The essence and aspects of workplace
Description, types of jobs. Requirements for the workplace. Efficiency and rationalization of service jobs. The scientific organization in the workplace. The effective workplace as a reserve intensification of production. Methods and ways to improve job.
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Ukraine begins to enter the new era of development - the era of market relations. This fact played a crucial role throughout the economy of today's Ukraine. As you know, the economy is supported by various companies, institutions, ie, by all that could make money in the form of state tax revenues to the state budget. In turn, each of these organizations has its own economy, which consists of the set of all units included in it. But they are not homogeneous in structure and consist of smaller components, namely jobs. Thus, the workplace is the final link in the chain structures of components of a unit - an organization. Reform of the domestic economy needs fundamental restructuring of the whole economic mechanism, creating new social and economic relations, effective system of production and labor organization as efficient production process in the workplace. The success of economic reforms largely depends on improving the efficiency of workers. One of the measures to increase efficiency of workers in improving the organization of the workplace, districts, divisions, enterprises in general. Practice shows that imperfect organization inevitably leads to a decrease in the final results of the enterprise.
1. ESSENCE AND ASPECTS OF JOBS
1.1 Description and types of jobs
job organization workplace intensification
An important element of work the company is to improve the planning, organization and maintenance of jobs in order to create in each of the necessary conditions for effective work. The starting element of any enterprise is the workplace, within which there is a purposeful activity (ie work) a specific employee. The primary unit of the company, which is the process of converting "entry" (resources, signed) in the "exit" (product, service), a working system - a job which can function relatively independently in their specialty. Workplace - is part of production area, which is equipped with all necessary equipment, tools, devices and is designed to perform certain labor operations of the manufacturing process. [2, p.. 123] In terms of organizational and technical job involves rational choice and placement of technical means to ensure safe and efficient operation of workers in the respective divisions. The organization's workplace - a system of measures to its specialization, and necessary means and objects of labor, their placement in a particular order, external appearance and creating a supportive and safe working conditions. Organization of service job involves providing workplace tools, work items and services necessary for the implementation of the labor process in accordance with established regulations. [12, p. 71] Every workplace has its own specifics, related to the characteristics of the production process, a variety of specific forms of labor in production. Type of employment is determined by such factors as type of production, the level of cooperation and division of labor, degree of mechanization and automation of equipment in the workplace and others. Jobs are classified by the following parameters.
As the main element of the personnel management system is a job, there are two groups of tasks that are required to define this concept. The first is technological, body approach, and ergonomic problems connected with designing technolotech and labor processes, improve working conditions, operatyv him control of production. Second - the task of planning the number of personnel, labor market analysis and employment Operation of the workplace is determined by technical, technological, organizational, economic, social, ergonomic, psychophysiological, and other factors. Workplace imposes corresponding requirements for secondary and vocational training of specialized workers, its discipline and responsibility range. In the process of production jobs operate in close relationship based on the achieved level of distribution and op sense to work in accordance with applicable technology, creating thus organically connected set - system jobs. To evaluate the job using the system parameters that char rakteryzuyut their technical and technological, organizational and socio-economic level in comparison with the best domestic inrodnohospodarskymy and international achievements. Workplace as any kind has quantitative and qualitative characteristics. If on the basis of the scale items of work and concentration regime change operation jobs formed keel kisni options in this category, the requirements for professional qualificationtion, demographic and psychophysical data worker, and organizational and technical level of quality characteristics form rystyky workplace. Balancing employment is to maintain a constant balance between these two systems requirements. [6, p. 117]
1.2 Requirements for the workplace
The organization and structure of employment must meet the requirements for individual and collective forms of labor. Workplace organization - is to create a complex organizational and technical conditions for effective and safe work. At the critical role of tools starting point in organizing the workplace is the subject of work. Depending on its parameters Rowe (weight, dimensions, quality requirements, etc.) designed process of specifying the type and nature of the tools (machines, equipment, tools, devices), is determined in advance and the equipment rigging job. However, the nature and location of vehicles and items of work shall comply with the requirements of the main productive forces - of man, with its opportunities operate and use the real elements of the work without harm to the body. Major trends in workplace are: rational specialization and effective placement of equipment, equipment, items of work, illuminating the work area; service, provided safe and effective work. Effective placement of all components