The analysis of a condition and regulation of social maintenance of the workers and population in USA
Basic rules of social protection in USA. Maintenance of legal basis, development and regular updating of general(common) methodological principles of state guarantees and methodical development in sphere of work. Features of payment of work by worker.
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The analysis of a condition and regulation of social maintenance of the workers and population in USA
1. Basic rules of social protection in USA
The questions social maintenance of the population and working in USA are a major direction of strategic national policy (politics) and state regulation of socio economic development, both at a federal level, and at a level of staffs (states) and local bodies of authority. This strategy finds the expression in the following directions of social policy (politics):
Maintenance of legal basis, development and regular updating of general(common) methodological principles of state guarantees and methodical development in sphere of work both social maintenance of the workers and population of staffs(states);
establishment of structure of priorities of social maintenance of the workers both population of staffs(states) and establishment of their sequence;
use of the budget mechanism as with the purposes of financing the social programs, redistribution of means between various under the income, age, work capacity, family structure, and for stimulation of the social responsibility of not state structures;
perfection of administrative toolkit for state regulation of sphere of social maintenance according to arising problems and difficulties;
of socio economic policy(politics) directed on increase to competitiveness of the economically active population in the market of work, and on creation of conditions for their independent ability to live and reduction of dependence from the state help;
of the basic social specifications, standards and mechanisms of their realization.
At the first stage of occurrence and functioning of capitalism questions of social protection and the social maintenance of the population practically did not arise. Only in process of development of social intensity in a society(community) and under pressure and strike movement of working weights state bodies of authority for liquidation of the street disorders and the promptings about at the enterprises in the beginning were compelled to apply power(force) methods, and then in process of accumulation of experience and attraction of the sociologists began to take advantage and practically to use scientific methods of maintenance of balance of interests (as proprietors of means of manufacture of the material boons) and working weights. It became especial after Great economic depression in USA in 1929-1934, and also after publication in a wide and open seal of widely known scientific work «the General(common) theory of employment, percent(interest) and money» the intervention of state structures in the decision of social questions began to accept legislative character. The epoch became basic in the approaches to the decision of problems of social maintenance of the own citizens, hired workers and not working population.
Other and serious enough factor in increase of social security of the workers and population of the capitalist countries became occurrence after termination(ending) the Second world war 1939-1945. The block of the socialist countries and countries of national democracy united in the Warsaw pact, becoming a rather serious and impressive enough counterbalance to the block of NATO and important factor of maintenance of a high and stable standard of well-being of the working capitalist countries excluding or reducing on a minimum level social intensity in a society(community). On this factor till now by economists do not pay(address) due attention, and, nevertheless, role it(him) in increase of well-being and maintenance of social security of the working capitalist countries was great enough and really by them is quite appreciable. It is necessary thus to mean, that not only is direct the owners of means of manufacture and actual owners of the enterprises, firms, of the companies both other commercial and noncommercial establishments and organizations began to realize necessity both economic feasibility of creation necessary and sufficient for the population and working social guarantees, but also the government officials of the most maximum service statuses and ranks began to understand necessity of creation of system of state security of the workers and pensioners from an arbitrariness of the especially greedy businessmen, businessmen. In mass media and in public consciousness it became obvious, that the maintenance of guarantees of economic safety of the population in national scale not under force to one only to private(individual) capital and requires(demands) all-round support of the state expressing not only in direct financial expenses of the state budget, but also in creation of system of social insurance, and also favorable climate for achievement of civil solidarity of the financially supplied elite layers of a society(community) both needy and socially unprotected population and hired workers.
Therefore state with the purposes of maintenance of unity of interests of a society(community) compelled to incur hard, but extremely necessary mission of the responsibility for stabilization a socio economic rule(situation) of the citizens and steady growth of their incomes, and also for social integration of all layers of a society(community). For this reason an establishment and estimation of major problems of social maintenance and population, development of the basic directions of his(its) development, according to officially recognized USA by the doctrine of the doctor steel in many the advanced capitalist countries by priority sphere of activity of the state in social area. As a result of realization of this policy(politics) in USA the comprehensively proved and effective socio economic mechanism of state regulation of the economic attitudes(relations) was created legally enough worked, in the field of social maintenance. This mechanism functions till now irrespective of political priorities and arrangement of political forces in the united States and unites behavior of all structures, working in a society(community): federal bodies of authority, staffs(states), local self-management and private(individual) employers - on the one hand, and hired workers, and also population, contiguous to them, - on the other hand. The state regulation of social maintenance of the population and working enterprises carries global, universal character and promotes strengthening of economic safety of the citizens by creation of state system of social insurance and in exclusive cases of rendering of the financial help… In mass media and in public consciousness it became obvious, that the maintenance of guarantees of economic safety of the population in national scale not under force to one only to private(individual) capital and requires(demands) all-round support of the state expressing not only in direct financial expenses of the state budget, but also in creation of system of social insurance, and also favorable climate for achievement of civil solidarity of the financially supplied elite layers of a society(community) both needy and socially unprotected population and hired workers.
