History of American Literature

The biography of John Smith, Washington Irving, Hugh Henry Brackenridge, Benjamin Franklin, Charles Brockden Brown, Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Philip Freneau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Walt Whitman. General characteristics of American romanticism.

21.07.2009
88,2 K

. ,

, , , , .

It is a manifest impertience to attempt to compress a men such intellectual range as Emerson s work certain ideas keep recurring these are helpful in making just opinion concerning the man s mind and personality. He is not a systematic philosopher rather he gives the impression of one thinking aloud in complete freedom. It is useless to attempt to outline in brief a typical Emerson essay. His style is suprisingly aphoristic his paragraphs are often only strings of pithy sayings and his sentences are more often terse than pariodic. His gift of utterance is always arresting however, and his felicity of phrase is often memorable. Moreover, always there lies a fundamental unity down underneath all his superficial farmlessness. This unity comprehends and is attached to one or more of the following tenets of his thought most of them obviously platonic reality is of spiritual nature; to relay on oneself rather than on others is of supreme importance; God is to be refeved to as spiritual Over-Soul which permeates all existences and harmonies all things to form the Universe; character is of supreme significance out weighing all material considerations; man is born to hope and fight toward some chosen goal. With such valiant weapons in his arseual Emerson fully deserves the encomium of Matthew Arnold who called him the friend and aider of those who would live in the spirit (1).
Concord Hymn by Ralph Waldo Emerson
Sung at the complition of the Battle monument, July the 4,1837.
By the rude (roughly made) brige that arched the flood,
Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood
And fired the shot heard round the world.
The foe long since in silence slept;
Alike the conqueror silent sleeps;
And Time the ruind bridge has swept
Down the dark stream which seaward creeps.
On this green bank, by this soft stream,
We set today a votive (dedicated to fulfill a vow) stone;
That memory may their deed redeem,
When, like our sires, our sons are gone.

Philip Freneau (1752-1832)

Philip Freneau wrote a college poem in 1772 entitled The Rising Glory of America. The future of his country was always a subject of interest for poet and citizen Freneau.

During the Revolutionary War Freneau became an ardent supporter of the American cause. While on sea duty he was captured by the British and placed aboard prison ship, an experience which inspired a long poem entitled The British Prison Ship. He wrote a number of other long poems, but he was at his best in his short lyrics, such as The Wild Honey Suckle. Many of these short works, including On the Emigration to America, The Indian Burying ground, and To the Memory of the Brave Americans, deal with American subjects, and it is for these poems that Freneau is best remembered today.

Freneau can be considered one of America's first great nationalist poets.

During the last years of his life he criticized severely the anti-demoeratic charaeter of the America bourgeois State and was opposed to the realtirnany policy of the Federalists. During the Anglo-American war of 1812 he wrote a number of poems against England.

Though his political poetry was his most important contribution to American letters, he is remembered also for his lyrical poems, of which The Indian Burying Ground and The wild Honey-Suckle deserve mention as examples of sentimentalism to American poetry. Philip Frenean was a fearless exposer (accuser - ) of soeial iujusfice, Untiring = (tiveless) ( - ) defender of the interests of his people. He graduated from the Princton University in 1771. He became a poet of the American revolution, its herald (=messenger - -) At Jefferson's proposal he created The National Gareble, which became a fighting organ of the demoeratic party, Philip Frenean contiuned Peine's works. Philip hated monarchy and clespotism he critized new capitalist relations. He considered verb artist only those poor = () writers = (men off pen) as the latter are independent and incovcuptable ( - ).

In this poem Mack Swiggen. Sative (1775) he creates sativical image of a (dull, untalented) ungifted poet, dullard = (blockhead) - Mack Swiggen. Mac sevved the stroug people of the time and sained glory and money.

In 1793 he wrote about the tasks of American Verbs and writers. In his article True Purposes of the Theatre (1797) Frenean cypressed his deep thoughts on the dask of the art.

Frenean was one of the pioneers who fought for independent American literature. And his poem () Literary Import (1788) is about it.

During the War for Independence Frenean exited in Philadelphia a magazine Foural of a Fvee Man (1781-1783).

In his series of essays The Peilosopher of the Forest () we can read his allegorical story The Island of Grabbers () In New York he founded City Newspaper () (1788-1790) he planed there many newessays, stories.

In An old soldier and his Dog (1790) Freneun shows tragic fate of a soldier who became poor and a cripple ().

Frenean exposes the power of money in A Political Creed ( ) (1797).

In the middle of the 90_ies he created a curious book Tomo-Cheki, An Indian from a trible of () = yell (screeun) of Philadelphia. Frenean is seen here as a revolutionary enlightener.

Frenean is justly considered to be a father of American poefry. He was the poet of two rewolutions-american and French.

The house of Night 1778 ( ). There we can read The Power of Fancy, To the memory of the Brave Americans, stauras to an Alien and other poems.

He wrote many poems about American indiaus In a poem American Freedom (1775) () he believes in the victory of Americans as they are fightiny for their rights and their fight just.

In 1778 he wrote his poem American is Independent where the anthour castigates George III.

His poems about the slaver in America are deep and there the outhor stigmatizes the slave owners of West-India.

