Pipeline transport of Russia. Transneft

The intensive growth of oil production in the Volga and Urals region and in the new regions. Preparation of the pipeline route. History of pipeline transport of Russia. Provision of environmental safety of the Baltic Pipeline System. Ecological studies.

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Pipeline transport of Russia. Transneft.Трубопроводный транспорт России. Транснефть.



Лебедева Е.А.

Студент гр.2233
Новиков О.М.
· Великий Новгород
· 2007 г.


1. Введение.…………………………………………………………………….…2

2. Pipeline transport of Russia. Transneft…………………………………….……3

2.1 History of pipeline transport of Russia…………………………………….…..3

2.2 Provision of environmental safety of the Baltic Pipeline System……………..8

3. Трубопроводный транспорт России. Транснефть………………………….11

3.1 История трубопроводного транспорта России……………………………11

3.2 Обеспечение экологической безопасности Балтийской трубопроводной системы…………………………………………………………………………..17

4. Заключение……………………………………………………………………22

5. Glossary………………………………………………………………………..23

6. Библиографический список……………………………………………….…24


Магистральный трубопроводный транспорт - важнейшая и неотъемлемая составляющая топливно-энергетического комплекса России. В стране создана разветвленная сеть магистральных газо-, нефте- и продуктопроводов, которые проходят по территории практически всех субъектов Федерации.

Системы трубопроводного транспорта - это тот рычаг, который позволяет государству регулировать поставки нефтепродуктов на внутренний и внешний рынки. Экспорт газа, нефти и нефтепродуктов в основном осуществляется трубопроводным транспортом, в том числе через морские терминалы. Морские терминалы в Новороссийске и Туапсе могут обеспечить вывоз сырой нефти в объеме 45 млн тонн в год. Степенью надежности трубопроводов во многом определяется стабильность обеспечения регионов России важнейшими топливно-энергетическими ресурсами. Российские трубопроводные системы наиболее активно развивались в 60-80-е годы. В настоящее время 35 % трубопроводов эксплуатируется более 20 лет, что требует повышенного внимания к их эксплуатационной надежности и технической безопасности

. History of pipeline transport of Russia

After the war, the intensive growth of oil production in the Volga and Urals region and in the new regions demanded the soonest development of transport communications. Already in the fourth five-year-plan period, new oil pipelines were built. One of them became the Tujmazy - Ufa (Naryshevo) - Ufa cracking plant. The decision on the start of construction was adopted by the former USSR Council of People's Commissars on January 7, 1946. The Tsentr-Spetsprojekt Institute designed in 1946 a 350 mm in diameter and 182.8 km long pipeline with a throughput capacity 2 million tons a year and a growth option of up to 3 million tons. The construction was entrusted to the Central Department of the USSR People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, which was later reorganized into Glavneftegazstroj (Central Committee for Oil and Gas Construction) of the USSR Council of Ministers.

Preparation of the pipeline route was started on April 10, 1946 near the Subkhankulovo village. Construction works were implemented by the Vostoknefteprovodstroj Trust, assemblage works - by the Construction-Assemblage Department No. 74 of the Glavneftegazstroj Trust No. 7, in-water crossings - by the Wet Excavations Department (EPRON).

This construction was vitally important at that period and employed over 20 thousand people. In two summer months of 1946 they succeeded in digging a 137 km long trench, which was ѕ of the route total length. Nearly all linear parts of the pipeline were built by hand: ground works, welding of pipes, laying of the anticorrosive bitumen-based coating. The pipes were laid down by cranes and tripods, but more often were slid down to the trench bottom by means of wooden heavers (levers). Simultaneously with that, the oil pump stations and houses were built in the Naryshevo and Subkhankulovo villages. The first foundation pit was dug on July 6, 1946, near the Subkhankulovo village and on August 23, 1946, the foundations of the diesel pump station and a housing block were laid down.

Some of the areas began to be filled with water and compacted in May 1947, and the pipeline molding was completed in August with the start of operations of the Naryshevo station equipped with NG-30/320 piston pumps and with 260 kW motor drives. In the molding process, 44 pipeline breakings were discovered, which was explained by low-quality pipes supplied by the Chelyabinsk pipe-rolling plant. By pumping oil into the pipeline, they gradually forced out the water pressure. The first batch of the Tujmazy Devonian oil arrived at the Ufa cracking plant on September 3, 1947, which marked the start date of its regular supplies. This day is considered a birthday of the system of the Ural-Siberian oil and oil products trunk pipelines. In 1949, the 300 mm diameter and 133 km long Tujmazy-Buguruslan pipeline was laid down. Other shorter pipelines were also built: Assake-Vakovsky, Majli-Assake, Kumdag-Vyshka in Middle Asia; Vojvozh-Ukhta in the North and in the Saratov and Kujbyshev regions. The Turmen oil outputs were steadily rising, and the railroad could not cope with them. It was needed to prolong the Kumdag-Vyshka oil pipeline to Krasnovodsk, and in 1947-1949 a nearly 180 km long Vyshka-Krasnovodsk pipeline was built.

