept alive the folk traditions of their homeland, often producing distinctively American styles of foreign music. Some nationalities have produced local scenes in regions of the country where they have clustered, like Cape Verdean music in New England, Armenian music in California, and Italian and Ukrainian music in New York City.

The Creoles are a community with varied non-Anglo ancestry, mostly descendant of people who lived in Louisiana before its purchase by the U.S. The Cajuns are a group of Francophones who arrived in Louisiana after leaving Acadia in Canada. The city of New Orleans, Louisiana, being a major port, has acted as a melting pot for people from all over the Caribbean basin. The result is a diverse and syncretic set of styles of Cajun and Creole music.

Spain and subsequently Mexico controlled much of what is now the western United States until the Mexican-American War, including the entire state of Texas. After Texas joined the United States, the native Tejanos living in the state began culturally developing separately from their neighbors to the south, and remained culturally distinct from other Texans. Central to the evolution of early Tejano music was the blend of traditional Mexican forms such as mariachi and the corrido, and Continental European styles introduced by German and Czech settlers in the late 19th century. In particular, the accordion was adopted by Tejano folk musicians at the turn of the 20th century, and it became a popular instrument for amateur musicians in Texas and Northern Mexico.

Classical music. The European classical music tradition was brought to the United States with some of the first colonists. European classical music is rooted in the traditions of European art, ecclesiastical and concert music. The central norms of this tradition developed between 1550 and 1825, centering on what is known as the common practice period. Many American classical composers attempted to work entirely within European models until late in the 19th century. When Antonнn Dvoшбk, a prominent Czech composer, visited the United States from 1892 to 1895, he iterated the idea that American classical music needed its own models instead of imitating European composers; he helped to inspire subsequent composers to make a distinctly American style of classical music. [25] By the beginning of the 20th century, many American composers were incorporating disparate elements into their work, ranging from jazz and blues to Native American music. [12, p.428]

Early classical music. During the colonial era, there were two distinct fields of what is now considered classical music. One was associated with amateur composers and pedagogues, whose style was based around simple hymns that were performed with increasing sophistication over time. The other colonial tradition was that of the mid-Atlantic cities like Philadelphia and Baltimore, which produced a number of prominent composers who worked almost entirely within the European model; these composers were mostly English in origin, and worked specifically in the style of prominent English composers of the day.

European classical music was brought to the United States during the colonial era. Many American composers of this period worked exclusively with European models, while others, such as William Billings, Supply Belcher and Justin Morgan, also known as the First New England School, developed a style almost entirely independent of European models. Of these composers, Billings is the most well-remembered; he was also influential "as the founder of the American church choir, as the first musician to use a pitch-pipe, and as the first to introduce a violoncello into church service". Many of these composers were amateur singers who developed new forms of sacred music suitable for performance by amateurs, and often using harmonic methods which would have been considered bizarre by contemporary European standards. These composers' styles were untouched by "the influence of their sophisticated European contemporaries", using modal or pentatonic scales or melodies and eschewing the European rules of harmony.

In the early 19th century, America produced diverse composers such as Anthony Philip Heinrich, who composed in an idiosyncratic, intentionally "American" style and was the first American composer to write for a symphony orchestra. Many other composers, most famously William Henry Fry and George Frederick Bristow, supported the idea of an American classical style, though their works were very European in orientation. It was John Knowles Paine, however, who became the first American composer to be accepted in Europe. Paine's example inspired the composers of the Second New England School, which included such figures as Amy Beach, Edward MacDowell, and Horatio Parker.