Therefore state with the purposes of maintenance of unity of interests of a society(community) compelled to incur hard, but extremely necessary mission of the responsibility for stabilization a socio economic rule(situation) of the citizens and steady growth of their incomes, and also for social integration of all layers of a society(community). For this reason an establishment and estimation of major problems of social maintenance and population, development of the basic directions of his(its) development, according to officially recognized USA by the doctrine of the doctor, steel in many the advanced capitalist countries by priority sphere of activity of the state in social area. As a result of realization of this policy(politics) in USA the comprehensively proved and effective socio economic mechanism of state regulation of the economic attitudes(relations) was created legally enough worked, in the field of social maintenance. This mechanism functions till now irrespective of political priorities and arrangement of political forces in the united States and unites behavior of all structures, working in a society(community): federal bodies of authority, staffs(states), local self-management and private(individual) employers - on the one hand, and hired workers, and also population, contiguous to them, - on the other hand. The state regulation of social maintenance of the population and working enterprises carries global, universal character and promotes strengthening of economic safety of the citizens by creation of state system of social insurance and in exclusive cases of rendering of the financial help as interest-free and sometimes even of the irrevocable loans, and also legislative fastening of the economic rights limiting risk of fall of the incomes, groups of the population which is taking place close or below the breadline, expansion of access of the unemployed to professional retraining, credit and other resources of social maintenance.
2. Analysis of a condition and regulation of social maintenance of the workers and population in USA
The American experience of state regulation of sphere of social maintenance testifies to expediency and necessity of the decision of social problems for close interaction of the government officials, private(individual) and public structures, each able-bodied citizen and extreme precise definition in the appropriate instructions both acts of their rights and duties at preservation of managing function of the state.
The necessity of constant maintenance of socio economic safety of the country by duly rendering of necessary material support to requiring layers of the population, and also maintenance of social integration of various layers of the population requires(demands) steady performance of the following socio economic measures:
All-round account economic, organizational and demographic factors from the different parties and in a various measure influencing social vulnerability of the citizens and their families, and also ability of the state to the proved changes and additions in structure of the working order of rendering of social support in connection with steady dynamics(changes) of development and perfection of the socio economic attitudes(relations) in public life;
Precise differentiation of payments of state pensions and grants(manuals) which are carrying out function for the reasons, independent of the worker, of lost earnings (of pension on age, physical inability, in a case of loss of the supporter, reception of an industrial trauma, unemployment benefit) on principles of insurance and social grants(manuals) to the requiring citizens from budget means of all levels of authority;
Application of the scientifically proved normative base for an establishment about a minimum and forms, connected to this parameter, of rendering assistance.
Last decades the state in USA expands in sphere of social maintenance methods of indirect regulation, first of all, tax privileges, royalty, doing (making) thus economically favourable to the employers expansion of scales and spectrum of rendering of social services to the workers and not working population. The special role thus there is a state social insurance (pension, on a case of unemployment, industrial and household), which not only promotes increase of economic safety of the population, carrying out the basic functions of social protection, but also the adequate compensation of the lost incomes, and also is the major factor of realization of principles and methods of achievement of social integration and increase of labor motivation of participation in public manufacture. In the united States of America the basis of socio economic safety of the pensioners, invalids, persons lost the supporter, or invalid is served by(with) the General(common) federal program of insurance, which was soon distributed on all workers working on hiring and on engaged individual labor activity. The specified program in the legislative order has established the responsibility of the employers for duly payment when due hereunder and in complete volume of insurance payments, regular of pensions and control of their charge to each pensioner, the sizes of which pension depend on the actual experience of work.