In early '50s, oil production in the Romashkinsky field surpassed expectations of the prospectors. The oil-field workers hardly had any time to construct field facilities, stock oil tanks and oil-gathering stations, and to lay down field pipeline communications. The oil flow literally overfilled the area between the Sheshma and Stepnoj Zaj rivers. The available pipelines could hardly pump oil, which had put to the surface the question of construction of branches of the Almetjevsk-Karabash, Karabash-Romashkino, Karabash-Bavly and Romashkino-Shugury- Klyavlino pipelines. Besides, it was decided to lay down and additional Almetjevsk-Minnibajevo-Romashkino pipeline with an intermediary oil-pumping station in Minnibajevo. However, the temporary oil transfer scheme “field - pipeline - railroad (or river) - consumer” already could not solve all the problems. The burgeoning oil volumes could not be transferred by the railroad or river transport.

The very principle of oil transfer required radical changes: to start construction of trunk pipelines which were capable of linking the fields with the oil consumers - refineries or petrochemical combines. By the order of the USSR Oil Minister, the Directorate of Trunk Pipelines to be built in Tataria territory was launched in March 1953 in Bugulma. It was supervised by the Central Commodity-Transport Department of the Oil Ministry, which allowed to drastically accelerate the construction tempos of the new subsoil pipelines.

In 1946-50, the foundation was laid for launching of the USSR pipeline system, which was capable of connecting the basic oil production and refine stations with the basic consumption areas. By 1950, the total length of the oil pipelines was around 5,400 km, and by late 1955, it nearly doubled and was over 10,000 km. In five years, the number of commissioned pipelines became equal with the number of pipelines built in the 1878-1950 period. In the fifth five-year-plan period, the largest Tujmazy - Omsk, 530 mm, 1,332 km long pipeline (this diameter pipes were used for the first time) and the Ufa-Omsk oil products pipeline, 350 mm, 1,180 km long, were built.

In accordance with the USSR Council of Ministers Resolution of May 25, 1949, and the Order of the Oil Minister of May 31, 1949, the All-Union Tsentrspetsstrojprojekt Trust had developed a project for construction of the second Tujmazy-Ufa oil pipeline. Construction of the oil pipeline was implemented in several phases. It was planned to prolong the 350 mm pipeline and to raise the two pipelines throughput capacity up to 4 million tons, then to build an intermediary oil pumping station in Yazykovo, and having boosted the pipeline throughput capacity up to 5 million tons and used the intermediary station for the two pipelines, to reach a throughput capacity of 6 million tons a year.
The General Contractor for construction of the second Tujmazy-Ufa oil pipeline was the Vostoknefteprovodstroj Trust. Construction and assemblage works were mechanized: ground works were made by excavators and bulldozers, welding - by pressure-gas machines; the pipes were mechanically cleaned from rust and dirt, the anticorrosive insulation was applied by the insulation machines. The second pipeline was laid down in the trench of the first, which allowed to commission the pipeline by separate segments which played the roles of the first pipeline loopings.

The Tujmazy - Ufa-2 pipeline was commissioned in late September 1950.

In the first phase, pumping along the Tujmazy - Ufa pipeline was made by the Subkhankulovo diesel pump station. In 1951, the electric pump station equipped with three AYAP-150 pumps were commissioned. A full throughput capacity was reached after the commissioning in 1954 of the pump station in the Yazykovo intermediary station equipped with four NT-45 pistol pumps powered by the Scoda 6S-350 diesel motor drives.

The Resolutions of the USSR Council of Ministers of June 30, 1947 and February 25, 1948 allowed the construction of the Ufa-Omsk 350 mm oil products trunk pipeline.

In 1949, a Department for construction of a gasoline line was launched at the Central Department for Oil Marketing of the USSR Oil Ministry. Construction of the products pipeline was implemented by Vostoknefteprovodstroj, Nefteprovodmontazh (Ufa) and Benzinoprovodstroj (Chelyabinsk). The Ufa - Chelyabinsk segment was constructed basically by hand, as that period construction equipment was not adapted for mining works.

