Effect of Mughals and Islam in Indian style and art
Turko-Iranian-Muslim element is a integral part of India. Integration of the Mughal regime in Indian society. The theme of paradise in the decorative arts. Features of the mausoleum of Humayun which became samples in construction of monuments of Mughal.
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Caspian Social University Almaty, Kazakhstan
Effect of Mughals and Islam in Indian style and art
Shansharova R. Assemgul
executive editor of the journal "
Scientific works "Adilet "
As the dynasty of the Delhi Sultan, the Great Mughals always were a Turkic dynasty - and the Iranian-speaking rulers in the vast sea of local Indian ethnicities and beliefs. In addition to foreign invaders - Persians, Afghans and the British, the Mughal dynasty in different periods of its existence is generally opposed by the local Hindu and Sikh rulers, as well as fragments of the Sultan of Delhi - independent Muslim state education Hindu population.
Over time, Turko-Iranian-Muslim element has become an integral part of India. The very existence of, in particular, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal state in the Indian space changed India, although modern Indian authors prefer to speak of the fact that India has changed all this conquerors.
Mughal court and their army initially spoke Turkic and Iranian dialects, adopted in Central Asia and Afghanistan - that territories where they came from, and they are used - Arabic - the language of their religion of Islam. The coexistence of the Muslim Turkic-Persian invaders at the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire led to the fact that gradually, a new language - Urdu - a mix of Turkish, Iranian dialects and Hindi with a touch of Arabic. Urdu is now called the language of Indian Muslims.
Integration of the Mughal regime in Indian society is facilitated by the fact that in the early years of his reign, the Mughals followed a policy of tolerance to the faith of their Indian subjects. Such tolerance is particularly famous for the great Mughal Emperor Akbar. Emperor Akbar in his tolerance got to the point I was trying to create a new religion based on Islam, Zoroastrianism and Hinduism. He claimed: "Only the one true faith, which approves the mind" and "Many fools fans traditions, ancestral custom of taking on instructions of the mind, and thus condemn themselves to eternal shame". Akbar actively Hindu feudal lords appointed to senior positions. Under him the empire experienced unprecedented prosperity.
At the same time, other Mughal periodically rejection of an aggressive policy against the faith of his Indian subjects than, for example, became famous and zealous ascetic Muslim - Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.
The historical process of the arrival of Islam in India is often seen as a triumph, dominance and dominance of Islamic culture on the domestic (pre-Islamic India). However, the truth is that in the initial period of conflict and confrontation followed coexistence and mutual approval, which ultimately led to the interaction and assimilation and formation of a unique composite culture of India.
The forces of unity in Islam were and are common rituals and faith in the umma (Muslim community) with the ijma (consensus) on theological issues, providing a framework for Islamic rule. The Islamic world, stretching from the Atlantic to the China Sea, has a common heritage, which has had a profound impact on the art when it came to India. Large-scale migration of Muslim architects, craftsmen and artists played a significant role in the fusion of these two traditions in a number of art forms.
In accordance with the Islamic tradition of community worship masjid (mosque) is the place where the Juma (meeting) falls down, especially during the Masjid al-Juma (Friday prayers). A particular achievement is the use of color in Islamic architecture. For example, the use of blue or turquoise tiles on the dome of the tomb of a saint or a mosque, in sharp contrast to the reticence surrounding chromatic tones. In contrast to the symbolic or representational, in some other cultures is a decorative tendency generated by the desire to achieve a purely ornamental purposes, it has become the hallmark of Islamic Art.
Another Islamic artistic expression manifests itself in chahr Bagh, quadrangular garden, is an imaginary paradise on earth. These gardens can be seen in Spain, Central Asia and India, which often shows the route that Islamic art has arrived in these places. These formal gardens designed with incised geometric paths, water channels and trees, planted in rows strict. The theme of paradise in the decorative arts can be seen in the amazing beauty of the carpets of Persia and India. And finally, the Sufi movement that grew among those who wanted to establish a closer relationship with God and arrived on Indian shores even before the Islamic invaders, involved itself (music), poetry, and cancer (dance) as a means to gain the love of God and the confluence in a state of ecstasy. These traditions largely contributed to the development of performing arts in the mystical principles.
In the field of visual arts in pre-Islamic India, there was an abundance of magnificent Hindu and Jain temples, Buddhist Vihara (shelters, community-Buddhist ascetics), royal palaces and forts. (Jainism - an Indian religion that is close to Buddhism and Hinduism, preaches no harm to anyone. Jainism shares in their system settings rebirth in the next life according to the deeds, but denies a rigid caste system of traditional Hinduism Brahman's sense. Unlike Buddhism in Jain statues idolatry spread their teachers and so-called enlightened.