Philip Frencan was the second outstanding = sreat son of America after Peine. The son of New York voine morchant of French descent, Philip Frencan had a stormy life; he was a student, rebel, poet, journalist, trader, sailor, war-prisoner, and a government clerk. At the outbreak of American bourgeois revolution he wrote several satires against the English. In 1780 he was captured by them and put in a British prison-ship, the horrors of whichhe described in the poem The British Prison - Ship (1781), , published after he had been released in Exchange for English prisoners. His political poems earned him the title of the poet of the American Revolution. These were collected by him into the volume Poems Written between the Years 1768 and 1794. In 1799 he published his Letters on Various Interesting and Important Subjects.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was born in 1807 in Portland (Maine - ) on the coast of the Atlantic ocean in the family of an (lawyer - ), who was proud of their forefathers. The latters came to New England on a famous Mayflower. The poet's grandfather general Longfellow was - a her a of the War for Independence, the poet's uncle was a noval lieutenaut = [lu: ten nt] = ( ) who later sank a slup and died together with the ship's crew = [ship's company = ] in 1804 who did not want to be taken prisoners. Still a student at Bowdoin college (together with him there studied Nathanicl Hawthorne) (1804-1864). Having graduated from the collegehe went to Europe to study languages and During 1826-1829 he visited France, Spain Haly and Germany. He began to write poems and prose at the Bowdoin college. He deseribed his travels in his book of sketches = () [] , ( ..) Outre-Mer A Pilgrimaje beyond the Sea (1835) ( )

Returning to the USA he began to heach new languages at the Bowdoin college; in 1834 he was invited as a professor to Harward University in Cambridge where he delivered lectures on literature, wrote - historical and literary articles. Compiled text-books for those who studied French, Spain, Halian, translated poems from these languages.

Hawing been to Europe for the second time in Europe (Germany and Switzerland) in 1835, Longfellow in 1839 publised his novel Hyperion () and a poetic collection Voices of the Night ( ) Two years later he createl Ballads and Other Poems.

Returning from his third travel from Europe Longfellow published Ballads and other Poems and Poems of Slavery (1842) which may be considered as his answer to the great moral and political conflict of his time.

All his later life was connected with Cambridge.

In the 40_ies the poet engaged himself with translations and in 1845 he created an interesting authology (European Poets s) Poets of Europe. When one could find poems of all European peoples, which were translated by Congfellow himself and other American poets. In the 70 - ies he published in the USA ( 31 , 20_ ). Poems of Places ( ).

In 1846 there appeard a collection The Belfry of Brages and other Poems ( ) and among them the most favourite poem of the poet was An arrow and a Song. Soon Evangeline (1847) = () the most sisnificant poem saw world The plot of the poem was prompted by Hawthorne.

Longfellow doesn't give up prose writing either and writes Kavanagh (1849). (). Poems of different years are colocted in the collection The Seaside and Fireside (1849) ( ). In 1851 The Golden Legud ( ) is written. His famous poem The Song of Hiawatha appeared in 1855 _________ - .

Three years later The Courtship of Uiles Staudish (1858). ( ) appeared. Here poets forebathers are gloriotied. This same year saw the publication anothelyric collection Birds of Passage ( ).

In 1863 he published his early written poems under the title of Tales of a Waysideinn ( ).

In 1865-1867 he completed his gigantic work-the translation of Dante's Divine Comedy.

Langfellow wrote sonnebs as well. In 1872 he published Three Song Books together with the tragedy Iuda Makkaway. In 1872 he wrote Mask of Tiador. 1978 saw Keramos and other Poems = . His last poem work was Ultima Thule ( .)

Longfellow was a man of action. Professor Longfellow worked as a Rcturer. On the literatures of modern Europe. He was neither o brilliant teacher nor a dull one. Some consider Longfellow to be America's first professional poet.

In 1843 Longfellow married Frances Appleton, who was a daughter of one of the wealthiest merchants in Boston, she brought him as a wedding gif the handsome Craidie House and grounds in Cambridge, once the headquarters of General Wasington. .

His poems A Psalm of Life and The Reaper of the Flowers, were very popular.

Philip Frenean was the second outstauding great son of America after Peine. The son of New York. Wine merchant of French descent, Philip Frenean had a stormy life; he was a sailor, vebel, poet, lournalist, trader, sailor, war-prisoner, and a government clerk. At the outbreak of American bourgeois revolution he wrote several satires against the English. In 1780 he was captured by them and put in a British prison-ship, the horrors of which he deseribed in the poem the British Prison-ship (1791), published after he had been released in exchange for English prisoners. His political poems earned him the title of the poet of the American revolution. These were collected by him into the volume Poems Written between the Year 1768 and 1794. In 1799 he published his Letters on Varions Interesting and Important Subjects.

During the last years of his life he criticized severely the anti-demoeratic charaeter of the America bourgeois State and was opposed to the realtirnany policy of the Federalists. During the Anglo-American war of 1812 he wrote a number of poems against England.

Though his political poetry was his most important contribution to American letters, he is remembered also for his lyrical poems, of which The Indian Burying Ground and The wild Honey-Suckle deserve mention as examples of sentimentalism to American poetry. Philip Frenean was a fearless exposer (accuser - ) of soeial iujusfice, Untiring = (tiveless) ( - ) defender of the interests of his people. He graduated from the Princton University in 1771. He became a poet of the American revolution, its herald (=messenger - -) At Jefferson's proposal he created The National Gareble, which became a fighting organ of the demoeratic party, Philip Frenean contiuned Peine's works. Philip hated monarchy and clespotism he critized new capitalist relations. He considered verb artist only those poor = () writers = (men off pen) as the latter are independent and incovcuptable ( - ).

