The modern state and economic efficiency of agricultural production in terms of its specialization in the example of corn production

The nature and terms of the specialization of agricultural enterprises. The dynamics of the production of corn for grain. Deepening of specialization and improve production efficiency. The introduction of mechanization and advanced technologies.

Рубрика Сельское, лесное хозяйство и землепользование
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 13.05.2015
Размер файла 67,7 K

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In a next table we will analyses data on a prime price and profitability of production of corn on grain on LTD. "AgroKim".

Table 2.10

A prime price and profitability of production of corn are on grain on LTD. "AgroKim"


2011 year

2012 year

2013 year

2014 уear to % of 2012 year

Total cost of 1 centner of corn of grain UAN




1,09 to times

Price of 1 centner of corn of grain UAN




2,66 to times

Profit per 1 centner of corn of grain UAN





The rate of return, %





Conducting settling and analyzing results, see that the complete prime price of a 1 center of corn on grain in 2014 comparatively with 2012 year increased in 1,09 to times. The cost of realization of a 1center of corn on grain increased in 2,66to times.

Part III. Deepening of specialization and increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production

3.1 Concentration of agricultural production and translation of him are on industrial basis

The concentration of production means his socialization through the jumbo zing of enterprises, concentration of processes of production, labor force, capital and producing of products goods on all more large enterprises.

In economic practice distinguish three basic types of concentration:

- aggregate is an increase of single power or productivity of technological options, aggregates, equipment;

- technological is enlargement of productive units (workshops, departments, productions) of enterprise;

- plant (factory) is a process of increase of size of independent enterprises (plants, factories, combines, production and other amalgamations), that comes true on principle of aggregate and technological concentration of production.

It is led to distinguish absolute and relative even concentrations of production. The first is characterized by the middle size of enterprises that or that industry of national economy, second - by part of large enterprises on a certain index.

For determination of relative level of concentration of production all enterprises group after their sizes. Sign of grouping can be a quantity of personnel, cost of capital assets, volume of products. It is however necessary to realize that the quantity of personnel (especially on condition of highly-mechanized and automated production) is not able to give reliable description of level of concentration, but the cost of capital assets only mediated characterizes the size of enterprise. Otherwise speaking, only volume of clean products most exactly and full represents the level of concentration of production.

In monofood industries enterprises it is expedient to determine size on the volume of products in natural expression, and in industries with a homogeneous equipment, but by the wide assortment of products, - after the amount of the set equipment (for example, in textile industry - after the amount of looms or spindles). In seasonal industries (for example, to saccharine industry) the size of enterprises is calculated on the index of the average daily processing of raw material.

The increase of level of concentration of production must provide the increase of him internal efficiency. With the jumboizing of enterprises all technician economic their indexes get better, as a rule,: specific capital investments diminish, a fund is a return and labour productivity grow, material resources are the best used, an unit cost goes down, profitability grows.

It is predetermined by that the cost of the concentrated capital goods grows slower than economic effect is from their general use.

However the level of concentration has a top economic limit exceeding of that does impossible the further increase of efficiency of production.

The increase of economic efficiency of agriculture envisages the increase of production and upgrading of agricultural produce at simultaneous reduction of expenses to labour and material facilities on unit of products. The decision of this problem is indissolubly related to further all-round intensification of agricultural production, in the process of that the increase of the productivity of agricultural cultures and productivity of cattle and bird is provided. In modern terms agriculture develops mainly on the basis of intensification that is the basic source of increase of him economic efficiency.

Ways the increases of efficiency of agricultural production, that provide the further increase of production of goods and reduction of charges volumes on her unit, envisage the complex of such basic measures : improvement of the use of earth, increase of her fertility; introduction of complex mechanization and computer-aided manufacturing; deepening of specialization and concentrations of production is on the basis of between economic co-operation and agroindustrial integration; rational use of productive funds and labour resources; introduction of intensive and resource of keeping technologies and industrial methods of production; upgrading and maintenance of mine-out products; deployment of progressive forms of organization of production and remuneration of labour is on the basis of collective, domestic and leasing contract and lease as a progressive form of mйnage; development of agricultural production on the basis of various patterns of ownership and types of menage and creation for them of equal economic terms necessary for independent and initiative work.