of workplace formalized its technological planning. In the process of workplace health standards must be taken into account, including lighting, equipment operating instructions, safety and other options that provide high-performance and high quality work. It is also appropriate signaling and communication system that provides information exchange between workers and the master or other line managers, as well as services vnutrishnotsehovoho service. [2, p. 125] Rigging jobs mass jobs can be carried out according to typical projects, which urahovani necessary recommendations for equipment and planning jobs of this type. Using typical projects promotes science and excellence in the workplace, reduces the complexity of work, allows a greater level of organization of work processes. (Labour Economics Zavinovska) Proper rigging job requires a full set of tools, documentation and devices that are constantly used in the performance of work. When exposure to job functions such distinguished service jobs such as: - Preparatory and technology, - Transport, - Instrumental, - Setup, - Energy, - Repair and prevention, - Control, - Storage, - Repair - construction, - Economic - home [12, p. 74] Equipment for the workplace provides a full and permanent staffing to ensure all the necessary tools and items of work for assigned operations process work. Given the work being done, the type and nature of the production process a job is completed: 1) the main technological equipment; 2) the subject of labor; 3) auxiliary machinery and equipment (vehicles, machines and tools); 4) organizational equipment (working furniture, shelving, tools of detailed tables, cabinets for placement and storage devices, tools, materials, semi finished and finished products, safety devices, implements care equipment and cleaning jobs, equipment lighting, ventilation to ensure proper sanitary conditions, methods of signaling and communication with the services and service management). Regular elements of the equipment and rigging jobs are always on the job, regardless of work being done in each period. Provisional elements of workplace equipment - these are special items designed to perform specific work. Their composition, number and length of stay in the workplace depends on the technological regime and system maintenance. Special workstations equipped with a full complement of components necessary for specific operations. Specialized and universal jobs completed only those objects that are used constantly, and the rest is delivered periodically through the service on demand. [2, p. 126] The result of workplace equipment, can only be achieved by timely and sufficient to service all the necessary components that support them during the work shift raw materials, blanks, vehicles, repair services, etc. character. Thus, workplace organization depends on many factors that factor into zabepechennya reliability and workplace safety, efficiency and production conditions of workers.
1.3 Planning jobs
When planning workstation understand the most convenient and effective spatial (in the horizontal and vertical planes) placement of the material elements of production (equipment, technology and organizational equipment, items of work, etc.) for production of labor operations. Planning a workplace must ensure the necessary facilities for the performance of operations, contribute to saving worker movements, ensure safety, rational working posture, economical use of production area. By rationalizing the planning job, do not forget about the specifics of a particular enterprise or its unit. For municipal characterized by a large number of mobile workplaces, planning and organization are more complex than fixed workplaces. Feature of mobile workplaces is that the objects of work and the workers themselves should move. This applies, for example, jobs in road and repair-building organizations, organizations and services to repair the network economy cities, repair services, tram lines, etc. All this leads to the need for quick and precise organization of jobs in relation to the types of work performed at this time. Particular attention should be paid to the development of rational delivery routes to workplace materials, parts, pieces, equipment, tools, appliances, etc. And rational move them on the job during the work shift. The specific feature of many workplaces of enterprises and organizations of Urban is that, despite their spatial zakriplenist and relatively limited size, workers still have to navigate in the performance of production tasks throughout the shift. [12, p. 69] Planning a workplace - a spatial location of, items of work and artist including anthropometric, biochemical data and the basic characteristics of human feeling Every workplace has internal and external technological planning. External technological planning (spatial technology) determine the parameters of a certain size and placement requirements for all technology components of the system (s) for the technological operations of the production process relative to other jobs in the district. External technology planning workstation designed considering the working and auxiliary space (zone). It stands on the scheme plan work area and work area (main) and zone approach (auxiliary). [11, p. 156] Working area - a three-dimensional space, which limited the reach of hands in the horizontal and vertical planes including twist at 180 and worker displacement in one or two steps. In this zone, located instruments and items of work that is constantly used in the work. [8, p. 121] In the secondary zone positioned objects that are used less often, and elements of interior work space. The internal technology planning parameters and determines the order of the tools, devices, materials, light sources, documentation and other elements taking into account features of the workplace and taking into account assigned to him technological operations (work processes). The internal technology planning should provide a comfortable working posture, short and malovtomlyuvani labor movements, and even, if possible, the simultaneous fulfillment of labor