Major element of social maintenance of the workers is the system of insurance of the unemployed, within the framework of which last decades develop the new approaches to coordination of payment of the grants(manuals) with measures directed on search of new sources of the income, retraining who does not have chances to return on former work or in general to work on the specialty, i.e. on transformation of the unemployment benefits from insurance fund in fund for the device on work. The experience of realization of the programs on rendering assistance requiring in it(her) shows, that the purposes of decrease(reduction) and restraint of distribution of poverty cannot be achieved only by realization of the special programs focused on the poor population. Changes in all structures of a society(community) for the changes in all structures of a society(community) for changes in all structures of a society(community) The transferring of a center of gravity of rendering of social services to the population from granting of the social grants(manuals) on creation of the necessary and economically justified social conditions for possible(probably) of more complete use of labor, intellectual and moral potential of the able-bodied citizens is in USA the main strategic direction of reforming of all system of rendering of the social help in it(her).
Alongside with preservation and support of state system of pension insurance and reforming of system of rendering of the regular help to poor layers of the population key elements of policy (politics) on a boundary of centuries became provision of economic incentives having for an object creation of new workplaces and bases for economic growth in the long term - measures promoting increase of economic and social safety present and the future generations. The reduction last years in connection with the next financial crisis and restriction of action of the separate programs on rendering assistance to poor layers of the population at all does not mean decrease(reduction) of state participation in maintenance of social guarantees, faster opposite (on the contrary), the necessity of modernization of the social programs requires(demands) amplification(strengthening) intervention of the state in process of redistribution of means of social protection and development of social guarantees adequate to a present stage of public development, rationalization of realization of the social programs.
The policy(politics) of social maintenance in USA has accepted the modern form not at once in a modern kind, she(it) has passed the long period of development, and at different stages to it(her) those or other features taking into account concrete historical needs(requirements) and priorities of economic and social safety both usual hired worker, and left on the deserved rest and pension maintenance, forms and methods of influence on economic behavior of the workers and employers were peculiar. Thus, 78% of an account parts of the federal budget are necessary on charges connected to social maintenance and expansion of availability of educational, medical, social and other services - all that promotes strengthening of physiological, intellectual potential of each American. The redistribution of means through the state budget which is carried out in increasing scales, is a basis of social support of the American citizens.
Spent in USA per 90-s' years of reform in sphere of social maintenance were caused first of all by growing level of obligatory expenses, valid of more and more adverse demographic differentiation of the population of the country, changes of family structures, shifts in the market of work in the party of less protected forms of employment in connection with constantly increasing competitive pressure of larger corporations and monopolies, and at the end are directed on redistribution of the responsibility between the state, social partners and private persons within the framework of system of social protection as a whole. The acceptance by business last years of the much greater social responsibility assumes, alongside with rendering of usual social protection of the population, and a number(line) of additional organizational measures, in particular, maintenance of measures on expansion of access to continuous training and training for a new profession is direct on workplaces for the recipients (consumers) of the grants(manuals) in view of specificity of the appropriate quota, in particular of unemployeds of the women who are coming back on the market of work after a long break. The important direction of involving of private(individual) business in the decision of problems of employment of the specified recipients is also granting of auxiliary services in a place of work, for example, such as services in a leaving(care) of children.
Per 90 years the interaction of state structures, private(individual) sector and public organizations in social sphere differed increased and expansion of a circle of soluble problems, that was connected first of all to reorientation of social support to the needy Americans in employment and professional conversion training. Maintenance of socio economic guarantees still it is enough to the hired workers and not working population not only basic condition and simultaneously by guarantee of social stability in a society(community) and preservation of the property, but also important factor of increase of competitiveness able-bodied, but easily vulnerable in the market of work of the citizens. The secondary involving of the not working pensioners in public manufacture, more complete use their labour, intellectual, and quite often and greatest creative potential yet up to the end using the potential resources is not only consequence of new transformations in a society(community), but also important factor of new economic growth in the country.
The analysis of practical realization of the social programs of private(individual) business and their state stimulation has shown, that during last decades the state all uses in sphere of social maintenance methods not only direct (establishment of the minimal wages, insurance industrial, insurance on a case of unemployment), but also indirect regulation (for example, tax privileges to the businessmen introducing the social programs at the enterprises), doing(making) thus economically favourable to the employers expansion of scales and spectrum of social services more widely.