In August 1951, a temporary pump station in Ufa, a segment of the products pipeline from Ufa to Berdjaush (Chelyabinsk region) and the Berdjaush filling station with a platform for simultaneous filling up of eight tetra-axial RVS-2000 tanks and a pump-filling station with two 5NDV pumps were commissioned, accompanied in December 1951 by construction of a head station in Ufa with a pump station equipped with 8МB9х2 pumping units and ЗV200х2 support stations with a goods park of 14 RVS-4600 tankers made of unkilled steel. At the same time, the Berdjaush - Sineglazovo segment and the Sineglazovo station with a filling platform, pump station and three 8NDV and 12 RVS-4600 units made of unkilled steel were commissioned. The product pipeline segment till Petropavlovsk was put into operation in 1953 together with an intermediary Kropachevo station and a filling Petropavlovsk station with a gallery-type platform, a pump station with two 8NDV units and a 6 tanker RVS-3200 and RVS-2000 park.

Construction of the linear part of the products pipeline (1176 km) was totally completed in 1954.

The intermediary Petropavlovsk pump station equipped with five NТ-45 pumps with the Scoda 65-350 diesel motor drives were commissioned in 1956. This pipeline throughput capacity reached its planned value of 2 million tons. By decision of the USSR Government, it was planned to boost this pipeline throughput capacity up to 3.9 million tons a year in the Ufa - Chelyabinsk segment and up to 3.5 million in the Chelybinsk - Omsk segment. To achieve this, pump stations were built: in 1957 - Asha and Travniki; in 1959 - Khokhly and Suslove; in 1960 - Isil-Kul. Commissioning of these stations marked a round-up of the total projected construction complex of the first Ufa - Omsk products pipeline. In late '40s - early '50s several oil fields of the Tujmazy and Ishimbaj type were prospected and partially explored.

This was followed by a decision on construction of the Tujmazy - Omsk oil pipeline, its project was endorsed by the USR Council of Ministers Resolution of March 28, 1951. The route went parallelly to the first Tujmazy - Ufa pipeline and the Ufa -Omsk products pipeline. Construction of an oil pipeline was commenced in February 1952. In winter period, only welding of pipes at the stationary plants was performed, and in May ground and insulation works had a good start.

On December 30, 1952, the Naryshevo - Subkhankulovo (127 km) and an experimental pump station at Node No. 1 of the head constructions in Subkhankulovo were put into operation, and the newly manufactured 8ND10х5 pumps were tried. The segment was looped to the first and second Tujmazy - Ufa oil pipelines.

In November 1954, the commission accepted a segment of the Tujmazy - Omsk pipeline (127 - 261 km), the Cherkassy oil pump station and a 350 mm dam form the head (Ufa) oil products pump station to the Cherkassy oil pump station.

In the same period, small length pipelines were built: Shkapovo - Ishimbaj, Almetjevsk - Kujbyshev, Bavly - Kujbyshev, Karabash - Bavly, Kujbyshev - Saratov, Vyshka - Krasnovodsk (second line), Pokrovsky - Syzran, Minnibajevo - Bavly, Romashkino - Klyavlino, Buguruslan - Kujbyshev, Ozek - Suat - Grozny, etc. The 144 km long Ozek - Suat - Grozny pipeline was commissioned in 1955. This was the first Soviet “hot” pipeline for pumping of high-viscosity heated oil.

As of January 1, 1957 (40th anniversary of the Great October Revolution), 11,500 km of trunk pipelines with 101 pump stations were operated.

Year 1957 saw the start of construction of the Trans-Siberian 720 mm, 3,662 km long Tujmazy - Irkutsk oil pipeline. The pipeline was constructed in two phases: Tujmazy - Omsk (1332 km); Omsk - Novosibirsk - Irkutsk (1639 km).

The first two segments of this pipeline were commissioned in 1959. In the same year, construction works on the second 530 mm, 1083 km long Ufa - Omsk oil pipeline were completed. In 1956, the 530 mm, 110 km long Almetjevsk - Aznakajevo - Subkhankulovo oil pipeline was constructed. It brought the Almetjevsk oil to Subhankulovo and further on to the Tujmazy - Omsk - Novosibirsk trunk pipeline. Before the end of construction of the 530 mm, 579 km long Almetjevsk - Gorky pipeline, oil was pumped along the first segment up to Chistopolsky quay on the Kama river. Then it was loaded on the tankers and delivered to the Gorky and Yaroslavl refineries. When the pipeline was commissioned, water shipments had been noticeably reduced.

In the sixth five-year-plan period, the 350 mm, 446 km long Almetjevsk - Perm and not very long Mukhanovo - Kujbyshev, Serny Vody - Krotovka, Chekmagush - Ufa (later part of the Ufa Kambarka product pipeline), Kaltasy -Ufa, Almetjevsk - Subkhankulovo - Orsk, Zhirnoje - Volgograd, Krotovka - Kujbyshev, Shkapovo - Subkhankulovo, Cheleken - Belek, Belek - Krasnovodsk pipelines were constructed.