In this poem Mack Swiggen. Sative (1775) he creates sativical image of a (dull, untalented) ungifted poet, dullard = (blockhead) - Mack Swiggen. Mac sevved the stroug people of the time and sained glory and money.

In 1793 he wrote about the tasks of American Verbs and writers. In his article True Purposes of the Theatre (1797) Frenean cypressed his deep thoughts on the dask of the art.

Frenean was one of the pioneers who fought for independent American literature. And his poem () Literary Import (1788) is about it.

During the War for Independence Frenean exited in Philadelphia a magazine Foural of a Fvee Man (1781-1783).

In his series of essays The Peilosopher of the Forest () we can read his allegorical story The Island of Grabbers () In New York he founded City Newspaper () (1788-1790) he planed there many newessays, stories.

In An old soldier and his Dog (1790) Freneun shows tragic fate of a soldier who became poor and a cripple ().

Frenean exposes the power of money in A Political Creed ( ) (1797).

In the middle of the 90_ies he created a curious book Tomo-Cheki, An Indian from a trible of () = yell (screeun) of Philadelphia. Frenean is seen here as a revolutionary enlightener.

Frenean is justly considered to be a father of American poefry. He was the poet of two rewolutions-american and French.

The house of Night 1778 ( ). There we can read The Power of Fancy, To the memory of the Brave Americans, stauras to an Alien and other poems.

He wrote many poems about American indiaus In a poem American Freedom (1775) () he believes in the victory of Americans as they are fightiny for their rights and their fight just.

In 1778 he wrote his poem American is Independent where the anthour castigates George III.

His poems about the slaver in America are deep and there the outhor stigmatizes the slave owners of West-India.

Philip Frencan was the second outstanding = sreat son of America after Peine. The son of New York voine morchant of French descent, Philip Frencan had a stormy life; he was a student, rebel, poet, journalist, trader, sailor, war-prisoner, and a government clerk. At the outbreak of American bourgeois revolution he wrote several satires against the English. In 1780 he was captured by them and put in a British prison-ship, the horrors of whichhe described in the poem The British Prison - Ship (1781), , published after he had been released in Exchange for English prisoners. His political poems earned him the title of the poet of the American Revolution. These were collected by him into the volume Poems Written between the Years 1768 and 1794. In 1799 he published his Letters on Various Interesting and Important Subjects.

During the last years of his life he cviticter severely the anti-democratic character of the American bourgeois State and was opposed to the realtirnary policy of the Federalists. During the Anglo-American war of 1812 he wrote a number of poems against Ebgland.

Though his political poetry was his most important contribution to American Letters, he is remembered also for his Lyrical poems, of which The Indian Burying Ground and The Wild Honey-Suckle deserve mention as examples of sentimentalism to American poetry.

Philip Frencan was a fearless exposer (accuser - ) of social injusfice, Untiring = (fiveless) ( - ) defender of the interests of his people. He graduated from the Princfon University in 1771. He became as poet of the American revolution, its herald (=messenger - - ) At Jefferson's proposal he created The National Gareble, which became a fighting organ of the demoeratic party. Philip Frencan continued Peine's works. Philip hated monarchy and despotism he criticized new capitalist relations. He considered revls articlist only those poor = () writers = (men oof pen) as the latter are independent and incorcuptable (-).

In his poem Mak Swiggen Satire (1775) he created sativical image of a (dull, untalented ungitted poet, dullard = (blockhead) - Mack Swiggen. Mac severed the strong people of the time and sained glory and money).

In 1793 he wrote about the tasks of American poets and writers. In his article True Purposes of the Theatre (1797) Frencan expressed his deep thoughts on the art.

Frencan was one of the pioneers who fonght for independent American literature. And his poem () Literary Import (1788) is about it.

During the war for ludependence Frenqau ekited in Pliladelplia a magazine Foural ofa Fvee Mein (1781-1783).

In hisseries of essays The Plilosopher of the Forest ( ) we can real his allegorical story. The Islaud of Grabbers ( ).

In New York he founded City Newspaper ( ) (1788-1790) he plaied there many new essays, stories.

In Om old soldier and his Dog (1790) Frencan shows tragic fate of a soldier who became poor and a cripple ().

Frencan exposes the power of moven in A Political Greed ( ) (1797).

In the middle of the 90_ies he created a curious book Tomo-Cheeki, An Indian from a trible of () = yell, (screem) of Pliladelphia. Frencan is seen here as a revolutionary enlightener.

Frencan is justly considered to be a father of American poetry. He was the poet of two revolutious - American and French.

The House of Night (1778) ( ). There we can read The Power of Fancy, To the memory of the Brave Americans, Stauras to an Alien and other poems.

He wrote many poems about American Indiaus In a poem American Freedom (1775) () he believes in the victory of American, as they are fishtiny for their rights and their fight just.

In 1778 he wrote his poem America is independent where the anthor castisates George III.

His poems about the slavery in America are also deep and there the author stigmatizes () the slaveowners of West-India.

The Wild Honey Suckle by Philip Frenau (1752-1832)

Fair flower, that does so comely grow,

Hid in this silent, dull retreat,

Untouched thy honied blossom blow,

Unseen thy little branches greet,

No roving foot shall crush thee here,

No bush hand provoke a tear.