In next tables will analyses the determine the level of intensity, results and cost-effectiveness of intensification of corn on a grain.

Table 3.1

Determine the level of intensity, results and cost-effectiveness of intensification of corn on a grain.



2014уear to % of 2012 year




Production cost for 1 ha of sowing UAN





Yield of 1ha, center




3,44 to times

Total cost of 1 centner of corn on a grain UAN




1,09 to times

Price of 1 centner of corn on a grain UAN




2,66 to times

Earnings per 1 centner of corn on a grain UAN





The rate of return, %





Additional payback of expenses, UAN





In the complex of measures of increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production major is an improvement of the use of earth on the basis of increase of her fertility and increase of the productivity of agricultural cultures. These tasks successfully decide by growing of agricultural cultures on technology of programmable harvests with the use of achievements of science, front-rank practice and providing of high quality of labour. In the front-rank economies of Ukraine get grains of winter wheat for 55-60 c/ha, corn - 70-80, and on irrigable lands- 100-120, sugar beets - 550-600, green mass of corn - 400-450, hay of long-term herbares are 50-60 c/ha.

At the same time applying in industry of cultures and sorts of intensive type can have negative consequences. Development of intensification of agriculture without the observance of corresponding terms results in worsening of structure of soil, increase of rates of degradation of earth and intensifying of ecological situation. Front-rank experience of home agriculture, and world practice, testify that scientific and technical progress has in the order effective facilities of defence of soils from destruction and increase of their fertility. One of directions of increase of economic efficiency of agriculture is introduction of complex mechanization and computer-aided manufacturing in all industries of plant-grower and stock-raising and translation of them on industrial basis. The decision of this problem assists first of all the increase of the labour productivity in an agricultural production that is a basic quality factor him economic and social development.

By material basis of increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production, in particular the increase of the labour productivity, there is introduction of achievements of scientific and technical progress, that includes perfection, rational combination and co-operation of all elements of labour - instruments and articles of labour and labour force. With the increase of technical armed and level of mechanization of productive processes, with the improvement of organization of production of expense of direct-labour on unit of the landed area and head of cattle grow short. Increase of the labour productivity, and thus, and on 70-75% predetermined efficiency of production by the achievements of technical progress, part of organizational factors presents a 25-30%, increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production it takes place in the conditions of deepening of specialization and strengthening of concentration of production on the basis of between economic cooperation and agroindustrial integration.In the specialized enterprises and the level of profitability of agricultural production, that provides translation of economies on complete self-finance, depends on their specialization and concrete terms of manage.

The concentration of production renders substantial influence on his efficiency. With her increase more important economic indicators of economic activity of enterprises grow due to the positive action of factor of scales of production. An economy is arrived at, in particular, on permanent charges (permanent charges, say, on a grain-growing combine for the areas of sowing of grain-growing 300 hectare will be twice less on the hectare of collective area, than for the areas of their sowing 150 hectare), specific capital investments diminish, higher maneuverability of material resources is arrived at efficiency of their use grows due to it, the labour productivity and profitability of production rise.

However the increase of level of concentration of production renders positive influence on an economy only to the certain limit, a transition for that results in the decline of efficiency. The process of management of operations becomes in superfluously large enterprises complicated, transport charges grow, control gets worse after quality of implementation of works and observance of technology. The counteractive factor of excessive concentration are ecological requirements. Especially it touches large stock-raising complexes that render negative influence on an environment. Therefore important is a problem of achievement of optimal level of concentration of production, the decision of that in an eventual account is taken to determination of rational sizes of agrarian enterprises of different specialization taking into account their legal status and home zonal features.

Thus, the considered concentration of production on the essence is a resource concentration, as mainly taken to concentrating of resources on the same enterprises. Except a resource, for a market economy there is a characteristic and economic concentration.