On the basis of the analysis of dynamics(changes) of the basic parameters of development of the General(common) federal program (ОФП) it is possible to make a conclusion that on scales of scope of the population, volume of annual payments - the basic program of state social maintenance quite and covers an overwhelming part of the own population. During the existence she(it) has undergone numerous corrective amendments at preservation of the basic principles:
Legislative fastening of the right of each working citizen on pension on age, on the disability pension, in a case of loss of the supporter, on unemployment;
The establishments of the minimal guaranteed level of the incomes for the persons 65 years also are more senior, blind and invalids;
Legislatively established responsibility of the employers and workers for payment when due hereunder of insurance payments;
Of the legislatively established guarantees on duly payment is regular of pensions and control of their charge;
Of solidarity of generations, when the grants(manual) by the one who has reached(achieved) pension age, are financed by the nowadays working Americans;
Of personal interest insured, the sizes of which pension depend on the insurance experience of work.
In 1956 this program has united insurance on age (founded in 1935), insurance on a case of loss of the supporter (1939), insurance on the invalidity which has been not connected to accident on manufacture (by 1956), and also payments within the framework of state system of social insurance. The state system of pension insurance differs by flexibility of the basic parameters of a profitable part - rate of the taxation and minimal size of wages of the workers and employees covered with a state pension scheme, that provides close communication (connection) between with parameters of development of the American economy and financial stability of system of pension maintenance in difference, for example, from Russia. During 1990-1998 The minimal size of the labour incomes subject to the taxation within the framework of system of social insurance, has increased with 51,3 thousand dollars up to 68,4 thousand dollars. According to available by the data of Administrative - budget management by 2009 the level has increased up to 82,8 thousand dollars. The general (common) federal program of insurance is a basis of economic safety of the persons who have reached(achieved) pension age, lost the supporter, invalid. The grants(manual) on a line of state system of social maintenance have the especially important meaning(importance) for separate categories of the elderly population, being by a unique(sole) source of the income for 20% of the bachelors and 25% of the unmarried women in the age of 65 years and are more senior. State guarantees of pension maintenance and health services of the persons of elderly age, including a long-term leaving(care), help in search of work and preservation of a workplace at presence of desire and ability to work after an output(exit) on pension, various tax privileges, and also stimulation of development of the private(individual) pension plans, distribution of the personal pension accounts, promoted hardening of economic independence of the pensioners, transformation them in the most socially protected age group of the population of USA and decrease(reduction) of their dependence from state support from budget means. In the united States to America both woman, and the men on pension leave per 65 years, that can serve a rather attractive example with the purposes of the further perfection of pension maintenance for many countries, including for Russia. It is possible to issue the deserved rest for three years earlier, but then these three years of payment will be on 20 percents(interests) less. The size of pension depends on the labour experience, his(its) continuity and salary. Such order stimulates the population to the maximal participation in labour activity, especially female population, dynamics(changes) of which participation last years appreciablly has grown.
Usually pension makes 50-80 percent (interests) from the individual salary - on the average 700 dollars per one month. If the man never worked or his(its) pension does not exceed 75% of a level of poverty, the state pays to it(him) the grant(manual) at a rate of 280 dollars per one month. In USA work both state, and private(individual) pension systems. The majority of the Americans is provided to themselves some with pensions: state, private - collective: in a place of work and private - individual.
State it turns out the same as at us: all workers pay pension payments, and from this money pay pensions to the elderly people. The hired workers give back in 7,5 percent (interests) of the earnings. His(its) employer as much pays for each hired worker. And the persons of free trades - artists, lawyers, businessmen - are obliged to deduct in pension fund already 15 percent (interests), acting simultaneously in a role both employer and hired worker. The additional pension can be saved in not state pension funds created in a place of work. They are very popular in America, as are favourable to the employers (then they receive tax privileges). Besides each American has the right to open the own pension account in any pension fund.
Saved in USA and in other advanced capitalist countries, for example in Sweden, Germany, France, experience of realization of the social programs on creation of necessary social conditions and social infrastructure of the enterprises, establishments, organizations and not working population, and also rendering of the social help to the deprived in it(her) deprived and needy population can by the most direct image be used by development of the domestic mechanism of social maintenance and social protection of the citizens, preparation and acceptance Russian legislative and the certificates (acts) regulating socio economic sphere of activity. The system of the socio economic attitudes(relations) in USA concerning social maintenance with the purposes of realization of state guarantees minimal under the American standards of means to existence adequate replacement of the lost source of the incomes in case of loss or decrease(reduction) of work capacity, loss of the supporter, occupational disease, expansion of availability of educational, medical, social and other services expansion of guarantees of social maintenance became the main long-term strategic tendency. The specified circumstance speaks about expediency to adopt foreign experience not and fragmentary, and in the complex order - complete package because of the deep and proved interdependence of its (her) structural elements.