In the sixth five-year-plan period the already known Astrakhan - Urbakh - Saratov product pipeline received a new life. It became an oil pipeline and changed its pumping orientation. The development of oil refine industry in the eastern region has removed the demand in the oil product supplies to these regions, and the pipeline load went down to 30 %. Upon commissioning of the Kujbyshev - Saratov pipeline, a 49 km long branch was built to connect it with the Urbakh pump station, which transferred oil to the southern plants. This pipeline further exploitation had demonstrated its high reliability and allowed to unload the railroad transport. The 65 km long Urbakh - Saratov segment was now used for pumping of the Stepanovsky field oil.

In 1959, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (SEV) adopted a decision on construction of a unique trunk pipeline from the USSR into Poland, Czechoslovakia, GDR and Hungary. The total length of this pipeline with all of its branches exceeded 6,000 km. It started in the Kujbyshev region (Lopatino pump station) and segmented into two parts near Mozyr in Belarus. Its northern 700 km long segment went across Poland to GDR, its southern 400 km long segment - across Czechoslovakia into Hungary. It was planned to build one more branch to the Ventspils port. Each country was to supply all necessary construction materials, machinery and equipment. All construction works were mechanized. Over 730 thousand tons of 530, 630, 720, 820 and 1020 mm pipes were laid. 31 pump stations with the fully automated controls were built to ensure normal functioning of the pipeline.

In 1962, first oil was brought by this pipeline to Czechoslovakia, in September 1963 - to Hungary, and in November 1963 - to Poland, and, in December the same year - to GDR. The whole of the pipeline was put into operation in October 1964. Its route crossed the mountain ranges and navigable rivers - the Volga, Dnepr, Danube and Tisza. Oil from Tataria and the Kujbushev region fields was the first to be pumped.

In the seventh five-year-plan period, the last segment of the Tujmazy - Irkutsk oil pipeline was commissioned in 1964. Construction of the 530 mm, 750 km long Penza - Bryansk product pipeline was brought to completion, as well as construction of small length oil pipelines: Gorky - Ryazan, Ozek - Suat - Grozny (second line), Kamenny Log - Perm, Almetjevsk - Kujbushev, Ryazan - Moscow and others in 1961-65.

By the end of the seventh five-year-plan period, development of the West Siberian fields was commenced. In 1965, around 1 million tons of oil were tapped there. The greatest problem in development of this region was absence of the oil transportation routes. The only route was along the Ob and Irtysh rivers whose navigation periods lasted for less than 6 months. Therefore, together with boosting of the oil output, it was planned to start construction of the pipelines regarded as the most economically and technically feasible oil supply routes. Already in late 1965, construction of the first Siberian Shaim - Tyumen, 530… 720 mm, 410 km long oil pipeline was accomplished.

From 1961, oil production in Kazakhstan was growing. By 1965, the Uzen and Zhetybaj fields had been put into commercial operation. The same year saw the start of construction of the 142 km long Uzen - Shevchenko oil pipeline, which was put into operation in April 1966. Further, oil to the Gurjevsky refinery was still delivered by the railroad. In total in 1961-65, around 11,000 km of pipelines were built, and by the end of 1965, the total length of the pipelines accounted for 28.5 thousand km.

The eighth five-year-plan period saw construction of the Uzen - Guriev - Kujbyshev pipeline for pumping of extra-heavy crude oil from the Kazakhstan fields. The Mangyshlak highly paraffinic crude oil (chilling temperature 30...32 °С) was pumped along the 1,020 mm heated pipeline. 18 heating stations were built for that purpose. The timely commissioning of this pipeline had allowed to boost oil production more than 10-fold and to reach 20 million tons by 1975. In 1970, construction of the third line of the 820 mm, 580 km Almetjevsk - Gorky line was completed. A pipeline now went from Gorky to Yaroslavl and further on to Kirishi.

At that period, the Druzhba oil pipeline was further prolonged by another 2,000 km, the pipes diameter was basically 1,020 mm. Its total length approached 8,000 km at the expense of parallel lines. By the end of 1970, Druzhba pumped the oils of Tataria, Bashkiria, Udmurtia, Mangyshlak, the Kujbyshev region and Western Siberia. Two new oil pipelines were built in Western Siberia. The 1,020 mm, 950 km Ust-Balyk - Omsk pipeline was put into operation in 1967. Water crossings were laid across the Ob and Irtysh rivers. Due to absence of roads, the pipes were brought to the construction site by means of transport aircraft. The 720 mm, 250 km Nizhnevartovsk - Ust-Balyk oil pipeline was none the worth than the first one, judging by the construction conditions. Its route went across the marshes, big and small rivers, streams and ravines. The 1.8 km crossing across the Ob river was very difficult to construct.