By Nature's self in white arrayed,

She bade thee shun the vulgar eye,

And planted here the guardian shade,

And send soft waters murmuring by,

Thus quietly thy summers goes,

The days declining to repose.

Smith with those charms, that must decay,

I grieve to see your future doom,

They died-nor were those flowers more gay,

The flowers that did In Eden bloom;

Unpitying frosts, and Autumn's power

Shall leave no vestige of this flower.

From morning suns and evening dews

At first thy little being came:

If nothing ones, you nothing lose,

For when you die you are the same;

The space between, is but an hour,

The frail duration of a flower.

Eden: Garden that was the home of the first man and woman,

Adam and Eve, as told in the book of Genesis of the bible

Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)

Nathaniel Hawthorne is perhaps best - known for his novel - or romance, as be called it The Scarlet Letter (1850). In this work and others including The House of the Seven Gables (1851) and such stories as Roger Malvin's Burial, Young Goodman Brown, The Maypole of Merry Mount, and The Minister's Black Veil, Hawthorne sketches the spiritual history of New England.

Hawthorne's works explore moral issues by probing psychological recessesthat only a few American writers have treated. In their penetrating analysis of states of mind, their laying bare of human motivation, and their canny use of the supernatural, Hawthorne's stories reward repeated readings. Like Edgar Allan Poe, Hawthorne evinced a strong interest in the working of the human mind and heart, though Hawthorne exhebited a greater interest in the moral and religious imagination than did Poe. Like Herman Melville, a writer who greatly admired his work, Hawthorne portrayed spiritual struggle, particularly the conflict between faith and doubt and the tension between impulse and restraint sketch.

Though often centered around a moral idea or spiritual value, Hawthorne's stories typically develop and explore that idea or value by means of an intense scrutiny of the psychological impulses displayed by this characters. His characters are not so much realistic counterparts of actual people as allegorical figures that symbolize on concept or idea. The main character of Young Goodman Brown , for example, bears a universalisins name while his wife, Faith, is clearly allegorical.

Even this use of names, however, is more complex than we have suggested. Hathorne at his best created characters who embody moral and spiritual ideas while containing characteristics that make them believable as human agents. In fact, one of the most interesting aspects of Hawthorne's fiction is the way he combines and integrates the real and supernatural, the apparent and the actual, the moral and the psycological. It is the dialectic between these complementary pairs that often reveals the conflict in his stories and complicates and enriches the ideas embodied in them. If the heart of Hawthorne's fiction is found at the intersection of the moral and the psycological, the spirit of his stories blends the fanciful or imaginary with the historical. By casting the settings of some stories back two centuries, Hawthorne created a distance that enabled him to explore and evaluate America's Puritan legacy.

Nathaniel was a child when his father died, leaving his father to a life of self - imposed seclusion which Hawthorne himself followed upon his graduation from Bowdoin College, choosing to live for twelve years in his mother's house in Salem. During this time he published privately his first novel,

Fanshawe (1828), and numerous tales and sketches in periodicals such as The Token. His early tales were collected and published together in 1837 as Twice Told Tales expanded (in 1842). A later collection, Mosses from an Old Manse, which so impressed Herman Mellville, was published in 1846. Through an emphasis on the themes of secrecy, guilt, isolation and spiritual pride, the stories and sketches in both volumes conistently reveal Hawthorne's preoccupation with the effects of Puritanism on New England. In their moral intensity his stories display the kind of religious and spiritual obsessivness that characterized the Puritan sensibility. In their sharp focus on a few central characters (such as Hester Prynne, Arthur Dimmesdale, and Roger Chillingworth in The Scarlet Letter) they demonstrate an affinity with Greek tragic drama, with which they share also a dark catastrophe and an acute psychological insight.

In 1842 Hawthorne settled in Coneord, Massachusetts, and married Sophia Peabochy,

who bore him two daughters and a son. He worked as surveyor of the part of Salem (a kind of customs inspector) and wrote among other works a campaign biography of his college friend, Franklin Pierce. Upon Pierce's election to the presidency Hawthorne was made American council at Liverpool, England (1853-1857), which served as a base for his continental travels, particularly to Italy, where he lived for two years. After his sojourn abroad Hawthorne returned to Cancord where he continued writing completing his final novel, The Marble Fawn (1860), as well as Our Old Home (1863), observations on living in England. Following his death in 1864, his wife edited his note - books, which were published posthumously along with fragments of an aborted romance.

Although Hawthorne's fictions is astonishingly accurate psychologically, his work is more romantic them realistic. In fact, he claimed that he did not write novels but romances, which freed him from the necessity of remaining faithful to literal reality so he could concentrate on achieving what he considered the more important inner truths of art.

His fiction is riddled with symbols, from the forest in Young Goodman Brown to the garden in Rappaccini's Daughter to the scarlet A worn by Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter.

Hawthorne's symbols, moreover, are polyvalent they mean different things, some of which the author articulates in the voice of an anonymous narrator, but all of which are finally left up to the reader to understand. Hawthorne in fact frecuently provides two or more ways of interpreting a symbol or understanding an event, as, for example, whether Goodman Brown really went into the forest or dreamed his experience, or the multiple explanations of Hester Prynne's letter Part of our pleasure in rewarding Hawthorne's storis results from watching him create the ambiguities that make interpreting his work so rewarding. Part results from his playfulness and the evident pleasure of thought he requires for readers to tease out the various layers of significance in his fiction. Part also derives from the economy with which he works, suggesting much in little, in the manner of a poet.