To the present time in the united States has developed powerful and effective enough not only socio economic, but also legal base ensuring in national scale economic safety, guaranteed by the state, of the citizens in cases, when they are exposed to objectively existing risks of decrease (reduction) or loss of their constant earnings (income), including after achievement of pension age, loss of the unique(sole) supporter, physical inability, dismissal not on their fault from work. Expedient and competent use of this centuries-old experience and organized mechanism on creation of necessary social conditions and guarantees, and also necessary social infrastructure for the worker and not working population, and also under the indication of the social help to the deprived in it(her) deprived and needy population is essential and expedient necessity especially in the present period of reorganization some more not settled socio economic attitudes(relations) in our society(community).
Therefore on an example of USA in conditions of market economy the Russian state should take up the general(common) socio economic responsibility for complex system of social maintenance of the population in national scale, which in itself market to create be not capable. The general(common) socio economic responsibility of the state leaves far for frameworks only acceptance of the necessary and socially proved acts, but it should to the full supervise their performance and is severe punish the careless officials, почивших on laurels achieved by them different and is far from being always by plausible ways of the appropriate administrative rule(situation). Actually state with the purposes of own self-preservation by the forces is obliged to take up all completeness of the responsibility for a management(manual) and control above all social systems, which by legislative measures are submitted as obligatory to execution(performance) and for the workers, and, especially, of their employers. But for realization of the specified norms and rules ensuring a necessary level of social care and support of the needy population the chief of state and the officials of maximum ranks should in an enough complete measure correspond(meet) to a borrowed(occupied) rule(situation). In these purposes the creation of system of constant professional retraining of this staff is an extremely urgent and major urgent task among other measures on maintenance of state economic safety of the country. The state regulation of socio economic development in conditions of boundless freedom of market elements, boundless competition, ideological individualism and global personal egoism is not simple business and requires(demands) the maximal purposefulness, deep professional knowledge and considerable intellectual, strong-willed and creative efforts. Now necessity of state intervention in the decision of problems of social maintenance any more is not exposed to doubt. The speech now goes any more about that, is necessary or the state control and state management of a national economy and first of all behind a course of realization of the social programs, and about search and realization optimum or even of most rational methods of state influence on socio economic processes in a society(community) is not necessary. Even last decade, in conditions of revival of the tendency to the personal responsibility for own well-being of the able-bodied and hardworking citizens and new wave of activization of debate on a privatization of pension system, now even most which supporters do not reject a managing role of the state in a part of maintenance of a guaranteed level of pensions, in insurance is brave of private(individual) memory systems, and also in regulation of employment of the pensioners as the forms of their additional material self-maintenance by products of a feed(meal), footwear, clothes, goods of cultural - household purpose(assignment) and payments for usage by still substandard municipal services. Therefore expediency and necessity of study of rich foreign experience on maintenance of the population by necessary social conditions, support and help to needy layers is the conclusive debt, obligatory to execution (performance).
3. Features of payment of work by the worker and employee in Germany
regulation social payment population
Basic principles of payment of work
Base basis of payment of work in Germany are the tariff agreements, which consist from legal (legal) and normative (scientifically proved) of parts. In a legal part the rights and duties of the parties of the tariff agreement are fixed, and in normative - the description of norms contains which regulate the contents of the labour agreements. Both parts of the agreements mutually supplement each other and work simultaneously. Major functions of the tariff agreements are the following:
function, which protects the hired worker from use by the businessman, which being the owner of means of manufacture and actual owner of the enterprise, company, establishment or organization, where is employed on work the applicant, and having by virtue of it by the conclusive superiority, advantages of the economic and public rule(situation) in conditions of hiring;
function, which provides in practice realization of structure of a tariff grid;
Function of reconciliation, which during the action excludes an opportunity of expression of the claims on the part of employed on work concerning improvement of working conditions and his(its) payment - on the one hand and fixes action established under the agreement of parties of tariff rate for the term of, determined by the contract - with another.