movements in both hands. Designing efficient internal planning by considering the trajectory zones reach the hands of the worker (three-dimensional space) in the horizontal and vertical planes. General requirements for planning the workplace include: * Size of work area should provide a comfortable performance; * avoid the possibility of injury; * Equipment should be placed, if possible, in sight of the worker and be available for continuous monitoring of the progress of the process; * main and auxiliary equipment is located so that it was easy access for maintenance; * items of permanent use to be able to anyone nearby to work; * facilities and equipment for permanent use, items of work placed in view of anthropometric and physiological data rights; * Use temporary objects are placed in designated areas so they do not interfere with basic work. Analyze scheduling jobs need from general to private, from the general plan (external planning) and then moving to the details. The idea of the existence and location of facilities, equipment, auxiliary machinery and items of work gives nakreslyuvannya plan workplace. [2, p. 127 - 129] Therefore we can say that the feasibility of planning can be set, if you compare it with the standard designs, with traffic flows of parts and determine routes worker.
2. EFFECTIVENESS OF SERVICE and rationalization JOBS
2.1 Organization of work as part of workplace
In modern terms the economy needed labor organization as a constructive element of the workplace, is a complex process of rational combination of labor with objects and means of work, ensuring efficient use and achieve quality results in appropriate conditions of production. Organization of work is changing and growing depending on changes in these factors. Development of scientific and technological progress leads to improvements in production and, accordingly, management personnel. So Labour should continually improve, using the experience and modern technology. [17, p. 442] The important factor is the system of production, which includes optimization and coordination of all material and labor resources in space and time. That system is the means of production labor organization in the enterprise. Important factor influence on the organization of labor is the condition of external and internal environment. The internal conditions include lighting, industrial noise, vibration, air pollution and other factors, which leads to normalization of improving safety in the workplace. The external environmental conditions is unstable economy, changes in legislation, depend on the theoretical foundations of the ILO. [8, p. 163] In the scale of the economy and on specific job tasks are solved such labor organization as: (Figure 2.2) To meet the challenges of working across the national economy apply direct and indirect controllers that take into account the development of market relations. Within the enterprise value for the main labor organization shall issue the proper placement of employees in manufacturing based on rational division of labor and overlapping professions, specialization and expansion of service zones [3, p. 157 - 158.]. To implement the improvement of labor organization in the company should establish a single center personnel, to which must include Human Resources, Organization and salaries, social work, staff development. Coordinated work of each of the units of this center will ensure the effectiveness of the organization of labor in the enterprise. To conduct research and development of scientifically-based proposals and recommendations to improve the employment situation in the enterprises may be established as laboratories for scientific organization of labor and management. [14, p.. 320] Thus, the main areas of improvement jobs at the enterprise level may include: improved distribution and cooperative work in a team, improving the organization and maintenance jobs, study and implementation of advanced techniques and methods of work, improve recruitment, training and improving skills, improving regulation and stimulation of labor, improving working conditions and business working atmosphere in the team, the rationalization of work and leisure, education conscientious attitude to work and so on. 2.2 The scientific organization in the workplace In modern conditions, scientific organization of labor is such a labor organization which is based on the achievements of science and best practices, systematically vprovadzhuyemyh in production to ensure efficient service obochoho place. It allows you to combine the best technology and people in a single manufacturing process, provides the most efficient use of material and labor resources, ongoing productivity improvements. The mass introduction of scientific organization of labor (NOP) promotes the growth of labor productivity and increase production, ensure the rational use of material, labor and financial resources, development of labor activity of the masses, strengthening of labor discipline. The work on implementation of NOP distinguish the following main stages: Organizational and preparatory work on the NOP. At this phase of the NOP central issue is the choice of facilities for research and further definition of these objects measures aimed at improving the organization of labor. Study and analysis of the organization of workers, at this stage in the analysis of technical and economic parameters should pay attention to productivity, the use of work time and productivity using the equipment. Design measures to improve work organization and plans NOP on individual jobs. Determination of cost-effectiveness of implementing measures to NOP. Registration and approval of the NOP regulations. Implementation of measures to NOP. Development and implementation of measures for scientific organization of labor should be performed regularly, systematically, based on well-organized study of work organization and analysis of technical and economic performance of each job and study the organization of labor processes. This work should be an integral feature of the enterprise. [17, p. 461] Labor standards are applied to