By the end of 1970, three Siberian oil pipelines steadily delivered over 30 million tons of oil to the basic routes and refineries. The total length of pipelines with account of those built in the eighth five-year-plan period was 38.5 thousand km. In 1971-1975, construction of the oil pipelines became even more intensive, and around 19,000 km were built. This was the largest reached figure in all five-year-plan periods. The most noteworthy was construction of the 1,020… 1,220 mm, 2,100 km Ust-Balyk - Ufa - Almetjevsk pipeline commissioned in May 1973. Its construction lasted for 18 months during which the online operations method was used for the first time, which further on became mandatory. It was along this pipeline that the Tyumen oil was brought to the European part of the country and further to the Novorossijsk port along the 1,020… 1,220 mm, 1,550 km Kujbyshev Tikhoretsky - Novorossijsk pipeline commissioned in the same period. In 1973, West Siberia took the leader position in the whole of the USSR in the volumes of oil production, while the latter were still growing. Therefore, year 1974 saw a start of construction of one more 1,120 mm, 2,150 km Nizhnevartovsk - Kujbyshev pipeline in Siberia. The construction of the 1,180 km segment was completed by the end of 1975 and connected by a dam with the Ust-Balyk - Almetjevsk oil pipeline.

The 1,220 mm, 817 km Alexandrovskoje - Anzhero-Sudzhensk was built in Siberia and further prolonged to Irkutsk.

In August 1973, the 377 mm Usa - Ukhta oil pipeline was put into operation in the north of the USSR, in 1975 it was prolonged to Yaroslavl and Moscow, while its total length was 1,850 km. The Druzhba pipeline was further developed. Commissioning of its second phase helped to prolong it up to 10,000 km. In 1976-80, one of the principal challenges was to expand the trunk pipeline network. Only the construction of new and expansion of old pipelines could help to develop the numerous oil fields. 1976 saw the end of construction of the Nizhnevartovsk - Kujbyshev oil pipeline and construction of an oil pipeline going along the so-called Northern Surgut - Polotsk, 1,020 mm, 3,250 km, corridor. The construction was implemented phase-by-phase in 1977-81. 32 pump stations were built along with around 1,450 crossings which helped to overcome on-path natural and artificial blocks, over 400 km of the marshes were overcome. In June 1976, the 820 mm and 250 km long Kholmogory - Surgut oil pipeline was commissioned. Oil from remote Kholmogory fields was brought along this pipeline into the general oil pipeline system.

In 1980-85, the country's oil pipeline network was expanded by 10.6 thousand km of oil pipelines and by 5.8 thousand km of product pipelines. In 1983, the 820 mm, 1,600 km Pavlodar - Chimkent, the 720 mm, 600 km Grozny - Baku pipelines and a segment of the new 1,120 mm, 519 km Kholmogory - Klin pipeline were commissioned.

The new twelfth five-year-plan period was not brought to a finish, the plans of oil pipeline construction were also not fulfilled. The period 1985-90 saw only the end of construction of the oil pipelines, and above all of the pump stations commissioned in the previous five-year-plan period. By 1987, 94 thousand km of the oil and products trunk pipelines were built and commissioned in the USSR. They were managed by the Central Department for Oil Transportation and Supplies (Glavtransneft). It included 16 departments, which by 1990 serviced over 70 thousand km of the oil trunk pipelines. Apart from that, Glavtransneft included the Start-Adjustment Department, Directorate for Construction of Oil Pipelines and other departments. Glavtransneft was responsible for oil supplies to exports.

By 1990, the economic and political changes in the life of the country had led to a stop in construction of the new trunk pipelines. In late 1991, the USSR disappeared from the map of the world. Fifteen new states had distributed between themselves common property, including oil pipelines. The universal oil pipeline system was left only in Russia. In some of the countries only part of the trunk pipelines were left. Other countries were engaged in the Russian oil transit, which was accompanied by complete reorganization of the oil industry, Russia included. Glavtransneft was being reorganized into the Transneft joint-stock company. By that time, Transneft was operating 49.6 thousand km of oil trunk pipelines with diameters 400...1220 mm, 404 pump stations, 934 tankers with the total capacity 13.2 million m3. The operation of the oil pipeline system was implemented by 11 joint-stock companies of the oil trunk pipelines. From 1992, the company rendered services related to the oil transportation in accordance with the tariffs established by the federal executive power structures. The introduction of tariffs had ensured steady operations in the changing economic conditions, whereas all oil producers enjoyed equal rights in their oil transportation along the trunk pipelines. However, the load of АК Transneft trunk pipelines accounted at the time for mere 45% of the planned load.