The majority of the tariff agreements determining condition of the labour contract of hiring and the payments of work, consist at a level of the appropriate districts, agreements concluded at a level of the enterprise, make an insignificant part of the working contracts. In general signing of the tariff agreements by a territorial principle is the national tradition, checked up enough by time allowing more full to take into account local features, to protect a level of the labour guarantees achieved in certain region, excluding thus or, as a last resort, bringing to nothing an opportunity of occurrence and development of disputed situations between the employer and employed on work. The tariff rates by the worker and official salaries by the employee are considered(examined) as minimally guaranteed compensation for work of the certain quantity(amount) and qualities. Thus the size of the tariff rates is guaranteed to the workers irrespective of results of economic activity of the enterprise. Quite often at the conclusion of the tariff agreement and during labour activity the businessmen and the hired workers can agree about more high level of payment of work, than is stipulated by the contract. During negotiation for increase of the tariff rates it are taken into account a rise in prices and change of cost of life. The annual increase of the tariff rates carries out a role of the equaliser of a rise in prices, thus replacing special mechanisms of wages in connection with inflation. The similar system of a guaranteed level of wages is applied, for example, at payment of work of the workers of concern. However at the enterprises there is no system of automatic growth of wages in connection with growth of productivity of work.
At the same time, the increase of wages regularly occurs each time as a result of negotiation of administration to trade unions, but so that to not break financial opportunities on duly reproduction of capacity of the enterprise and at expediency to his(its) development, and also to ensure(supply) normal conditions of operation of the enterprise on the basis of preservation of balance of interests of administration of the enterprise hired workers, working on it, (him,) (workers and employees) and his(its) proprietor. For payment of work working in the tariff agreements six groups of the official salaries are provided from seven up to nine tariff categories, and for serving - At reference of the workers and employees to this or that category of a tariff grid or group of the official salaries their following qualitative characteristics and working conditions are considered, main of which the following are: Professional knowledge and formation(education) showed by character of work, degree of the responsibility of the worker for results of carried out work, level and character of physical and psychological loading on the worker and concrete working conditions on a workplace. Each factor is estimated in numbers, then the specific weights of the factors (working conditions on a workplace and qualitative characteristics of the worker are defined(determined)) and on this basis the total estimation is deduced. On an establishment of the tariff category and the groups of the official salary in a number (line) of branches render influence also age of the worker and his (its) industrial experience. The estimation of the worker is made by a service of the staff and administration of the enterprise.
System of payment of work in Germany
Communication (connection) of systems of payment of work with norms of social protection of the population
At a level of the enterprise of a framework of the salary within the limits of the tariff rates established at a collective level, undergo various changes, as the wages at the enterprise are a component of system of the labour attitudes(relations) having at this level numerous strategically connected parameters. The especially high degree of an autonomy exists, in particular, at the small enterprises capable to conclude the tariff contracts direct with the appropriate trade unions and, besides at small quantity(amount) of the enterprises not connected by the tariff and which are not belonging to union of the employers and consequently capable to accept the independent decisions, on wages.
Function of wages from the point of view of firm
The wages represent compensation of firm working on hiring for the work, made by them, or for the labour contribution, expected from them. Actually firm should bear(carry) higher charges on the contents of the personnel in comparison with a direct equivalent of the executed work - total salary (gross - salary). Now in Germany the enterprises should incur in addition about 90% from the sum of total wages of the hired workers in quality «of the additional charges under the salary», which develop of numerous components (payments of the employer on social insurance according to the legislation, charges on various social services of firm, charges on improvement of professional skill etc.). The general(common) charges on social support of the personnel make for the enterprise accordingly about 190% from a total sum of total wages. On the other hand, the hired workers do not receive the total salary as the pure(clean) income. They should be reconciled with deductions, is exact the same as to the employer have to be reconciled with the additional charges on wages. The deductions from the salary of the hired workers include mainly deductions on social insurance and surtax, making in Germany on the average at the hired worker about 35% of total wages (thus, certainly, the size of the tax depends on such factors, as the marital status, number of children etc.).
Thus, cost of a labour making for the employer about 190% from total wages, is resisted by(with) the income of the worker - his(its) pure(clean) salary making about 65% from the total salary. This difference (125%) substantially explains rigidity of tariff negotiation. Though at the conclusion of the tariff contract the total wages are formally discussed, actually for unions of the employers the speech goes all the same about 190% from this size as the charges of firms, and for trade unions - about 65% from this size as the incomes of the hired workers. The high level of the additional charges on wages and deductions reflects the rather high social standard. His(its) return party consists in high cost of a labour. It compels firms to search for opportunities of accommodation of manufacture abroad and accordingly to create workplaces there, where the charges are lower the personnel provided that the economy on these charges should not be brought to nothing by lower productivity of work in other countries. Naturally, those enterprises are most sensitive to cost of a labour, where the share of expenses on the personnel in the general(common) charges is especially high.