Islam brought to India their mosque for collective worship. This practice is quite different from what happens in the Sanctum Sanctorum (Holy of Holies), the temple, where the committed individual prayer for salvation. Islam also brought with it a tradition Maqbara (mausoleum building in the memory of the deceased), the structure, as long unseen in India. While the octagonal mausoleum could be (as mentioned above, the octagonal - octagonal Note. Portalostranah.ru), square or rectangular in shape, the only religious dictatorship was that the dead man was laying head to the west, in the direction of Mecca. And finally, the Islamic cities included the presence of secular structures, namely, Madras (school) Darwaz (high goal), sulfur (the inns), Diwan-i-Am (space for public audiences), Diwan-e-Khasa (space for confidential discussions and negotiations), hammams (baths), khvabgh (bedrooms) and Daftary, etc.
In a period of rapid urbanization, which took place in India at the end of the first millennium, many Muslim architects and builders created their first Islamic structure of the blocks early churches. Immediately come to mind Koutoubia Mosque in Delhi, Masjid in Pandue (Bengal), Dholke, Bharuche, Kambia and Daulatabad, Lat Ki Masjid in Dhar and Lal Darwaza Masdzhid in Dzhaunpur. As time began to use geometric patterns to create great jali (partitions).
Monumental gifts of India, which it owes to Islamic influence, are the royal palace complex at Fatehpur Sikri, with its majestic gates Buland Darwaza, the structures inside the fort of Agra, and, of course, the Taj Mahal.
Under the influence of an eclectic Akbar several of his nobles built Hindu temples in Vrindavan in a unique architectural style that became known as the Indo-Islamic. (As you know, Akbar even developed together with the wise men of his court the theory of a new religion, compiled on the basis of all existing religions of India.
Powerful symbol of the Mughal heritage - the Taj Mahal on the River Jumna (Yamuna) - a tributary of the Ganges in Agra.
Khurram, who took the name for the accession of Shah Jahan (Persian letters. '"Ruler of the world," the years of 1628 - 1658) held a moderate policy in relation to the prosecution of the Gentiles, and the gains (waging an unsuccessful war with Persia). He made history in quite a different context - with the construction of the Taj Mahal (in Persian "crown of palaces" - a tomb in honor of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal, whose name is a play on the name), and that was the end of life deposed by his son Aurangzeb.
Usually at this point the stories of Shah Jahan, many sources say that the deposed Great Mogul Shah Jahan was forced last years of his life until his death, being under arrest, to contemplate through the lattice windows his masterpiece - the Taj Mahal. But, for example, the account below us the India's Appasami Murugayyan said that Aurangzeb kept his father in the Red Fort in Delhi. A Taj Mahal is known to be located in Agra - a few hundred kilometers from Delhi. And interestingly, there is also the Red Fort - Delhi's much more, also built by Mughal emperor Shah but not Jahan and his grandfather Akbar. Based on the above, perhaps the majority of authors, resulting in the legend of the Mughal emperor deposed, and look at the dungeon of his architectural creation, built in honor of the great love with just confused the Red Fort in Agra and Delhi. However, it should be noted that the great Mughals Red Fort in Delhi was called a little bit differently - "Lal Haveli", which translates as "Red Hall", and the Delhi called Shahzhahanabad.
Shah Jahan returned Old Delhi metropolitan status, taking it from Agra, the former capital under his father - the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, which is also worth mentioning that little to dispel the romantic aura around stories Jahan. After Shah Jahan as a young man tried unsuccessfully to overthrow Jahangir as subsequently (albeit successful) overthrew him. As for the relationship of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal, they were, according to biographies even during life, really incredibly romantic. Despite the fact that Mumtaz Mahal pregnancies was 18, i.e. she was almost always pregnant, it did not stop her to accompany a noble husband in the military campaigns, and even during the uprising of the last still in the status of the prince against Jahangir. However, as it is believed Mumtaz Mahal did not seek political power, being the opposite of this beloved wife Nur Jahan, Jahangir (stepmother Shah Jahan) to counteract that, as historians write, the future Shah Jahan decided to rebel against his father.
Jahan, according to the chronicles, met Mumtaz Mahal, being a prince, during an impromptu ride - Bazaar, arranged by ladies of the court in the palace of Agra after the onset of the Muslim New Year. Ardzhumanad Banu Begum, as it was then still called Mumtaz Mahal, was the daughter of a dignitary of the Mughals conquered the Persian race. She was born in Agra, and the niece Empress Nur Jahan - already mentioned the wife of Emperor Jahangir. Among other things, the marriage of Shah Jahan with a relative powerful and which had a huge impact on Jahangir Noor Jahan was politically advantageous. This allowed the Prince to push their brothers from access to Jahangir and establish itself as the heir to the throne.
Concluding the topic of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz, we note that the greatest love is not prevented Jahan take him a few more wives during his life and after the death of Mumtaz Mahal. But the fact of the Taj Mahal, says Shah Jahan was really upset untimely death (as a result of regular birth) his Mumtaz Mahal. For good reason he had given her the nickname, which in Persian means "chosen one of the palace." Shah Jahan after the death of Mumtaz managed to build her tomb - a magnificent snow-white, and pink rays of the rising sun, and in the twilight of silver Taj Mahal. He built it a few decades. But his own tomb, which, according to the chroniclers, was to be located in front of a copy of the Taj Mahal, but only in black, Shah Jahan did not have time to build. He was known to be deposed by his son Aurangzeb, began to implement their construction projects: to build the capital of the new location.