organize the work processes, rational use of labor resources. These include manufacturing standard, time Standard time - amount of working time in hours required to produce a unit of production: Nvr = refinery + No + Sun + + Nobs Nvidp NOP +, (2.1) But where refineries Nobs Sun Nvidp NOP - the cost of basic standards work, training-final, supporting, servicing job for rest and personal needs. [16, p.. 176] Reciprocal norms of time is normal output - the number of products that must be made by one employee or team for a variable time at his workplace. Nvyr = (T P) / (N h) (2.2) where Tzm - duration changes Increase or decrease the normal time result in an increase or decrease the manufacturing standard, determined dependence: X = (U * 100) / (100 + In) = In (X * 100) / (100 - X) (2.3) where X - decrease of the percentage of time; In - increase manufacturing standard percentage. Standard service Nobs represents the number of jobs, service items, etc., which should be served by one or a group of employees during working hours and is calculated as follows: S. N (T P-T pr) / (N h) (2.4) where TPR - normalized breaks that are not included in the rate of time, such as repairs, to perform other work N h - calculated on the regulatory elements. [17, p.. 513] For the effective organization of labor regulation in the business of great importance to accounting and control the execution of labor standards. Implementing research-based standards of productivity is to identify unproductive labor costs, productivity and growth of productivity, which allows time to establish the cause of the failure or exceeded standards, analyze the causes that affect the performance of manufacturing standard. Thus, according to research options for improving signs of labor regulation is necessary to conduct the following activities: Conduct an inventory of outdated labor standards in accordance with the organizational and technical conditions. Monthly to analyze the performance of manufacturing standard and analyze daily internally variable loss of work time and eliminate them as a means of performance management plan for the workplace. Continuing to work on the analysis of work organization, while developing a plan NOP important to coordinate the guild plans NOP, to ensure proper quality NOP plan should establish: does not require alteration of work in related departments, such as the reorganization of the freight delivery of raw materials or waste products vidvezennya; appropriateness of the measure. [19, p. 155] 2.3 The effective workplace as a reserve intensification of production In modern conditions of production often have problems relating to inconsistencies of the existing organization and maintenance of jobs requirements. This is due to the fact that not always the production of this issue is given sufficient attention, managers do not realize the importance of these measures and others. As a result, reduced productivity, reduced production, deteriorating working conditions and increasing injuries in the workplace. Improving the organization and equipping of workplaces is an important intensification of production reserves. The most important part of scientific organization of labor and production companies should be working place. [9, p.. 31] It combines the primary production system all the basic elements of any process of labor: labor, the subject of work and means of production. Each job is employment rights, held the necessary work and services. From the workplace as the original center of the organization and production management of many linked functions of modern management, and especially such as design and certification, development of technology and equipment, labor organization and processes, planning the number of staff and use of operational planning and current regulation and others. Therefore, proper organization and maintenance of jobs belonging to the major organizational tasks ekonomychnyh enterprises. The leaders of each industry should know the principles of job classification, criteria for evaluating the planning and equipping of workplaces, ergonomic requirements, sanitary and aesthetic factors of working environment. [14, p.. 398] Great attention should be given consideration the peculiarities of organization and equipment of jobs employees at all levels: managers, specialists and technical artists, the problem of automating labor-intensive processes and safety. Major trends in workplace include: rational specialization; efficient allocation of equipment, equipment, items of work; illuminating the work area; service; conditions of safe and effective work. Directly from the production process, regardless of its type, connected workplace - initial quotes manufacturetion. Workplace - is equipped with technical facilities while Tina production area in which the employment robeatniks or group of workers, who together perform production tasks in manufacturing. All labor and production processes occurring in space and time. Space, like time, is a common form of existence of material objects and physical processes. Common property of any space - length, strukturnist, continuity or continuity. In the production area is the location for businesses, shops, land, jobs, facilities equipment, items of work and other industrial facilities. Therefore, the basis for the organization of labor and production is a rational set of jobs, processes performed by different employees. All of these processes and operations must be coordinated technologically, organizationally and logistically coordinated linked with the fundamental objectives of each company. Therefore, the study design, organization and service jobs have become one of the major subsystems of general and compulsory system of labor and production, acting on the undertaking. Status jobs and their organization directly determine the level of labor organization in the enterprise. Moreover workstation directly generates an environment in which the employee is constantly at work, which affects his health, mood, efficiency. Progressive trends in this area is the mechanization and automation of labor-intensive processes, extensive use of computer technology, modern means of communication. [9, p.. 41] Rational organization and equipment of the workplace enables increased productivity, economical use of labor resources andmaterial production can improve working conditions. Therefore the question of rational organization and maintenance of jobs is of great practical value in the enterprise.