Integration of wages at the enterprises of Germany in general(common) strategy of management of the personnel
The function of management of behaviour of the personnel uses payment of work in a combination to other tools of management of the personnel. The firm, thus, coordinates system of payment of work with other tools within the framework of the strategy of management of the personnel to avoid of influences and mutual restrictions in use of tools. So, for example, use of system of individual price-work wages based on the agreement with the separate workers, can prevent cooperation of the workers of independent working group. The organizational form «working group», thus, does not get on with this version of system of payment of work. The way, based on integration, of consideration of questions of payment of work within the framework of strategy of the personnel is called to exclude as well reassessment of opportunities of management of behaviour through the salary.
Other tools for revealing are taken into account also, whether they are involved in a complete measure for management of behaviour or there are reserves. The integrating way results that the management of the personnel is in one hands. Thus at the enterprises of Germany coordination of use of all tools also is provided. In practice this principle frequently is broken, for example, that the questions of payment of work организационно concern to sphere of the competence of a department of manufacture, while other questions, connected to the personnel, are fixed behind a department, independent of an industrial department, of management and control of activity of the personnel of firm.
Basic components of system of payment of work in firms of Germany
The organization of payment of work at the enterprises of Germany consists in differentiation of the sizes of wages paid to the workers of the enterprise, which, on the one hand, renders influence on behaviour of the workers, and with another - optimizes expenses for the personnel because the salary is put in the economically justified conformity with value of results of work.
The individual wages develop of four components - from the basic wages and three additional components: result of work, social aspect and condition of the market of work. The task of firm policy(politics) of wages is, that within the framework of the tariff rates «дозировать» components by a choice of the various factors and methods so that they should answer interests of the enterprise.
The basic wages. The basic wages received by the hired worker, at presence of the agreements on tariff negotiation are defined(determined) under the rates, established according to these agreements. In the tariff agreements and firm systems of payment of work the sizes of the basic wages are deduced usually depending on the requirements (first of all of requirements to qualification), showed to the workers on the appropriate workplaces, proceeding from kinds, carried out by them, of activity. More precisely, the size of the basic wages depends on a type of activity (wages depending on the requirements, showed to the worker,). If this or that activity shows the high requirements to the worker, the high wages and on the contrary are paid. The decisive meaning(importance) in this case has a type, actually carried out by the worker, of activity. The orientation to the requirements, showed to the worker, is carried out through classification of work expressed by a total estimation of work. Frequently in the tariff agreements the rough examples are resulted, to which the classified activity is compared. At significant concurrence of the characteristics of classified activity with given in an example this classified activity is paid according to the tariff categories specified in rough examples. Behind this principle of definition of the basic wages there is a known postulate «for equal work - equal salary», which observance could remove or significant lower discrimination in wages of various groups of the workers (women, young workers). The main advantage of this principle to the employer consists in function of the control of the basic wages, as it(he) orders to the workers sphere of activity, depend on the showed requirements to which basic wages. In some branches to orientation, borrowing(occupying) the main place, to the showed requirements the definition of the basic salary with the account выслуги of years is added. In Austria, for example, the principle of years is very much distributed in public sector. The principle of payment on years means a relative withdrawal(waste) from orientation to the showed requirements, as at identical activity and, hence, identical requirements the workers with a plenty of the worked years receive the large wages, than their colleague with the smaller labour experience. Last years as the third determinants began to be used qualification irrespective of, whether the appropriate knowledge and skill of the worker in his(its) practical activity whether or not is used now. Differently employer should in such case pay to the worker the premium that it(he) at any moment can involve his(its) qualification. To the employer the qualifying payment of work is favourable, as the worker if necessary can on short term be involved for performance of various tasks.
In many systems of payment of work as addition to the basic salary the so-called component of result of work serves.
By compensation for the special results in work of the separate worker or whole group the stimulus to increase of labour feedback is created. Distinguish three main forms of wages connecting result of work to his(its) payment: time wages, price-work and bonus wages.