Year 1992 is believed to be the start of the new epoch in the new Russia's pipeline transportation system.

The 20th century is over now. In the changing political and economic situation in the country, the system of AK Transneft oil trunk pipelines guarantees steady pumping of oil volumes as it is required by the Russian economics.

Provision of environmental safety of the Baltic Pipeline System

Special attention is paid by joint-stock company Transneft to providing highest environmental safety of the BPS's facilities at all stages of the project implementation - from investment planning to production facilities construction and operation.

The fact that the BPS project involves not only Russia's interests but also those of a number of the Baltic and Northern Seas countries, has required to consider the environmental norms and standards of all countries concerned, irrespective of material differences between them, to choose appropriate standards.

Strictest ecological norms have been used in the preparation of the Project Environmental Feasibility Report - be they Russian, European or International. Such approach was simple and easy to understand, helping solve in principle the legal problem of compliance with various environmental standards to satisfy as fully as possible public demands in respect of the environment protection.

In addition to Russian specialists, a number of foreign western companies have been actively involved in the project development - German, Finnish, Danish, Dutch, US and UK. The project has been partially funded by the World Bank and the EU TASIS program.

At the same time, priority has been given to Russian norms, Russia's nature protection legislation being more strict as compared with similar norms of the international ecological organizations and the European Union.

Moreover, basic international documents and agreements have been used in the project preparation, such as

- Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 1998), with amendments as per Protocols 1997, 1998

- Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea, Helsinki, 1974

- Conversion on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea (HELCOM 1992)

- Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context, 1991.

- Convention on Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents, 1992.

- Operational Directive 4.01 of the World Bank. Environmental Assessment, 1991

- Environmental Procedures, EBRD (BDS96-23, Rev.3), 1996.

- Convention on oil pollution preparedness, response and cooperation 1990, as amended by Protocol 1999.

Comprehensive ecological studies have been completed as a result of project work:

Assessment of Environmental Impact procedures within the framework of the BPS have been carried out both under Russian and International standards under the aegis of the IBRD, which fact is being unprecedented and evidencing Transneft's concern over the environment and commitment to solving ecological problems.

In developing the Feasibility Report for the 1st and 2nd stages of the BPS, a set of environmental measures was envisaged in section `Environmental Protection' considering not only the conclusions and recommendations made by various expert bodies but also those resulting from consultations with public.

As a result, a full set of administrative, technical and environmental measures has been developed aimed at minimizing an adverse impact on the environment and diminution of their after-effects on both natural and social environment, such as:

- Optimum route has been chosen providing that 80% of the pipeline should run along the technical corridors of the existing oil- and gas pipelines, which would substantially minimize damage to soil, plants and animals. At the same time, in order to comply with the established norms the route is well distanced from native and water zones and inhabited localities that are being put under special protection by law.

- The tank farms of the oil pumping stations and the tanks of the oil loading terminal are equipped with pontoons and floating tank roofs, diminishing the emissions by 95%-97%. In the construction of the tank farm of the Port of Primorsk, for the first time ever in Russia, a sheet-by-sheet tanks assembling method and higher grade 09U2C steel have been used, the first sheet of 28 mm exceeding by 10 mm the standard made. The corrosion protection of tanks complies with the ISO 8501, the coating used is Amercoat, with a 20-year quality guaranty.

Oil spills non-penetration into soil is guarantied, as surface under the tanks and tanks protective installations are waterproof. Diking is made of reinforced concrete framing, which makes it completely impossible for the oil to overstep the borders of the tank protective installation.

- Directional drilling method has been used in respect of main rivers underwater crossings enabling to eliminate oil penetration into the waterways in emergency situation or adverse impact on the river bed during the pipeline construction. In addition, pipes made of higher strength steel and of higher wall thickness provided with manufacturer's insulation have been used for all of the pipeline sections passing through the water supply points of the Neva river and the Ladoga lake. The helipads are provided along the pipeline route. Electrified gates are installed every 20 km, equipped with telemechanics and automation systems.

- Considering exceptional importance of the Neva river as being the main source of water supply for Saint-Petersburg, micro-tunneling method has been used for laying the underwater crossing to be located 10 m under the washout line, providing for the construction of a 777 m tunnel of 2000 mm reinforced concrete framing; laying a 1220x15.2 mm protective casing in which a 720x16 mm working pipeline is laid equipped with manufacturer's insulation.