Louis Moreau Gottschalk is perhaps the best-remembered American composer of the 19th century, said by music historian Richard Crawford to be known for "bringing indigenous or folk, themes and rhythms into music for the concert hall". Gottschalk's music reflected the cultural mix of his home city, New Orleans, Louisiana, which was home to a variety of Latin, Caribbean, African American, Cajun and Creole musics. He was well acknowledged as a talented pianist in his lifetime, and was also a known composer who remains admired though little performed. [12, p.429]

20th century. The New York classical music scene included Charles Griffes, originally from Elmira, New York, who began publishing his most innovative material in 1914. His early collaborations were attempts to use non-Western musical themes. The best-known New York composer was George Gershwin. Gershwin was a songwriter with Tin Pan Alley and the Broadway theatres, and his works were strongly influenced by jazz, or rather the precursors to jazz that were extant during his time. Gershwin's work made American classical music more focused, and attracted an unheard of amount of international attention. Following Gershwin, the first major composer was Aaron Copland from Brooklyn, who used elements of American folk music, though it remained European in technique and form. Later, he turned to the ballet and then serial music. Charles Ives was one of the earliest American classical composers of enduring international significance, producing music in a uniquely American style, though his music was mostly unknown until after his death in 1954.

Many of the later 20th-century composers, such as John Cage, John Corigliano and Steve Reich, used modernist and minimalist techniques. Reich discovered a technique known as phasing, in which two musical activities begin simultaneously and are repeated, gradually drifting out of sync, creating a natural sense of development. Reich was also very interested in non-Western music, incorporating African rhythmic techniques in his compositions. Recent composers and performers are strongly influenced by the minimalist works of Philip Glass, a Baltimore native based out of New York, Meredith Monk and others.

Jazz. Jazz is a kind of music characterized by swung and blue notes, call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation. Though originally a kind of dance music, jazz has been a major part of popular music, and has also become a major element of Western classical music. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Early jazz was closely related to ragtime, with which it could be distinguished by the use of more intricate rhythmic improvisation. The earliest jazz bands adopted much of the vocabulary of the blues, including bent and blue notes and instrumental "growls" and smears otherwise not used on European instruments. Jazz's roots come from the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, populated by Cajuns and black Creoles, who combined the French-Canadian culture of the Cajuns with their own styles of music in the 19th century. Large Creole bands that played for funerals and parades became a major basis for early jazz, which spread from New Orleans to Chicago and other northern urban centers. [12, p.442]

Though jazz had long since achieved some limited popularity, it was Louis Armstrong who became one of the first popular stars and a major force in the development of jazz, along with his friend pianist Earl Hines. Armstrong, Hines and their colleagues were improvisers, capable of creating numerous variations on a single melody. Armstrong also popularized scat singing, an improvisational vocal technique in which nonsensical syllables (vocables) are sung. Armstrong and Hines were influential in the rise of a kind of pop big band jazz called swing. Swing is characterized by a strong rhythm section, usually consisting of double bass and drums, medium to fast tempo, and rhythmic devices like the swung note, which is common to most jazz. Swing is primarily a fusion of 1930s jazz fused with elements of the blues and Tin Pan Alley. Swing used bigger bands than other kinds of jazz, leading to bandleaders tightly arranging the material which discouraged improvisation, previously an integral part of jazz. Swing became a major part of African American dance, and came to be accompanied by a popular dance called the swing dance.

Jazz influenced many performers of all the major styles of later popular music, though jazz itself never again became such a major part of American popular music as during the swing era. The later 20th century American jazz scene did, however, produce some popular crossover stars, such as Miles Davis. In the middle of the 20th century, jazz evolved into a variety of subgenres, beginning with bebop. Bebop is a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos, improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody, and use of the flatted fifth. Bebop was developed in the early and mid-1940s, later evolving into styles like hard bop and free jazz. Innovators of the style included Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie, who arose from small jazz clubs in New York City.

2.3 Theatre

The American theater is over two hundred years old, but American drama became American only in the 20th century when such prominent playwrights as Eugene O'Neill, Robert Sherwood and others began their creative work. At the beginning American drama was strongly influenced by European models. The American theater reflects the variety of the American scene; it ranges from folk elements to decadence, from the description of almost primitive conditions to psychological drama. [11, p.174]

The center of the US theatrical world is in a section of New York City on and near Broadway. It is the aim of every talented actor, producer and playwright to get to Broadway.