3. METHODS AND WAYS OF IMPROVING THE JOBS
3.1 Areas of improvement of work organization in the workplace
Workplace conditions at work is estimated taking into account the impact of all factors of working environment and working process of employees. The main areas of improvement in the workplace are: improvement of distribution and cooperative work in a team, improve the organization and maintenance jobs, study and implementation of advanced techniques and methods of work, improve the recruitment, training and professional development of personnel, improve the regulation and stimulation of labor; improve working conditions and business working atmosphere in the team; rationalization of work and leisure, education conscientious attitude to work. Thus, the organization robochohomistsya at the enterprise level - this is to bring groups of people to a system that ensures achieving the maximum possible beneficial effect of the specific conditions of activity and responsibility. The essence of each of these areas can be briefly stated as follows: * improving the allocation of labor and cooperation: improving the technological, functional and qualification division of labor, the introduction bahatoverstatnoho (many aggregate) service, combining jobs and functions, the introduction of progressive forms and types of brigade organization of labor, ie improvement of cooperative work; * improving the organization and maintenance of jobs: the proper planning of jobs according to a logical process, organizational and technical equipment of jobs and expansion of typing in their planning, implementation planning and proactive system maintenance jobs, ensuring efficient use of time main and auxiliary workers; * Study and implementation of advanced techniques and methods of labor: labor rationalization techniques, actions and movements, the introduction of progressive methods of labor organization within the changes, training of effective techniques and methods of work in order to save working time and productivity growth; * improving the recruitment, training and staff development: development plans, training and retraining of personnel according to needs of production, organization of personnel managers of vocational guidance and professional recruitment, introduction of effective forms and methods of training personnel, creating conditions for stability of personnel in the enterprise; adherence to common programs and training in terms of occupations and skill levels; * improve regulation of labor: development and implementation of technically based norms of the time, their view on the necessity of production, improve the organization of the normalization and improvement of the regulation of workers; * improvement of working conditions: normalization of sanitary conditions; compliance with safety and regulation of home production sector, collective agreements in anticipation of the process of mechanization of heavy and hazardous work; elimination of negative emotional factors of labor; * rationalization of work and leisure (internally alternating weekly, monthly and annual) variability in the implementation of a rational enterprise and its subdivisions, some categories of workers, the development plan proposals for the effective use of leisure time; * Education conscientious attitude to work: creating a culture of production workers to rationalization and invention, to increase accountability for the results of labor and mode of working time. [6, s.129 - 132] Under Ukraine's transition to a market economy growing economic importance of all factors affecting the efficiency of production. Not the last role in enhancing the effectiveness of social production is given to the scientific organization of labor. NOP provides a rational arrangement of workers, the introduction of collective forms of labor certification jobs and services, improve training and skills training, study, implementation and dissemination of advanced techniques and working methods, improving the material and moral stimulation of work. NOP is used as a means of increasing productivity, production efficiency to improve the living standards of people. But apart from economic problems and solve NOP social objectives: reduce the proportion of manual, heavy and harmful labor more attractive and creative nature of work. To assess the level of labor organization in the enterprise index method is used, the essence of which lies in the calculation of estimated coefficients for all lines of work. Absolute values ??of synthesis rate compared with the normative (planned). The maximum value of the coefficient, which approaches unity, indicating a relatively high level of organization of labor in the enterprise, and minimal - the adverse factors that negatively affect the level of labor organization. Regulations (scheduled) value of any factor (such as component and the final (generalized) if it is not caused by government or industry regulations, best defined as the ratio of achieved to related enterprises sector, when there is data such as the arithmetic mean or similar performance in the enterprise for several years. [10 sec. 88-92] Underlying both NOP and Labour at the enterprise level is a labor process, which is a set of actions of the performers on production functions, aimed at production and ratsionalnono osnoschennya and service jobs. Contents of the labor aspect of the production process is determined by production technology and depending on this worker can either watch the production process or directly affect him. The labor process is part of the production process - set of targeted technological and labor actions, which resulted in items of work under the influence of the labor process are transformed into products of labor.