3.2 Introduction of complex mechanization and progressive technologies of production of agricultural goods

Development of agriculture in future will take place on the basis of successive intensification. In this connection the main condition of development of productive forces of agrarian sector of economy is the wide applying in industry of achievements of scientific and technical progress.

In separate periods of development of agriculture priority were different directions of intensive development of production. It is perfection of agricultural technique, land-reclamation of earth, increase of application of mineral and organic fertilizers, expansion of high quality sowing of cultures, improvement of pedigree composition of productive cattle and bird. Today the separate from these factors do not have such value, as before, other became basis of intensification of agricultural production.

On the modern stage basic directions of intensification of agriculture are such: complex mechanization and computer-aided manufacturing, chimes of plant-grower and stock-raising, development of agricultural land-reclamations, organizationally-economic measures (specialization and concentration of production, introduction of progressive forms of organization and remuneration of labour), deployment of achievements of science and front-rank experience.

Introduction of complex mechanization and computer-aided manufacturing envisage creation of the high-performance and perfect systems of machines taking into account the features of industries of agriculture. The special value is acquired by upgrading and reliability of agricultural technique that is basis of high efficiency of her use.

In the process of intensification of agriculture the use of the most modern systems of machines and equipment, capable considerably to promote the labour productivity and efficiency of production, is envisaged. In the agricultural enterprises of country on handworks in a plant-grower and stock-raising busy sufficiently many workers of these industries. Therefore creation of the system of machines and completion of complex mechanization in plant-grower and stock-raising industries is basis of intensification of agriculture.

The process of intensification of agricultural production envisages not only the satiation of him a modern technique but also increase of efficiency of her use. Yes, on effective work of machine tractor park the level of the labour and strengthening of economy of agricultural enterprises productivity depends largely. In the conditions when the amount of the energy saturated tractors grows in economies, it is necessary to have a complete set of towed machines and instruments. The question of increase of efficiency of the use of agricultural machines and equipment is inseparable from social factors, first of all problems of considerable increase of terms of labour of mechanization experts.

Intensification of agricultural production is determined by the level of production it is determined by the level of mastering of progressive technology and organization of production on the base of complex mechanization of processes of labour, by an amount and quality of brought in soil of fertilizers, by the closeness of population of animals, id est by charges on unit of the landed area.She is basis of further increase of efficiency of agricultural production, as as a result of introduction of progressive technology and perfection of organization of labour after comparatively less resources it is possible to get the greater amount of products with less charges on her unit.

Essence of intensive technologies consists in that the production of goods comes true on the basis of the newest achievements of scientific and technical progress at conditioning for agricultural cultures in accordance with the phases of their height on the basis of complex of factors in an optimal proportion during all vegetation period with the aim of providing of level of programmable harvest. It means:

· placing of cultures in a crop rotation then scientifically reasonable predecessors;

· a sieving-out of proof is against a drought and consist, illnesses and wreckers of the high-yield districted sorts at high quality of sowing material;

· it is application of the integrated systems of fight against illnesses, wreckers and weeds;

· it is realization of production in accordance with the scientific system of organization of labour;

· it is implementation of all productive processes in accordance with agro technical and organizationally-economic measures with bringing in of highly skilled shots.

Reduction to power-hungriness of production of agricultural goods can be provided with the increase of the productivity of agricultural cultures, reduction to the amount of technological operations and declines of their power-hungriness.

3.3 Development of specialization of agricultural production is on the base of between economic co-operation and agro industrial integration

The commercial code of Ukraine is envisage functioning of different legal forms of economic associations of enterprises: associations of corporations, consortia, business concerns and other

The contractual association, created on the basis of combination of productive, scientific and commercial interests of enterprises that united, confesses a corporation, with delegation by them separate plenary powers of the centralized adjusting of activity each of participants to the organs of management of corporation.

By organizational forms between economic co-operation and agroindustrial integration can be:

1. Between economic enterprises (organizations) - created by agricultural enterprises and organizations by the voluntarily association of part of the material and technical, labour and financial resources.

2. Agricultural enterprises, that execute productive functions between economic enterprises (organizations) - economy from growing of bulls and calves, fattening of cattle, production of seed, forage and other agricultural produce.