Broadway is a wide avenue cutting through New York's Manhattan Island as a diagonal. Broadway is a mass of glittering lights and advertising signs. This center of theatrical life still keeps its leading position but the taste of the audience has changed. People show more interest about entertaining shows than about serious drama. Theater-goers come mostly from the well-to-do circles of society who can afford the price of the ticket. A visit to Broadway has become a sign of prestige.

Unlike other countries, there is no nationally subsidized theater in the United States. Broadway theaters are rented to producers who hire directors and actors. As the rents are very high, the plays must attract large audiences willing to buy expensive tickets. Experimental plays have not been successful on Broadway. Most Broadway theater-goers seem to prefer musicals and sophisticated dramas or comedies featuring one or two highly paid stars.

American theater goes through a period of crisis. To put a Broadway show costs an enormous amount of money at least four times more than in London. Few producers are able to take the huge financial risk if the play turns out a failure. The Broadway theater is a truly commercial enterprise and to ensure success the producer must get a big famous star under contract. The performance is on for several years and, of course, it tells on the quality of the production. [11, p.176]

As a reaction to the crisis in 1952 a new theater was formed -- the Living Theater which produced experimental plays by new playwrights. It split away from Broadway and became known as the Off-Broadway theater. It used no stars and therefore had no problems with actors. Yet soon Off-Broadway began to imitate Broadway. It was difficult to survive under the circumstances and the number of productions grew smaller, their quality went down. As a result of this another trend came into being -- Off-Off-Broadway. Off-Off-Broadway theaters perform in coffeehouses, offices, stores and even churches. Most of the actors and producers are young amateurs, they are not paid, but at least they can get their plays staged and have their first theater experience. During the performances the actors speak to the members of the audience trying to persuade them to react in one or another way. The performances are free of charge.

America's most important playwrights are considered to be Eugene O'Neill, Thornton Wilder, Lillian Hellman, Tennessee Williams and Edward Albee. Eugene O'Neill was the first important American playwright of serious, nonmusical drama. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1936, and he was the only dramatist to win the Pulitzer Prize in drama four times. Among his best known plays are Anna Christie, Desire Under the Elms, and Long Day's Journey into Night. The theater and television in the US influence each other to some extent. Television plays are sometimes expanded to stage plays, but more often stage plays are adapted for shorter television plays where quick change of scenery is easily provided. [11, p.179]

2.4 Cinema

The world's first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City in 1894, using Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope. The next year saw the first commercial screening of a projected film, also in New York, and the United States was in the forefront of sound film's development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, California. Director D. W. Griffith was central to the development of film grammar and Orson Welles's Citizen Kane (1941) is frequently cited as the greatest film of all time. American screen actors like John Wayne and Marilyn Monroe have become iconic figures, while producer/entrepreneur Walt Disney was a leader in both animated film and movie merchandising. The major film studios of Hollywood have produced the most commercially successful movies in history, such as Star Wars (1977) and Titanic (1997), and the products of Hollywood today dominate the global film industry. [8, p. 534]

Comic Genius of the cinema screen. Sir Charles Chaplin was the last survivor from among the founding fathers of the American cinema, one of the greatest comic creators in film, and achieved greater, more widespread fame in his own lifetime than perhaps anyone else in the history of mankind. The intellectuals loved to theorize on the significance of his comedy, its social responsibility, its relation to the great tradition of circus clowning. But he also had to a unique degree the common touch -- people of almost any culture were able to respond with laughter to his screen antics, and for generation after generation of children he was the first introduction to the magic world of cinema.

Charles Chaplin was born on April 16, 1889, in London. His parents were music-hall performers and Charlie's early life was spent touring England. Finally, he himself became a dancer in music halls. Chaplin joined Fred Karno's Company and accompanied the Karno troupe in America, at which time he was starring in principal comedy parts. Chaplin soon entered the motion picture field (in 1913) and within one year became a world-famous star.