3.2 Improvement of service jobs
Improving the organization of jobs achieved through adherence to principles. The main ones are such as systematic, comprehensive, planovist, consideration, timeliness, reliability, efficiency and profitability. Systematic is the most important principle in the construction or design service jobs. Is that the organization of care should be thought out thoroughly, there should be minor issues. Each type of service should be carefully worked out in terms of working within a functional unit engaged in its execution, and considering its relationship with other types of service with the organization and operation of the workplace, subject to service. With improved systematic approach is important to precise objective of the paper. And it is that the work on service should be subordinate to the needs serviced jobs. Integrated services is the need to organize in equally good all kinds of service. Comprehensive opratsyuvuvannya service organizations imply its coverage of all services in all important industrial maintenance functions. Completeness of service achieved uzhodzhenistyu time all kinds of services. Planovist service means that it should be part of internal planning. Service should not be spontaneous, it should be organized on the basis of calculations need forms, terms and volume of service for each job. Planning services should be performed early, regularly, at certain intervals. Planovist achieved when a system service is completely consistent with the system operational planning tasks variables and provides a clear sequence of auxiliary services and workers of the content of the main process. Consideration of service refers to those of his organization, which does not allow layoffs due to delayed work on service jobs. Consideration - a warning service based on the design life of the equipment and parts thereof, for the calculation of inventories of raw materials, fuel, tools in the workplace that are necessary for smooth operation. [17, p. 556-559] Following the principle zapobihlyvosti, repair equipment should not when it came down, and when the time came for preventive maintenance, despite the fact that the equipment can still be used. The same applies to stocks in the workplace items of work, technological equipment and others. They must constantly be replenished and be such as to ensure continuity of production. To achieve zapobihlyvosti care items alternating rigging jobs are completed in advance: before the beginning of everything should be in the workplace. Timeliness of care is strict compliance with established rules of service. Everything should be done on time, on time. Depends on definition of serviced workplace, so respect this principle is important. Reliability of service - it is such a quality that is achieved by a system of duplication, pidstrahovuvannya contingency violations in the performance of maintenance functions. An employee receiving service must be sure that it happens in time, in the right volume and quality required. Reliability of service - a sign of high its organization. Responsiveness is the ability of service systems to respond quickly to unanticipated disruptions in service and address the shortcomings. This principle is directly connected with the principle of reliability, they complement each other. Efficiency means that organizing the system of care should expect different versions of it and choose the one that if all the above principles will require at least the costs of labor and material resources. The principle of efficiency is provided by the use of most advanced technologies and services installation value of labor and material costs based on scientifically-based standards for calculating such costs. [17, p. 563 - 567] The enterprises classified as a form of service jobs. They can be regular, routine preventive and standard maintenance. Regular service - a service to call it organized, usually in terms of individual and small-scale production. This causes staff to the workplace as appropriate. Such a service organization does not always guarantee its timeliness, admits the possibility of stopping the production process, the losses of working time, but is relatively simple. Routine preventive services most often used in mass production and produced by timetable (schedule). This form of service requires more preparatory work than regular service, characterized by a distinct rhythm of services and minimum service downtime probability of employment by untimely service. The standard service used in stream-mass production. This is the most perfect form of service jobs. It is held in a strictly regulated manner in the standard schedules and standard plan. This form of service standard is called so that being justified and developed, system maintenance is included in the standard of the company, which is mandatory for all personnel document. Standard service is characterized by high efficiency, lack of downtime caused by service workers, but requires precise organization of primary production. [15, p. 473 - 478] Development of maintenance jobs should be done in the