If Edgar Allan Poe can be considered America's finest writer of tales of terror and suspense, if Herman Melville can be considered our finest philosophical writer of fiction and Mark Twain our greatest realist and satirist, then the honor of being America's greatest psychological and moral writer is Hawthorne's.

It is Hawthorne more than any other American writer who most fully explores the powerful moral and psychological influences of Puritanism and who best reveals the workings of the human heart.

Nathaniel Hawthorne is perhaps best known for his novel-or romance as be called if - The Scarlet Letter ( ) (1850). In this work and others including The House of the Seven Gables (1851) ( ) and many other stories Hawthorne sketches1 the spiritual history of New England.

Hawthorne's works explore moral issues by probing psychogical recesses2 that only a few American writers have treated.

Nathaniel Hawthorne gives us penetrating analysis of mind 1 ; 2 , , , , , . Human mind and heart interest the writer very much. He also exhibited a greater interest in the noral and religious imagination (than did edgar Pol).

Herman Melville greatly admired Hawthornes psychological work. Hawthorne portrayed spiritual straggle, particularly the conflict between faith = and doubt and the tension between (arge), ; (elec) ; to set on - impulse and restraint (ris'treint) (moderation) 6; (restriction) .

1) sketch n. (drawing) , ; (outline) ; (theat TV) = ______? ; v t (drawing) ; also - (out) .

2) recess [ri'ses] n. (in room) ____?; sec (secret place) . (_____?) ; (pol. etc.: holiday) pl, (US Law: short break) ; (seal) .

3) Romance [r'm_ns] n. (love affair, novel) ; (charm) ; (Mus.)

- . , , .

Writing in the

Scrutiny n. - (= ); , , ( ); .

Counterpart (s) - - ; ( - ).

Integrate (s) v t (gpoups, individuals) = . mid - nineteenth century, Hawthorne reinvented the history of his Puritan ancestors (his grandfather was a judge at the Salen witch trials). By casting the settings of some stories back two Centuries, Hawthorne created a distand that enaled ____ to explone and eraluate Americas Puritan legacy. , .

Through an emphasis on the themes of secrecy, quilt, isolation, and spiritual pride, the stories and sketches in both volumes consistentey reveal Hawthorne's preoccupation with = the effects of Puritanism on New England. In their moral intensity his stories display the kind of religious and spiritual obsessivness = that characterized the Puritan sensibility. In their sharp focus = ; on a few central characters (such as Hester Pryme, Arthur Dimmesdale, and Roger chilling worth in The Scarlet Letter) they demoustrate an affinity = ; with Greek tragic drama, with which they share also a dark catastrophic and an acute phsyshological in sight.

In 1842 Hawthorne settled in Coneord, Massachusetts, and married Sophia ______body, who bore him two daughters and a son. He worked as surveyor = of the port of Salem (a king of customs inspector) and wrote among other works a campaign biography of his college friend, Franklin Pierce. Upon Pierce's election to the presidency Hawthorne was made American consul = ____________ at Liverpool, England (1853-1857), which served as a base for his Continental travels, particularly to Italy, where he lived for two years. After his sojourn = abroad Hawthorne returned to Concord where he Continued writing, completing his final novel, The Marble Farn (1860), as well as Our Old Home (1863), observatious on living in England Following his death in 1864, his wife edited his notebooks, which were published posthumously along with fragments of an aborted romance [r `m ns] (love after, novel) , charm ; (Mus) . Although Hawthorne's fiction is astonishingly allurate psychologically, his work is more romantic than realistic. In fact, he claimed that he did not write novels but romances, which freed him from the necessity of remaining faithful to literal realidy so he could concentrate on achieving what he considered the more important inner truths of art.

His fiction is riddled with symbols, from the forest in Young Goodman Brown to the scarlet A worn by Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter.

, .

1) , , , ; 2) , .

Scrutiny (`skru:tini) n. or ; under sub: s _. .

Couuterpart (`kjuntepl: t) n (of person) (of document etc.) .

Integrate v: t (`intigrei: t)

v:t (groups, individuals) .

Integral (`intigrol) adj. (feature, element) () n (math) .

Improse v:t (sanetions, vestrictions, discipline ete) , v:t to on smb. () -.

Seclusion (si'klu:sen) ;

in .

token n (sign, souvenir) ; (substitution coin) .

adj (strike, payment ete) ;

by the same (tig) ;

book gift (Brit) /

record (brit) .

expan d (ed) vt (areo, business, influence)

(numbers) ; (gas, metal, business) ; (population) .

to on (story, ideo ete) .

aftnity (efiniti) n to have an with (bond) ;

(resemblance) .

insight (into) to gain an into smith -.

surveyor (se'veie) n (of land) (of house)

sojourn (`sodse:n) ;

abort (ed) vt (plan, activity) ;

(comput) ; med to a baby

valent

multiple (`m ltipl) adj (injuries) ;

(interests) n (natn) ;

(Brit) also stove (); collision .

Suspense (ses'pens) n (uncertainty) , ;

(in film et) . to keep smb. In - .

Walt (Walter) Whitman (1819-1892)

The American poet - democrat and publicist Walt (Walter) Whitman (1819-1892) was the first who stood to support - realism in the USA. He was born to the family of a farmer in a village on the long - Island, which is now a part of New York. Later the family moved to Brooklyn - in the suburbs of New York. Having no opportunity to finish high school, Walt still a youth had to earn a living. He worked as a messenger and then as an apprentice (learner) in a printing - house.