In 1916 he signed a contract with Mutual Company for what was, in those days, an unheard-of salary. But by now he was world famous, and was writing and directing his own films. More important still was the fact that the character of "the little fellow" had become firmly established in his mind.

For Mutual Chaplin made some of his best short comedies, including The Rink, and Easy Street. In 1918 he joined First National, and for them made eight films, including A Dog's Life and Shoulder Arms. Then he built his own film studios and formed his own company, and in 1919 he joined with the other leading film-makers of the period -- D. W. Griffith, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford - in forming the United Artists Corporation.

The 1920s were the golden age of the silent cinema, and Chaplin entered this golden age with wealth, power, authority, and complete freedom as an independent producer of his own work. [11, p. 183]

The 1950s marked the beginning of an unhappy period in Chaplin's life. When he left America for the European premiere the State Department banned his reentry4 (which they could do as he had never become an American citizen), and Chaplin took up residence in Switzerland. In 1978 he was at last received back with open arms into the American film establishment, given a special Oscar in recognition of his lifetime contribution to film art, and commemorated with a statue at the historic corner of Hollywood and Vine.

During the intervals of filmmaking Chaplin wrote My Autobiography (1964), a fascinating document which is of particular value for its memoirs of the London of his childhood and his early struggles in the theatre.

His old age was a satisfying crown to a life of activity bringing honours and universal reverence for the man and his work. Whatever the ups and downs of tastes in the years to come, his greatness as a clown and his crucial role in the history and serious acceptance of the cinema as an art form are certain to stand the tests of time.

Charlie Chaplin, creator of comedy. Charlie Chaplin has broken all records in making people laugh. No one has to set a whole world laughing as the little man with the bowler hat, the cane and overlarge shoes. [11, p.180]

Much has been written about Chaplin's art and his legendary career, and opinions have varied widely. But perhaps the commentator who called him "the most universal human being in our life" came closest to the truth. Those who have called him a genius stress the timeless and universal qualities in his work. It is an art filled with tragic undertones and deep human feeling, with which an audience cannot help but become involved. It is for these reasons, I believe, that the figure of "Charlie" has kept its grip on generation after generation.

All his biographers agree that Chaplin's miserable childhood in the London slums was the decisive influence in his development and in the type of films he made. Chaplin himself emphasizes it in his memoirs. The more one reads about his earliest period, the more one is inclined to agree. For Chaplin, his suffering youth has a lingering fascination: it gave him a world that he could transform with his imagination onto the movie screen.

Chaplin was never afraid to tackle controversial subjects in his films. He released a parody on war (Shoulder Arms) only a few weeks before the American troops came home from the hell of the trenches in World War I (1918). This was regarded as sheer madness, but the parody was well received. So perfectly did it hit the nail on the head that even the homecoming soldiers found it irresistible and deeply appreciated this skit on what for them had been grim reality.

Churchgoers raged when Chaplin, in The Pilgrim (192S), attacked nonconformist religions. In City Lights (1931) he took his turn at mocking capitalism. Modern Times (1936) parodied the inhuman destruction of the machine age. The Great Dictator (1940) made fun of Hitler and proclaimed Chaplin's views of world politics. Chaplin, in his comic satirical way, fought what he perceived as tyranny and injustice. [11, p.181]

Holywood. "Hollywood" is the name of a Los Angeles district which appeared in 1910, and it also stands for American cinematography. It is part of American entertainment industry aimed at amusing, educating and giving the public what it wants. American cinema was born in the East when "Patent Cinema Company" was formed in 1908. It included 8 cinema-making firms. Those who did not go into this company went to the West. The "independent" producers soon made half of the American movies, the number of film companies in California was growing. In the twenties American film industry blossomed. Producers needed more money and American banks readily gave money as movies brought big profits. Producers grew more and more dependent on businessmen. Unknown actors could become famous in a day, poor people became rich all of a sudden and Hollywood became the "town where all dreams come true". [11, p.176]

The 1920s saw Hollywood as the centre of movie industry with a world-wide market. The production of films began in Hollywood in the late 1920s and resulted in building huge sound stages many of which are used even now. Hollywood helps to create the "American Dream" and to convince people that the American way of life is the ideal one. At the beginning movies were like a dream giving an escape from reality and showing that longing for happiness and success could be fulfilled.