following sequence: * established the composition and amount of work on service as a whole unit; * highlighted work on service, which should convey key employees; * based on the composition and volume of work calculated the standard cost of labor support workers for service jobs (number of rules, standards of service, rules of service time); * composition and volume of work on service divided between support workers including functional division of labor between them and the cost of labor standards; * established forms of service (individual, collective) and developed conditions of their application; * calculated the physical standards of service; * develop service regulations (charts, schedules, routes); * organization designed stationary and mobile support workers jobs in the result improvement principles can be formed optimal system maintenance, ensuring the continuity of the production process. We see that the working area is the sum of the characteristics of jobs that depend on the direction of the jobs are located there. Thus, the quality of production in the shop are in close dependence on the quality of the working area. A performance of the organization as a whole to be in close correlation with performance that included her workshops. From all this we can conclude that the quality of the workplace affects the entire organization as a whole. Therefore, streamlining work on grassroots link - the workplace is the most reasonable from the point of view that improving performance in the workplace, we improve the work of the organization as a whole. Besides organizing the workplace environment and directly creates jobs where the employee is constantly at work, that affects health, mood, performance and, ultimately, on productivity. [1 sec. 204 - 208] Any work is unthinkable without the service as a labor process and the employee. Service has a key role in streamlining the workplace, because it often determines the atmosphere, which will be in one or onyy worker. It is therefore important to give due attention to this aspect of the scientific organization of labor.
Improving the organization and equipping of workplaces is an important aspect of production. Status jobs and their organization directly determine the level of labor organization in the enterprise. Moreover workstation directly generates an environment in which the employee is constantly at work, which affects his health, mood, efficiency. Progressive trends in this area is the mechanization and automation of labor-intensive processes, extensive use of computer technology, modern means of communication. Rational organization and equipment of the workplace enables increased productivity, economical use of labor and material resources of production, can improve working conditions. Therefore the question of rational organization and maintenance of jobs is of great practical importance. Proper organization of the workplace - is an important aspect of the employment of any unit of the enterprise. Workplace - a zone which is equipped with means of labor required to perform production tasks the worker. The organization of the workplace should create optimal conditions for the employment of the worker, providing high performance, the required quality and worker safety. Equipment for the workplace provides a full and permanent staffing to ensure all the necessary tools and items of work for assigned operations process work. For quality and productivity of each employee need to organize snap his job. Workplace the employee must provide the necessary technological equipment for work, equipment, devices, equipment for permanent use, instructional and reference material, devices to create normal and safe working conditions. Planning a workplace must ensure efficient spatial allocation of working space required equipment and inventory of permanent use. Each element of the workplace should provide convenience and safety, cost-effective use of working space and working time worker. When planning jobs also need to consider the requirements for working posture agent. Subject to all the stipulated requirements for workplace organization and implementation of necessary measures will be excluded unnecessary energy consumption officer observed increase efficiency and reduce fatigue, employees can direct all their forces to perform their duties. Service has a key role in streamlining the workplace, because it often determines the atmosphere, which will be in the employee.
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Ability of the company to reveal and consider further action of competitive forces and their dynamics. Analysis of environment and the target market. Functional divisions and different levels in which еhe external information gets into the organization.
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Design of composite insulators. Structure of composite insulators. Typically a composite insulator. Designing composite insulators. The design requirements for composite insulators for 154-kV service. Еlectrical and mechanical aspects.
реферат [136,2 K], добавлен 08.01.2008