3. Agroindustrial enterprises (agricultural enterprises) that have in the composition industrial productions from processing of agricultural produce.

4. Production amalgamations in agriculture are agricultural, between economic enterprises and organizations, motor transport enterprises and other.

5. Production agroindustrial amalgamations, agroindustrial combines, firms - agricultural, between economic enterprises (organizations), enterprises from processing and storage of agricultural produce, organizations of trade, a motor transport and other state and co-operative enterprises and organizations.

6. Scientific and production associations in agriculture are research, designer, project-designer and technological organizations, plants, experience productive and other organizations.

7. The productive (scientific and production) systems are research establishments, agricultural enterprises, associations, organizations, leaseholders, that carry out a production, processing, storage of certain types of products and other types of activity.

The systematic increase of integration processes becomes a key factor for avoidance of further slump of agricultural production. But it is possible to see in the conditions of economy, that those forms of menage, that was folded today in an agrarian sector, in majority it is conflicted with to maintenance of integration and co-operation. Other approach is thus needed at determination of directions of development of integration. The today's mechanism of functioning of agrarian sector causes the necessity of development of such integrated forming that will be able finally to attain not only getting up in the production of food, to provide equality of financial and material streams but also will work out social problems on a village.

With the origin of new various forms menages deepened contradiction between agricultural, reprocessors and attendant sphere, that, in turn, caused the row of difficulties into that ran during realization of the economic interests. As a result, complete disbalance in the system of conduct of agriculture.

In addition, it takes place so, that integration processes that today have quite another forms already obviously pass ahead forming of the system of adequate management in an agrarian sector and carry unexpected, instinctive character. But here exactly they are the process of adaptation of the agrarian forming to the market economy and most effective means for them to stabilize the position due to advantages, that arise up during integration not only in a production, processing and realization of products, but also in the field of financially economic.

About development of agroindustrial integration and it is possible to judge in relation to of integration connections, analysing the state of production of food stuffs. For 15 last the there is a slump in the production of most basic types of food stuffs both on Ukraine on the whole and in the Chernihiv area. An exception is folded oil is vegetable and fat cheeses. The production of oil increased in Ukraine more than in 4 times. It is known that the basic producers of oil are the large integrated companies. It is expedient to mark, that most advantages in this industry have the apeak integrated structures - holding, operating of the special legislative acts with the agricultural enterprises, elevators and trade houses. It be possible to say, that in this industry attained balanced of interests of agricultural producers, reprocessors, internal market and exporters, but it is not necessary to forget that the question is about a culture that on a draught 10 remains. Thus a production of goods volume grows not due to the increase of the productivity, but due to the permanent increase of areas of sowing, that characteristically for the companies of holding type.

Integration processes embrace the different forming on different levels. All they can be distributed on those that have a direct and indirect relation to integration. To those that have a direct relation, id est directly participate in integration processes, belong: economies of population; farms; enterprises of processing and food industry; to trading in an agricultural produce; agrochemical service; machine-technological stations. Here it follows to take and businessmen - individuals that take part in any technological process of production. Enterprises, that execute attendant functions and auxiliary, and also organs of management АPK, have an indirect relation - economic and state.

Cooperation, as an inalienable constituent of integration processes in a present economy, is sufficiently simple, but by the unclaimed form of productive connections. Agricultural cooperative stores, unfortunately, as yet did not get the proper confession.

Certainly, reasons for insufficient of agricultural co-operation quite a bit. But the most important, however - nevertheless, it is possible to count absence of clear state strategy of her development. Absence of the real sponsorship of the state in the conditions of imperfect legislation was done co-operation cleanly by the formal phenomenon.

In my opinion, it is now needed to pay attention to the most numerous categories of producers and exactly through between economic co-operation. The question is about farms and economies of population. Them effective development is in forming of cooperative stores from realization of products, on providing of cattle forage, productive to technical service.

Irreplaceable for steady development agrarian to the sector of area formations will become on co-operative principles from the production of seed of vegetables,, forage grain-crops; on growing of high-performance tribal sapling/pl of cattle and pigs; to marketing and maintenance of any pattern of ownership of and menage.