The fate of a movie often depends on advertisement. Before the release, grand shows, parties with big stars, interviews are organized. At the same time in 1980s more than 1/3 of American actors were unemployed. The star-system is also cultivated because it gives big profits. A star is a kind of goods that can be bought and sold. Everything, including stars' private lives, is used by managers to build up their public image. A star must compete with other stars, a star must always be in a good form. Not everybody can stand the stress and strain of stardom. Nervous breakdowns are a commonplace phenomenon in Hollywood.

Stars are often used mercillessly and are forced to appear in weak movies, as they have signed a contract with the studio. The contracts are signed for several years and stars have no right to appear in films made by other studios. As a reaction to this already in 1913 Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Charles Chaplin, Bill Hart founded their own company "United Artists". In the fifties several actors became producers -- Lancaster, Douglas, Waine, Sinatra, Grant. Stars demonstrated their ability to be independent. In 1969 Barbara Streisand, Sidney Poitiers, Paul Newman founded their own association "First Artists". Later Steve McQueen and Dustin Hofman joined them. They decided to work without pay, to make movies using set budgets and then to divide the profits equally. [11, p. 178]

One of the greatest events in Hollywood is the annual presentation of Oscar, the legendary figurine which is the highest Award of the American Cinema Academy. This organization was founded in 1927. Its aim was to further the development of cinematography. Every year in February the American press publishes the titles of films which have been chosen for the competition. On the presentation day there is a magnificent show in the Los Angeles Music Centre. Awards are given to the best actor, to the best actress, for the best script, for music, etc. Foreign films also participate in the competition. Soviet films War and Peace and Moscow does not believe in tears have been awarded Oscars by the American Cinema Academy. Another tradition is the ceremony of leaving one's footprints or handprints on the pavement in front of the Chinese Theatre. Some actors consider it too pompous and do not accept the invitation for the ceremony.

Cartoons. Walt Disney (1901-1966) was responsible for some of the most magical movies ever made. At first, he produced only cartoons. Then came live-action feature movies and nature movies involving animals in human-like dramas. There was plenty of excitement. Disney films were made for family audiences, who knew that good would triumph in the end. The famous Disney signature on a movie guaranteed it.

Walt spent much of his boyhood on a farm in the Midwest. Later, he took classes to learn to draw cartoons, hoping eventually to work for a newspaper. After World War 1, he found work drawing figures for animated advertising movies. Soon he set up his own movie company. He had clear ideas of what he wanted, and of what would succeed with the public. In 1928 came the first Mickey Mouse movie, Steamboat Willie. It was the earliest cartoon with sound, and Disney himself provided Mickey's voice. Other much-loved characters -- Donald Duck, Goofy and Pluto, all Disney's own inventions -- soon followed. The Silly Symphonies series included the first cartoon in color.

The first full-length animation was Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Many more over the next four decades proved just as popular. The most spectacular was probably Fantasia, which gave animated interpretations of musical classics. Disney nature movies enchanted audiences everywhere.

Disneyland, the huge amusement park Disney created in 1955 in California, has been a major tourist attraction since it first opened. The Disney Studio continued producing movies after the death of its founder. Wherever American movies are shown, the name "Disney" still draws the crowds. [3, p. 97]


The USA remains the world's leading producer of goods and services. Industrial and technological position of the states is very high. The USA is the leading producer of electrical energy, aluminum, copper, sylph and paper, and one of the top producers of natural gas and automobiles. No other nation exports as the USA. The study and analysis of various literature granted us an opportunity to find out the main economic and cultural aspects of the USA. In result we inquired these aspects carefully and marked out the main features.