The great poet of America was self - taught. He gained wide knowledge and became a well - educated person. He reached the top of poetry thanks to his self - motivated reading. Whitman fought for the interests of working people in new conditions. In the 40's he turned to journalism and wrote for the newspapers of Brooklyn.

In 1846 he became an editor of the large democratic newspaper Brooklyn Daily Eagle. He worked there for two years (which coincided with the Mexican War 1846-1848).

Whitman was against the Mexican - American war (predatory war was a predatory war in American history) and one of his editorials - leading articles ended with the statement that the war should be put to an end.

Returning to Brooklyn at the close of 1848, Whitman edited the newspaper A Free Man where he continued his persistent struggle against slave - owners and their accomplices.

When he had to leave his post at the newspaper he became a carpenter. Whitman's best friends were workers, drivers of vans and omnibuses, sailors and fishermen. A barbarian law about returning runaway slaves enacted in 1850 under the pressure of the slave - owners caused an explosion of indignation from common Americans and these events avoided Whitman's muse. In his poems. The Song of the Flabbiness, Bloody Money, Killed in the House of Friends. he expresses his anger against slave - owners and their accomplices.

In 1855, as an unemployed journalist he collected a little volume of poems and rhymes called Leaves of Grass. The roofs of his poetry went into an American folklore. He found support in American humor and wrote in blank - verse.

Whitman perceived all characteristic qualities of humor and folklore: boundless exaggeration (overstatement), cosmic seals, social criticism, Davie Croquet's good Natured boasting and Paul Bangan's heroic inspiration (enthusiasm).

Whitman states that all people are equal, class and racial prejudices should be swept aside.

In the first chapter of the poem Song of Myself Whitman writes:

I celebrate myself, and sing myself

The poetical I of Walt Whitman is common man, man in general. Whitman's heart is open to everybody. The poet expresses his heartfelt feelings and love towards the working people. He merges (combines) with the people.

The poem Song of Myself turns into a hymn to a man of labor. But its philosophical meaning is wider, that is, a hymn to life on the earth.

In Leaves of Grass he raises his voice against slavery - the shame of America.

In Boston Ballad Whitman castigates the American bourgeoisie who accepted a low about fugitive agvols. In his pamphlet, The 18th Presidential Elections, (1856) the poet analyses the political systems of the USA and shows that the dreams of Americans for freedom and democracy have nothing to do with social system of America. Whitman criticizes both Republicans and Democrats.

Whitman understands that the Americans people, who won a victory over the slave - owning fourth only to find themselves in a new servitude into the slavery of monopolies. About it he spoke in his treatise Democratic Vistas (1871). This is a manifesto for the defense of realism.

The poet condemns the spirit of gain that the crisis, about American democracy of seared America he speaks about. One of the signs of the decay was the ground, which sometimes takes place during elections.

Whitman states that there exists a deep abyss between literature and life. Whitman bibber Americans criticism of what he was the evils of capitalist America. The works of American writers states the poet, have to give strength to a man new forces - energy they have to show vitalaims - goals.

Whitman defends the demands of the ideological content of art.

New literature, according to Whitman, must show not only the present but also must give a man perspectives of the future.

Whitman's poetry is original and unique. Ancient literature of the East also served Whitman as one of the sources of inspiration.

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) was an American lyrical poet, and an obsessively private writer - only seven of her some 1800 poems were published during her lifetime. Dickinson withdrew from social contact at the age of 23 and devoted herself in secret into writing.

Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts, to a family well known for educational and political activity. Her father, an orthodox Calvinist, was a lawyer and treasurer of Amherst College, and also served in Congress. She was educated at Amherst Academy (1834-47) and Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (1847-48). Around 1850 Dickinson started to write poems, first in fairly conventional style, but after ten years of practice she began to give room for experiments. From c. 1858 she assembled many of her poems in packets of 'fascicles', which she bound herself with needle and thread.

After the Civil War Dickinson restricted her contacts outside Amherst to exchange of letters, dressed only in white and saw few of the visitors who came to meet her. In fact, most of her time she spent in her room. Although she lived a secluded life, her letters reveal knowledge of the writings of John Keats, John Ruskin, and Sir Thomas Browne. Dickinson's emotional life remains mysterious, despite much speculation about a possible disappointed love affair. Two candidates have been presented: Reverend Charles Wadsworth, with whom she corresponded, and Samuel Bowles, editor of the Springfield Republican, to whom she addressed many poems.

After Dickinson's death in 1886, her sister Lavinia brought out her poems. She co-edited three volumes from 1891 to 1896. Despite its editorial imperfections, the first volume became popular. In the early decades of the twentieth century, Martha Dickinson Bianchi, the poet's niece, transcribed and published more poems, and in 1945 Bolts Of Melody essentially completed the task of bringing Dickinson's poems to the public. The publication of Thomas H. Johnson's 1955 edition of Emily Dickinson's poems finally gave readers a complete and accurate text.

Dickinson's works have had considerable influence on modern poetry. Her frequent use of dashes, sporadic capitalization of nouns, off-rhymes, broken metre, unconventional metaphors have contributed her reputation as one of the most innovative poets of 19th-century American literature. Later feminist critics have challenged the popular conception of the poet as a reclusive, eccentric figure, and underlined her intellectual and artistic sophistication.

