Peter the Great reforms

Biography of life of Peter Great, his childhood and late years. The reasons and preconditions of reforms of Peter in different spheres of the state. The characteristic of reforms, their value for history of Russia. Estimation of efficiency of reforms.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 14.12.2011
Размер файла 40,4 K

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When Peter got on the throne the economy of Russia was not in a good state. He did everything he could to improve it. The scales of the changes, which happened during the rule of this tsar, were enormous. Peter the Great's reign transformed Russia and it is difficult to evaluate his work.

Thus, what is the essence of Peter the Great's reforms? What did he do for our country? Why should Russia of those times be grateful to this tsar?

Yes, perhaps, Peter did not have proper education, because of the difficulties in the country during his childhood but he had firm will and character. Just these qualities helped him to rule Russia with a rod of iron and that allowed carrying out reforms. Since the early years of the reign Peter worked hard to the blessing of his country. He was worried that Russia was a backward country. The economy of Russia of that time was stable indeed but it was not on the top positions. Different foreign countries did not perceive Russia as the deserving State. That's why Peter the Great started the reformation in the country.

As a result of Peter's reforms Russia quickly caught up with those European countries.

The changes improved all old system, giving it more cultural European forms. He strengthened the rule of the tsar and westernized Russia while at the same time he made Russia a power in Europe and greatly expanded Russia's borders.

The territory of the country grew vastly, which after many centuries of the fighting got the way to the sea and liquidated the condition of political and economic insulation. Russia came on the international arena, occupied the leading place in the system of the international relations and became a great European country.

At this time a manufacturing industry appeared in Russia, in which a powerful metallurgy was the special importance. The nature and sizes of home and foreign trade and the volume of the economic relationships with other countries changed fundamentally.

Thanks to military reforms the powerful regular army and the fleet were created.

Enormous step in the development of the culture and enlightenment was made by Peter the Great. Russian people became better educated, because the tsar forced them to study. Many new museums, theatres and schools were built for people. The status of women in Russia was changed at last. Peter the Great started a girls' educational academy, encouraged Western fashion sensibilities and brought women into social events.

The strong blow was inflicted to spiritual dictatorship of the church in culture, enlightenment and the other areas of the life of the country. The break of old routine patriarchal way of life was realized.

The economic and military policy of Peter the Great was very hard for all classes of Russian people; they all paid a great price for this industrial development, but these reforms of Peter enabled Russia to overcome the economic backwardness and made Russia a powerful Empire.

He had broad knowledge of literature, history, law, art, craft and natural sciences; he knew the soldiering perfectly, shipbuilding, navigation and artillery. Pushkin's words "now the academician, now the hero, now the seafarer, now the carpenter" were very much to the point of whole many-sided activity of Peter the Great.

The motto of those times could become the words of Pushkin: "My friend, the beautiful impulses of soul we will devote to Fatherland!" Peter the Great spared neither forces, nor health into the name of prosperity of Russia, he tried to make his associates and the whole Russian people follow his example.


1. Аксенова М. “Энциклопедия для детей. История России и ее ближайших соседей. Часть первая. От древних славян до Петра Великого”. том 5."Аванта+". М., 2000. - c.685

2. Алексин А.Г., Жаркова Л.М. «Что такое? Кто такой?» М., «Педагогика - Пресс» 1993. - с.384

2. Баканова И.Ю., Береговая Н.В. и др., «Английский язык: Большой справочник для школьников и поступающих в вузы». «Дрофа», М., 1998. -c. 624

3. Богословский М.М. «Петр Великий». «Русский язык». М., 1956. - с. 281.

4. Бойко В., Жидких Н. и др. «200 тем английского языка». «Бао-Пресс». М., 2002. 316 pages

5. Занина Е. « 95 устных тем по английскому языку». Айрис Пресс. М., 2003год. 320 стр.

6. Павленко Н.И. «Торгово-промышленная политика правительства России в первой четверти XVIII века». 1978, №3. - с. 159.

7. Спиридонова Е.В. «Экономическая политика и экономические взгляды Петра I.» - М., 1952. - с. 276.

8. James Cracraft. “The Revolution of Peter the Great”. Harvard University Press. 2003. 248 pages.

9. Mackenzie, David, Curran, Michael W., “A History of Russia, the Soviet Union, and Beyond”, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, 1993. 74

10. The new Encyclopжdia. Britannica. Volume 25. 1994. 724 pages

11. Valliere, Paul. «Change and Tradition in Russian Civilization». Westland: Hayden-McNeil Publishing, Inc., 1995











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