The course paper contains three main parts. Each of them presents short characteristics of problems rose in the work and describes the ways of their solving. The first section of the work - "The main economic regions and their industries" acquaints the reader with six major regions that have common historical, economic and physical characteristics; their areas and main industries. In the second section - "Cultural achievements of the country" practically all the most necessary and important aspects of cultural life are committed: American literature and its greatest poets and writers; theater and its major part - Broadway; music and its diversity; cinematography and its foundation, Hollywood, town where all dreams come true, and its greatest events such as the annual presentation of Oscar; Walt Disney, that produces only cartoons, etc. This course paper is rather small, but in spite of its size all the aims which were intended to speak about are successfully achieved.

The aim of speaking about the main economic regions in the USA was revealed in the first part. The aim of giving a characteristic of cultural life was achieved in the second part. All the tasks are completely achieved with the help of reliable sources containing new and extensive information.

The presented work has social significance. First of all it helps people who have never been in the USA to get know some new and interesting facts about its administrative structure, economy and culture, find out the features of economic and cultural life and compare them with the features of other countries. This work gives economic and cultural view of the USA, where all necessary and important facts of the country are successfully presented and analysed.

Secondly it widens people's outlook enriching them with the knowledge about the country whose language and style of life became international and highly-developed.


economic cultural industry administrative

1. Armento, Beverly J. America Will Be / Beverly J. Armento, J. Jorge Klor De Alva, Gary B. Nash, Christopher L. Salter, Louis E. Wilson, Karen K. Wixson - Boston: Houghton Mifflin comp., 1991. - 606 p.

2. Baranovski L.S. Hello, America! / L.S. Baranovski, D.D. Kozikis - Minsk: Vysheyshaya Shkola, 1995. - 590 p.

3. Bode, Carl American Perspectives: The United States in the Modern Age/ Carl Bode - USA: 1992. - 343 p.

4. Boorstin Daniel J. An American Primer / Daniel J. Boorstin - USA: 1985. - 1056 p.

5. Brown D.E. Dictionary of the English language, Fourth Edition/ D.E. Brown - London: Haughton Mifflin Company, 2003. - 485 p.

6. Campbell J. The Encyclopedia Americana / J. Campbell - v. 1. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000. - 762 p.

7. Cangemi J. America and its neighbours / J. Cangemi - USA: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1986. - 479 p.

8. Divine, R. America: the people and the dream / R. Divine - USA: Scott, Foresman and comp., 1991 - 886 p.

9. Golicynskey U. The United States of America / U. Golicynskey - Sent-Petersburg: CARO, 2002. - 456 p.

10. Grill N. Americas / N. Grill, B. Witlieb // A multicultural Reader for Developmental Writers// - Bronx Community College, 2004. - 870 p.

11. Nesterchuk G.V. The USA and the American / G.V. Nesterchuk, V.M. Ivanova - Minsk: Vysheyshaya Shkola Publishers, 1999. - 238 p.

12. Scott T. America past and present / T. Scott - USA: Foresman and comp., 1983. - 480 p.

13. Timanovskaya N. Spotlight on English-speaking countries / N. Timanovskaya - Tula: avtograph, 2000. - 268 p.

14. Tokareva N. What it is like in the USA / N. Tokareva, V. Peppard - M.: Vycshaya Shkola, 2003. - 468 p.

15. The encyclopedia Americana/international edition / - Danbury, Connecticut, 2001. - 565 p.

16. Pohl, Frances K. Framing America: A Social History of American Art / Frances K. Pohl - New York: Thames & Hudson, 2002. - 679 p.

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix С

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

Appendix G

Appendix H

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