Emily Dickinson is still considered America's foremost woman poet. Of her more than 1,700 extend poems, only a handfull were published in her lifetime. She never merried and she seldom left her family home in Amherst, Massachusetts, but she transcended all physical limitations in her extensive, artistic correspondence and, even more so, in her unflinchingly honest, psycologically penetrating and technically adventurous poems.

One hundred nine of her best and best-remembered works are reprinted here exactly as they appeared in the first three posthumous anthologies: the 1890 volume (Poems by Emily Dickinson / Edited by two of her friends / Mabel Loomis Todd and T.W. Higginson, Roberts Brothers, Boston [the 16th edition, 1897, was the specific source]), the 1891 volume (same title as a above, plus Second Series [the 5th edition, 1893, was the specific source]) and the 1896 volume (same title as for 1890, plus Third Series [1st edition was source]). The titles (such as Escape and Compensation) given to some of the poems by the early editors are retained here for completeness, but since they were not original with the poet, they have not been entered in any table of contents or index of titles. An index of first lines has been provided, however, at the end of this volume.

Success by Emily Dickinson.

Success is counted sweetest

By those who ne'er succeed

To comprehend a nectar

Requires sorest need.

Not one of all the purple host

Who took the flag today

Can tell the definition

So clear, of victory

As he, defeated dyind,

On whose forbidden ear

The distant strains of triumph

Break, aganized and clear.

Hamlin Garland (1860-1940)

Garland was reared in circumstances that forced him to a firsthand recognition of the distance between the national image of the western lands as promise and fulfillment on the one hand much grimmer actually on the other. His father stubbornly clung to the idea to the idea of the of the fortune yet to be made on the border farm and faithful to the promissory note of America, emigrated from Maine to West Salem, Wisconsin when Garland was born. The fortune never materialized and the family moved to north-eastern Iowa, where Garland lived for 12years, attending the Cedar Valley Seminary.

Still seeking the family moved to Ordway, South Dakota; but instead of fortune the Garlands met with toil, dullness and the hostility of the nature. Wanting to teach and to escape his environment, Hamlin sold his Dakota claim at a small profit and became one of the back-trailers from the middle border in fleeing to Boston. His movement from the west to east was. Significant: although the national insisted that the land of the folk and democratic realization lay westward, and the east was effete, artificial and aristocratic, many nevertheless sought the very kind of life that the American was supposed to spurn. The split in perception, the double goals in Garland are not merely personal but typical of many American men of letters.

In Boston he lived alone and struggled to find a new life. He educated himself in the Boston public library and studied and taught in the Boston School of Oratory, all the while trying to write. He read Spencer, single-tax economics, the issues of realism and impression in fiction. In 1887he returned to the Midwest for a visit and saw with new perspective the treeless prairies the unremittingly brutalizing toil and the frontier's murderous effect on his parents. Enraged he returned east and began to contribute stories to B.O. Flower's influential Arena. Eneouragedby Joseph Kirckland, Flower and William dean Howells, he attempted to create veritism in function a realism that wouldn't stop short with accepted subjects and attitudes but would also include the less pretty experiences that had led to his disenchantment. In 1891 he published Main-travelled roads; in the heat of his experience, he had written all the stories in this volume between1887and 1889. often Main - Travelled roads (1910) was in turn, a collection made up out of Prairie Folks (1893) and Wayside Courtships (1897) these two consisted of stories written in the short, fruitfull period.

Mark Twain (1835-1910)

American satirical and critical literature began with Mark Twain, said Chernishevsky. Mark Twain, an honest democrat, satirized the American press (Running for Governor), ( ). He exposed, in biting satire, race diserimation and he so-called American democracy (Goldsmitn's Friend Abroad Again), 2) bribery and corruption in the highest political cireles of the United States (The Gilled Age 1) Chares Warner the novel of was written in co-authorstup with 1873, the bourgeois Culture of the dollar The Man who Corrupted Hodleyberry (1898). Mark Twain altacked the imperialist policy of the reactionary government with wrath and indignation, and vaised his voice in defence of the nactives of the Philippine Islands (I'filipi:n ailandz) =), who were subjected to the iron heel of American imperialism (A Defence of General Funston, 1902). Imperialist exploitation of colonial peoples is robbery, humiliation and slow, slow murder, said Mark Twain. ( ). Two of his earlier works - The Adventures of Tom Sowyer (1876) and The Adventures of Huckleberry finn (1888) - are Beloved by children, as well as growp - ups, all over the world. It is because the joys and sovvows of childhood are depicted with such deep human understanding and sympanty that children and grown-ups alike have the feeling that it is their present and past that is benig brought before them. But there is also sharp social criticism in the books. We see the narrow - mindedness, dullness and backwardness of petty bourgeois lite in the American small town, and the cruel conditions under which the Negro slates lived.

Is there really any evidence that Mark Twain was greatly influenced by the 1905 revolution? That sounds bizarre.

Mark Twain was greatly influenced by the Russian Revolotion of 1905; but he did not understand the great historical rote of the working class. That is wily pessimism may be found in some of his works.

Howerer, in his works is eypressed the protest of the masses against capitalism and its evils. Mark Twoins worksbroadly democratic, deeply human, openly anti - imperialistic and brillianty satiric - are of the greatest importance today, when the fight of the progressive people for place and happiness and against imperialism and fascism is becoming more and more intense.