The most advanced telemecanics technology is being used - a leakage control system has been installed enabling to immediately discover even the smallest oil leaks. Application of this method having no analog worldwide makes it possible to avoid water pollution in case of emergency.

To provide safe navigation in the area of the oil loading terminal, the port of Primorsk and all access to the port, as well as the fairways and ships are being put under the control of a regional system of navigation control to allow keeping track of tankers movement accurate to 10 m.

A 3.8 sq. km Company's responsibility zone has been established in the waters of the Gulf of Finland. Repair and Recovery Services have been established to eliminate possible oil spills in this territory including 120 highly qualified certified specialists (the IMO certificates). The services are equipped with 11 km of booms and 11 oil-gathering systems to collect 1160 cub.m of spilled oil per hour. In addition, environmental fleet of 7ships has been built including a booms installation boat, an oil skimmer, a sewage collector and an oil tank barge. Icebreaker-type tugs are being built.

The Oil Spills Elimination Plan has been developed and agreed upon with all controlling bodies by Spetzmornefteport Primorsk pursuant to current Russian legislation. Should more than 700 t be spilled, the Plan provides for involvement of regional and federal Emergency Ministry and Ministry of Transport forces. Mathematic modeling of possible scenarios for oil spills behavior has been carried out in various climate regimes. 46 environmental sensitivity maps have been worked out and priority protection zones have been determined.

Fire safe operation of the tank farm and mooring facilities is achieved by the use of an up-to-date automate fire-extinguishing system that can immediately identify any fire that will be extinguished in 10 minutes, irrespective of the fire complexity degree. Specialized fire-fighting service comprised of 47 persons has been established which regularly conducts firefighting and emergency training exercises.

High capacity industrial and sewage waters treatment facilities have been put into operation to prevent the environmental pollution. The unique technology applied by Transneft permits to comply with strict sewage treatment standards for all the range of pollutants.

From the very beginning of operation, an independent eco-analytical laboratory has been put into operation by Spetzmornefteport Primorsk accredited under the RF Gosstandart (the RF State Standards Committee), keeping continuous control over the treating facilities operation, air state and condition of the Gulf of Finland waters and coastal strip.

Decision has been made by Transneft to provide additional environmental control over the state of the isolated ballast waters discharged from tankers in the process of loading the crude oil.

To this end, special regulations have been worked out determining the requirements to the content of the ballast waters and analytical control procedures have been approved, according to which permission by the ecological services for ballast discharge is only given if chemical analysis for all samples are in full compliance with the established oil product content standards - 0.05 mg/cub.m. Today, the port of Primorsk is the only port worldwide where such strict environmental control requirements have been introduced.

After the port began operating, over 6 000 control analyses of ballast waters were carried out and 12 tankers were identified with impermissible pollutant concentrations. 124137 cub.m of dirty ballast water, in sealed tanks, together with the tankers were sent back to the ports of departure.

Prevention of the Baltic Sea waters pollution is also supported by the Regulations of JOINT-STOCK COMPANY AK Transneft containing an explicit prohibition for the tankers that do not comply with the international safe navigation requirements to enter the port of Primorsk to be loaded there.

Number of environmental eco-analytical analyses carried out in the port of Primorsk in 2002-2003

№ Type of eco-analytical control Number of selected samples Total analyses

1 Pooled treated waters flow 101 2525

2 Waters of the port (the Bierkesund Channel) 180 3240

3 Collector and drain waters 78 1589

4 Tankers isolated ballast 6343 6343

5 Industrial emissions 70 437

6 Air of working zone 71 203

7 Soil 32 32

In October 2002, Spetzmornefteport Primorsk obtained the IQNET, EVROCERT (Belgrad) and OQS (Vienna) certificates evidencing that the implemented set of environmental measures was in conformity with the ISO-14000 international ecological standards. In autumn 2003, an international inspection team confirmed the certification.

Today, we are confident that the set of environmental measures that have been taken during the construction of the Baltic Pipeline System and continuously used in its operation will provide in full the environmentally safe functioning of the production facilities, minimizing impact on the environment and, thus, helping harmonize Russia's economy development and environmentally safe living of people.

История трубопроводного транспорта России.

После войны интенсивный рост объемов нефтедобычи в районе между Волгой и Уралом и в новых районах требовал быстрейшего развития транспортных коммуникаций. Уже в четвертой пятилетке были построены новые нефтепроводы. Одним из них стал магистральный нефтепровод Туймазы - Уфа (Нарышево - Уфимский крекинг-завод). Решение о строительстве принял Совет Народных Комиссаров СССР 7 января 1946 года. Институт «Центр-спецпроект» в 1946 году спроектировал нефтепровод протяженностью 182,8 км, диаметром 350 мм, пропускной способностью 2 млн тонн в год, с возможностью ее увеличения до 3 млн тонн в год. На ГУ АС НКВД СССР, позже реорганизованное в Главнефтегазстрой при Совете Министров СССР, возложили строительство.