Thus, further development of integration processes in an agrarian sector must show up as different unifying forms. Regardless of organizationally - legal form of menage such formations will be able to organize the rational use of resources, will provide a production ecologically of clean foodstuffs, and, that it is no less important, will improve quality of life on a village.


At implementation of term paper economic description of specialization of economy, production of corn on grain in an economy, considered dynamics of development of corn, was analysed on grain, economic efficiency of production of corn is analysed on grain and ways of her improvement. Coming from calculations it is possible to do next conclusions. The area of agricultural lands of LTD. "АгроКім" increased for period of 2012-2014років. Yes, in 2012 agricultural lands 643га was counted, and in 2014р. - 14721га, id est area of agricultural lands of growing to 22 times. In the structure of agricultural lands all place is occupied by plough-land that increased accordingly in 22 times. It testifies to high thrown open of earth in an economy and them the intensive use.

Estimating the capital productive assets of LTD. "АgroKim" it is needed to mark that in 2012 they presented a 7042 thousand hrn. and in 2014 - comparing the 16998,5 thousand hrn. of capital is a return 2014 with 2012 diminished in 1,47 times, and capital is a capacity products increased on 68,37%, that is the negative phenomenon for an enterprise. For determination of economic efficiency of the use of capital and circulating assets of agricultural production calculate the norm of profit. From a table evidently, that in LTD. "АgroKim" the norm of profit is present only in 2013. The important condition of efficiency of the use of the fixed assets is an improvement of his structure.

Society is highly provided with labor resources, although for analyzable period the increase of quantity of workers took place in 30 times. On this criterion of estimation an economy behaves to middle, in obedience to part of the seventh article 63 of the Commercial code of Ukraine. The cost of gross products for analyzable period increased in 143 times. The cost of gross products calculating on one average annual worker increased in 4,8 times.

Productivity from 1 hectare increased in 4,44 times. Gross collection of corn on grain has a tendency to the increase - in 322 times. Thus realization of her increased in 23 times.

It is needed to point forces an economy at gradual perfection of structure of sowing areas taking into account regional features and realization of events in relation to the increase of resource potential of grain-growing production is provides the substantial increase of the productivity of grain-crops and increase of volumes for addition to grain-growing balance of country. In development of production of corn on grain, the most essential factors is a level of provision of sowing fertilizers by high-performance of high quality seed, and also economic feasibilities of realization in the optimal terms of all technological operations from their growing and collection.

Expecting a prime price 1 c of corn on grain and factors of her forming evidently, that the prime price of corn on grain during an analyzable period increased on a 12,16 hrn. On it such factors influenced: at the increase of charges on 1 hectare to sowing on a 43,9 hrn. prime price 1 c of corn on grain increased on a 12,16 hrn.; due to reduction to the productivity on 89,41ц/and, prime price 1 ц of corn on grain increased on 57,91.

Most specific gravity in the structure of productive prime price of 2014 is presented by direct material charges part of that - 76%, on the second place there are other direct charges that present 14,78%, on the third are direct charges on payment labors that present 4,74%.

Analyzing indexes prime price and profitability of production of corn can say on grain, that prime price 1 ц of corn on grain increased in 1,09 times. The cost of realization 1 ц increased in 2,66 times. In this connection, a profit is present in 2014 - 79,13. The level of profitability equals 53,71.

Analyzing the dynamics of level of intensity, result and economic efficiency of intensification of production of corn on grain, it is possible to draw conclusion, that intensification of production of corn on grain is conducted ineffective, as, additionally realizable charges were not (- 6,05) recompensed.

Increase of efficiency of production of corn on grain in, first of all, depends on his productivity equalization of the use of earth, that influences on a prime price, labor intensiveness and profitability of production of corn on grain.

In LTD. "АgroКim" growing of corn on grain comes true on technology, that envisages the use of high-performance hybrids and sorts of wheat and modern systems-machines, that provide implementation of technological operations in accordance with agro technical requirements.


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