Red Fort Delhi - the pearl of the Mughal era architecture. By the will of the fifth emperor Shah Jahan, it was designed in a unique style - shahdzhehani. At first this new world heritage monument, which became eventually memorable place of history and a symbol of India's struggle for independence, was the creator of heaven on earth. Then he turned to him in hell.
"If there is paradise on earth, it is here, it is - here" - says the inscription over the arch of the hall Kala-a-Mubraka. In these words of the Persian poet Amir Khusrau accurately and succinctly expressed the idea of ??architects Shah Jahan - to build a stronghold in the image and likeness of paradise described in the Koran, and not without similarities to Isfahan in Iran.
"True love was the inspiration, have prompted the creation of the great monuments in the Mughal period: Humayun's Tomb and the Taj Mahal. While the Taj symbolizes her husband's love for his wife, Humayun's Tomb has become a monument, erected by loving wife to her husband. After the death of Humayun in the tragic circumstances of his wife Haji Begum (Bega Begum) has decided to build the beloved husband's tomb at the place where Humayun was buried near the banks of the river Yamuna in Delhi. Humayun's son and successor, Akbar gave her the necessary funds to implement his dream of creating an eternal monument in memory of the deceased spouse.
Humayun - the son of the founder of the Mughal dynasty, Babur and father of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, and the great-grandfather of Shah Jahan - the creator of the Taj Mahal. Like many of the Mughal emperors Humayun and waged war with its neighbors, as well as with his brothers - in particular, with his brother, ruling in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Humayun was even forced as a result of one of the military defeat of the Afghan Pashtun ruler-and part-time ruler of the Mughal Indian states of Bihar and Bengal, known as Sher Khan (literally, "Khan - the lion" Prim. Portalostranah.ru) in 1540 and to leave India flee to the court of the Shah of Persia, for decades actually "lost" the throne of the Mughal emperors, bequeathed by Babur, actually stopping power of the Mughal emperors over India in favor of Sher Khan. But after the latter's death in 1555, Humayun was able to regain power in Delhi. After the vicissitudes of life Humayun's death seems absurd. He died as a result of a traumatic brain injury, stumbled with books in hand on the steps of the steep stairs of his observatory, hearing the call to prayer, and hurried back to her. As far as can be judged, Humayun loved looking at the stars ... and his tomb became a symbol of ... Here's what the article said, "Humayun's Tomb - a symbol of love," Nasir Raza Khan in the April (1999) issue of the aforementioned publication "India Perspectives".
Humayun's Tomb is an important first Mughal monument, which merged into the Persian tradition, the domestic (Hindu Note. Portalostranah.ru) art and the art of Central Asia. Apparently, it was built in 1571. It was a Persian architect Mirak Mirza Ghayas. Humayun's life in exile in Iran after fleeing from India sgala for him a kind of a blessing as it allowed him to indulge his passion for art and culture.
It was greatly influenced by the Iranian art, and when he returned to India, he brought with him several Iranian artisans. Mirza Ghayas created a draft of the tomb, but he died before the tomb was built. Its construction was completed by his son.
Mausoleum of Humayun has many features that have become role models in the construction of the subsequent Mughal monuments. Released most of them it is a unique plan. The mausoleum stands at the bank of the river Yamuna in the center of a large walled garden, which is conducted by the gate on the western and southern sides of it. The garden is divided on the basis of the Iranian concept chaharbagha (quadripartite garden), Babur and later improved it by creating a model plan the perfect garden, geometrically planned and formal. It has become the standard for all subsequent imperial Mughal architecture tombs, but Humayun's tomb is inherent in greater harmony between the garden and the monument. Her whole panorama as a whole reminds us of the verse from the Koran, describing the rivers flowing into the Garden of Eden.
The entrance gate on the west side have an unusual structure of the ground-breaking, as if someone is standing in the center with arms outstretched, welcoming the visitor.
The monument is built mainly of red stone, which further emphasizes its beauty, but also the fact that the Mughals had enough funds. Arches and cornices richly decorated with white marble and black slate, which creates an impressive visual effect. Strikes and wealth, texture and color of the stone.
For the first time in the architecture of those times was applied technique of double dome modeled on the Iranian facilities and monuments of Central Asia. It provides a space between the inner and the outer shell of the dome. The central arch of the tomb with arches on the sides give the construction of a two-story view of the structure.
Perforated screens (jali) are another unique feature of this monument.
mughals india art mausoleum
1 Sources Online. Portalostranah.ru
2 B.Gaskoyn. Mughals. M.: Tsentrpoligraf, 2003.
3 NK Sinha, Charles A. Banerjee. History of India. / Translated from English Stepanova L., Yastrebova IP and Knyazhinsky LA editorial and preface Antonova KA - Moscow: Foreign Literature Publishing House, 1954. - P. 213.
4 W.Erskine. History of India. London: Longman, Brown, green and Longmans, 1854. Vol.II.
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