British Monarchy

British Monarchy: the role of the queen in modern society, the royal prerogatives and functions, the royal family, the main sources of income, principal ceremonials connected with royalty, royal residences, and the perception of monarchy in society.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид контрольная работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 23.09.2010
Размер файла 46,0 K

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71. Who is William Pitt the Younger? What role did he play?

He was the head of the fraction of the Whig Party, George III preferred him, became the PM - great stability, support of both King and the Parliament.

72. Who were the heroes of the wars against Napoleon?

Horatio Nelson defeated Napoleon several times, the battle of Trafalgar, he was fatally wounded; Duke of Wellington, defeated Napoleon in the battle of Waterloo in 1815.

73. How did the expression "to meet one's Waterloo" originate?

Napoleon was finally defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815.

74. The changes in the nature of monarchy and the ruling elite in the early 19th century.

The Monarchy became the symbol of the nation's unity. After the war with Napoleon. Great proud. The ruling elite underwent great change. People deserving respect - not only birth and property, but industry and morality. A view that wealth and rank meant duty, private morality. Political power based on birth and property.

75. What is the Great Reform Bill? Why was it necessary and what were its main provisions?

It was a bill which gave a voting right to more social groups and big cities were now represented in the Parliament. Necessary - because industrial cities emerged and they had no representatives.

76. What were the main features of Victorian society and government?

The country was effectively ruled by the PMs, who were elected from the party that got the majority in the Parliament. 2nd Reform Bill in 1867 (aristocratic rule declined), electorate doubled, secret ballot introduced. Society: class division formed but no confrontation. Financial independence, respectability, philanthropy, hard work, earnestness. Police force created, public health, education for the lower classes. Free unregulated market.

77. The extension of franchise after the Great Reform Act of 1832, its consequences.

Every 5th received a vote. Redistribution of seats. Now big cities were represented, property qualification for candidates. Social consequence - tied the middle class to the aristocrats.

78. What was the role of Prince Albert in British history?

He was the Prince-Consort, was not fit for business, but had good influence on the young queen. He was interested in arts, music, science and industry, planned and organized the Great Exhibition in 1851. Many buildings are named after him.

79. What were the two main parties in the Victorian age and who were their most prominent leaders?

Tory -> Conservatives (Disraeli), Whigs -> Liberal (Gladstone). They alternated.

80. When did government social policy originate? What areas did it cover?

Social reforms in Victorian reign - public health, education for all children, state undertook the duty to provide schools, school attendance became compulsory, elementary education free.

81. What is the Boer War?

The war in South Africa against 2 Boer republics (Transvaal and Orange Free State), made them a part of the British Empire. Huge loss of life, Britain became unpopular in Europe.

82. What period do we call Edwardian? What were its distinctive features?

The reign of Edward VII. Society became cosmopolitan, new wealth was added to the old wealth of great landowning families (from Victorian time). Appearance of the Labour Party, social reforms. Crisis, suffragette movement. Poverty and unemployment. Irish question.

83. What do you know about the People's Budget?

Was introduced by David Lloyd George. It was designed to pay the costs of social welfare and naval rearmament. But the Lords rejected the project in 1909.

84. What were the effects of WWI on British society?

Had very important consequences, affected everyone, traumatized the whole generation, nothing was the same after it. It had provided the occasion for massive governmental experiments in economic enterprise, in insurance. It was the impulse for social and economical change. Rising unemployment. Rise of Labour Party and decline of Liberals. Very extensive program of social reforms - Liberals failed to respond.

85. The rise and fall of the Second British Empire.

1850 the 2nd British Empire, India added, exceeded the 1st. During the period from 1940 to 1980 years more than 40 British colonies became independent. Remained friendly with Britain, most of them -> the Commonwealth.

86. When did government economic policy begin?

After the WWI, the Government started defending the home market by introducing protectionist tariffs.

87. When did the Labour party emerge? How did it later change the party system? The changes in the Labour programme at the end of the 20th century, their main cause.

Emerged in 1906. In 1920's rose and replaced the Liberal Party. Was traditionally the socialist party, but in 1980-90's changed and move towards the political center (New Labour).

88. What were the main effects of WWII?

The economy declined, there was nothing to export, no money for import. Britain was effectively a totalitarian state, the Government had unlimited power, rationing introduced, luxuries had 100% tax on them, everyone of fighting age was conscripted, servants disappeared. Defeat of Conservatives and victory of the Labour Party.

89. What role did Mrs. Simpson, a divorced American, play in English history?

Wallis Simpson, had a relationship with Edward VIII. Because she had already been married twice before, Edward was not allowed to marry her. Then he decided to abdicate, she became the Duchess of Windsor.

90. What is a Welfare state? When was it created? What does the term "Welfare" mean today?

State with a system of social help provided by the state, giving money to people who are poor or unemployed, providing medical care. 1945-51. The department of social security.

91. What is meant by the "era of consensus"?

92. What is Affluent Society?

Wealthy society, which was created by expansion of the middle class. In 1990's the society was defined by a prosperity that involved the majority of people.

93. What events are sometimes referred to as "The Winter of Discontent"?

The winter of 1978-79 when many workers refused to work in protest against the Labour government's idea on limiting pay rises. The Labour party lost power after this.

94. What events are called "The Battle of Britain"?

The fights between German and Britain aircraft during the summer and autumn of 1940, when British aircraft tried to prevent German aircraft from bombing British cities. The bombing was stopped at the end of 1940 and it was considered as a great victory. Main result - prevented from invasion.

95. Why was Thatcher's period in office called a revolution? What did she mean when she proclaimed a return to Victorian values?

Changed a lot, reduced taxes, took away power from trade unions, started the programme of privatization, and created huge middle class. Free market. Everybody should work hard, be earnest, thrifty, and independent.

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