At a time wage of work criterion of payment is working hours. The basic wages are in unit of time multiplied on quantity(amount) of time units. On the first sight, the time salary excludes stimulation more high efficiency of work, as the time which has been carried out(spent) on a workplace, anything yet does not speak about the achieved results. Nevertheless time wage of work is considered connected with as result of work, as in its(her) basis the formally certain or actually expected results of work for a time unit are incorporated. The workers who are not adequate(answering) these expectations, lose a workplace and salary.
The price-work payment of work represents payment of work by result, by quantity(amount) of production, made at o'clock. At of so-called «normal» result the proportional increase of wages is made. This form of payment of work assumes presence of the well organized work, the speed of which performance depends on the worker. The price-work payment of such kinds of activity now is widely used. As the price-work payment of work results in increase of earnings, she(it), despite of possible(probable) negative effect as» pressure of result», is positively estimated by the workers. The employers, in turn, see in it(her), besides rendered on the workers of influence, also that advantage, that the constant size of the charges on the salary in expenses for a unit of production facilitates the control of expenses.
For definition of size of wages the key role is played by(with) an establishment of «normal» result, i.e. «normal» productivity of work. With this purpose two groups of methods are applied:
* Definition of scheduled temporary parameters on the basis of given of metric area on a workplace and their possible(probable) correction depending on a degree (productivity of work), appreciated for the certain interval of time: if the productivity of work at exceeds average meaning(importance), the measured time is multiplied on size more unit to receive longer scheduled time for performance of work, and on the contrary (so-called «a method RЕFA»);
Definition of normative parameters on the basis beforehand of given time (for example, «a method МТМ»). The quality of definition of scheduled time of performance of works depends on a choice of methods of payment of work. At many enterprises there are specialized departments on study of working hours, which are engaged in a most careful image by questions of industrial time as bases for account of wages, industrial planning, preliminary accounting of industrial expenses and their subsequent accounting for the control.
Use of price-work wages is used in assembly and industrial divisions, while at works on repair of machines and maintenance service of installations of interrelation can be so, that it does not allow her(it) to apply.
The reasons can, for example to consist in the following:
The accounting frequently can be made only after a closing - up, as only then it is possible to the full to reveal volume of the eliminated damages;
The performance of accounting can be connected to additional expenses of work;
For peace settlement of disputes and disagreements between the employees and sometimes it is necessary to involve(attract) the foremen (so-called «auditors»);
It is sometimes complex (sometimes difficult) to put into practice the technical changes conducting to simplification of working process and decrease(reduction) sizes of given time of performance of works, because of resistance of advice(council) of the workers of the enterprise and separate groups of the employees.
The bonus payment of work from many points of view is more widely applicable(applied), than price-work wages. She(it) is to the same extent intended for encouragement of the workers for productivity of work expressed in quantitative parameters, and for qualitative results of work of the most various type. Its(her) variety is caused by structure of system of the premiums reflecting communication(connection) of result, achieved in work, with wages. Except for proportional dependence having a place at account of price-work wages, others are applied also, for example, progressive, S-figurative, step and their various combinations. The choice of the concrete form depends on the accepted concept of management of behaviour of the worker through creation of stimulus as bonus payment.
The key role at account of bonus wages is played by(with) definition of base of account of the premium, т.е. A kind of the achieved result. That can be served by(with) quantity(amount) of the made products in pieces (premium for quantity(amount)), quantity(amount) of defective products in a party(set) of the goods (premium for quality), factor of equipment downtime etc. Further is necessary to define(determine) boundary meaning(importance) of chosen parameter of result of work, at which achievement there can be a speech about payment of the premium, and structure of bonus system depending on concrete sizes of really achievable result. As well as at the time salary, here there is a problem of definition of result of work, as by simple gauging and calculation, quite sufficient for an establishment of price-work wages, at use of the bonus salary obviously to not do without. Role more or less structured methods of an estimation of the personnel and result of work in this connection grows which allow to define(determine) productivity of work of the workers. The bonus payment of work opens the large opportunities for use of the approach. At the same time there is a danger, that with increase of a degree of differentiation the workers cease to understand dependence between result and payment, and by that any stimulating influence on result does not arise.
Social component of wages. The social component of the salary includes payments without direct communication(connection) with result of the made work, for example payments connected to the marital status (of payment at birth of children), or the continuation of payment of the basic wages focused on the initial requirements, even in the event that as a result of realization of reorganization of a workplace a level of these requirements is reduced and it would be formally possible the salary to lower. One of functions of a social component is «to adhere» the worker to firm and to keep this attachment. In this case function of binding to firm has not only social, but also economic character in interests of firm.
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