During 1857-1861 le was a pilot on a Mississippi steamboat, until the Civil war blockaded the river. Them Cobfederate volunteer.

In 1862 Samuel fried to find silver in Nevada them became a reported for the Territorial Enterprise. Started written falles under the pseudonym of Mark Twain.

From 1864 to 1866 the made a trip to Hawaii and delivered popular lectures in California and Nevada.

In 1867 he rublished the Celebrated Jumpiny Froy of Calaveras County and Other Tales. Two years later he wrote ( ) = The Iunocents Abroad or the New Piligrim's Progress In 1872 Mark Twain's Nevada sketches Roughing H ( - ) appear and the book is about gold seekers of Nevada.

He made a trip to Europe during 1878-1879. His stories My Watch ( ) and Journalism in Tennesses ( ) are best ones.

The Prence and the Pauper (1882) (________) was published in 1882 and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court came into existence in 1889 ( ).

The Tragedy of Pudd'n head Wilson ( ) saw the world in 1894.

Two years later Mark Twain created Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc ( ').

In 1892 there appeared The American Claimaut ( ).

Many people recognize Samuel L. Clemens only by his pseudonym, Mark Twain, and they know him as primarily a humorist, a funny man to be read for laughs. Nothing could be more unjust, for Mark Twain is a major writer in American literature and one of the World's great satirists.

He was a brilliant spokesman for the American frontiersman, often called the Lincoln of our literature . His father was an old-time pioneer from Virginia; the son was born at Florida, Missouri, in 1835. Not long thereafter the family settled in Hannibal, Missoury, on the bank of the Mississippi, the famous river which Mark Twain made doubly famous in three of his most important works. The father died when the son was only twelve, and Mark Twain went to work in typical American fashion, as a small-town boy who must pull his weight on a fatherless family. His older brother, Orion Clemens, was editor of the local newspare, and Samuel became a printer while doing odd literary jobs for his brother.

Until about 1870 - some dozen years after his getting his pilot's license - Mark Twain belongs to the Far West. He became a silver miner in Nevada; next, a newspaper reporter; next, a special correspondent in the Sandwich Islands; next, a roving correspondent in Europe and the East; next, an instractional torch-bearer on the lecture - platform; and finally, he became a scribbler of books, and an immorable fieture among the other rocks of New England. Perhaps M. Twain did not strike gold in Nevada, but he discovered in the Far West his true vocation, which was that of writer extraodinary. His career as newspaper reporter came in California, and he was correspondent for the Sacramento Unoin in Hawaii. In 1867 he sailed on the Quaker City to the Holy Land and to Europe, and it was the fruit of his journey, The Innocents Abroad (1869), which first gave him an inernational reputation. Before that he had written some sketches and started his career as professional humorist on the lecture platform. In 1870 he moved to the home city of his new wife, to Elmira, New York, and entered upon the final greatest stage of his career. Later he moved with his family to Hartford, where he died in 1910.


  • National Beginning in American literature and Edgar Poe as one of its beginners. Characteristics of his short stories. Edgar Poe is the creator of wonderful satirical grotesque in which he laughed at unchangeable and impatient for him human defects.

    [51,0 K], 21.07.2009

  • Franklin stood in the front rank of the people who built the United States. Benjamin Franklin printing business prospered from the start. Benjamin Franklin was public-spirited, and worked constantly to make Philadelphia a better city. Franklin helped draf

    [8,0 K], 19.03.2007

  • The peculiarities of American history in the early XX century. The novel by Dreiser "An American tragedy" - mirrors the bourgeois American society. Dreisers Biography. The Roaring Twenties. Clydes Character and Love Story, Aspirations for High Society.

    [23,7 K], 01.02.2012

  • The early twentieth century literature, modernism. Virginia Woolf, James Joyce, David Herbert Lawrence. New period, prose and drama. Angry young men writers. The generation of general discontent. American literature of the middle of the XX-th century.

    [174,2 K], 09.04.2013

  • In many respects the period between the end of World War I and the end of World War II was one of sharp discontinuities. Few eras in American history present such vivid contrasts compressed into so short a time.

    [26,0 K], 23.08.2008

  • Defining the notion "slang". Analyzing the use of slang in movies, literature, songs and Internet. Interviewing native American speakers. Singling out the classification of slang, its forms and characteristics. Tracing the origin and sources of slang.

    [73,6 K], 23.07.2015

  • The development of painting in the USA. The Colonial Period. The First American Revolution and the young republic. The Era of Jacksonian Democracy. The main genres of painting and their representatives. Landscape painting, still life and history painting.

    [80,2 K], 15.02.2014

  • History of the relationship between the American colonists and Great Britain, the declaration of independence. Development of the first Constitution of America, its main articles and legal registration. Principles of regulation of interstate commerce.

    [13,6 K], 21.04.2014

  • English dialects of the South. Words Directly from African Languages. The dialects in American: Chicano, General American, New York, Pennsylvania. Agreement between the subject and predicate in the present tense. Tense and aspect. Grammar, verb Nuances.

    [43,1 K], 10.02.2014

  • The features of Walt Whitmans style, studying his literary techniques, such as alliteration, anaphora, "free" verse, conducting a detailed analysis of philosophical basics of his works. His discussion of the war poems, the tragedy of the Civil War.

    [32,9 K], 27.10.2009

, , ..
PPT, PPTX PDF- .
.