Подготовка трассы нефтепровода началась 10 апреля 1946 года у деревни Субханкулово. Строительные работы выполнял трест «Востокнефтепроводстрой», монтажные -СМУ-74 треста № 7 Главнефтегазстроя, переходы через водные преграды - Управление подводных работ (ЭПРОН).

Эта стройка была важнейшей в то время. Более 20 тысяч человек работало на строительстве. За два летних месяца 1946 года была вырыта траншея длиной 137 км, это три четверти всей протяженности трассы. Почти вся линейная часть нефтепровода выполнялась вручную: земляные работы, сварка труб, нанесение антикоррозийной битумной изоляции. Трубы укладывали с помощью кранов и треног, но чаще скатывали на дно траншеи деревянными вагами (рычагами). Одновременно строили нефтеперекачивающие станции и жилье в деревнях Нарышево, Субханкулово. Первый котлован вырыли 6 июля 1946 года около деревни Субханкулово и там же 23 августа 1946 года заложили фундаменты под дизельную насосную и жилой комплекс.

Заполнять отдельные участки водой и спрессовывать их начали в мае 1947 года, а опрессовку всего трубопровода закончили в августе, когда заработала нефтеперекачивающая станция «Нарышево», оборудованная поршневыми насосами НГ-30/320 с приводом от электродвигателей мощностью 260 кВт. В процессе опрессовки было обнаружено 44 разрыва трубы, так как Челябинский трубопрокатный завод поставил трубы низкого качества. Закачивая нефть в трубопровод, постепенно вытесняли опрессовочную воду. Первая партия туймазинской девонской нефти прибыла на Уфимский крекинг-завод 3 сентября 1947 года, и с того времени началась ее регулярная поставка. Этот день считается днем рождения системы Урало-Сибирских магистральных нефте- и продуктопроводов. В 1949 году проложили нефтепровод Туймазы - Бугу-руслан, протяженностью 133 км, диаметром 300 мм. Были построены нефтепроводы небольшой протяженности: Ас-саке - Ваковская, Майли - Ассаке, Кумдаг - Вышка в Средней Азии; Войвож - Ухта на Севере; а также в Саратовской и Куйбышевской областях. Добыча туркменской нефти увеличивалась, железнодорожная дорога не справлялась с ее перевозками. Необходимо было продлить нефтепровод Кумдаг - Вышка до Красноводска, и в 1947-1949 годах построили нефтепровод Вышка - Красноводск, протяженностью около 180 км.

В начале 50-х годов нефтедобыча на Ромашкинском месторождении превысила предположения геологоразведчиков. Нефтяники-промысловики еле успевали обустраивать промыслы, сооружать мерники и нефтесбор-ные пункты, прокладывать внутрипромысловые транспортные коммуникации. Нефтяной поток буквально захлестнул междуречье Шешмы и Степного Зая. Существующие нефтепроводы не успевали перекачивать добытую нефть. Поэтому встал вопрос о сооружении вторых ниток нефтепроводов Альметьевск - Карабаш, Карабаш - Ромашкино, Карабаш - Бавлы и Ромашкино - Шугуры - Клявлино. Кроме того, решили проложить дополнительный нефтепровод Альметьевск - Миннибаево - Ромашкино с промежуточной нефтеперекачивающей станцией в Миннибаево. Однако временная схема транспортировки нефти «промысел - нефтепровод - железная дорога (или река) - потребитель» уже не решала проблемы. С возросшими объемами добываемой нефти не справились бы ни железнодорожный транспорт, ни речной танкерный флот.

Надо было изменить принцип транспортировки: перейти к сооружению магистральных нефтепроводов, которые соединили бы промыслы с потребителями нефти - нефтеперерабатывающими заводами или нефтехимическими комбинатами. Приказом министра нефтяной промышленности СССР в марте 1953 года в Бугульме была создана Дирекция магистральных нефтепроводов, строящихся на территории Татарии. Она была подчинена Главному товарно-транспортному управлению министерства, что позволило сразу резко поднять темпы сооружения новых подземных магистралей.

В 1946-1950 годах был подготовлен фундамент для создания трубопроводной системы СССР, которая бы соединила главные пункты нефтедобычи и нефтепереработки с основными районами потребления. К1950 году общая протяженность трубопроводов составила около 5400 км, а к концу 1955 года она увеличилась вдвое и достигла более 10000 км. За пять лет ввели в эксплуатацию столько трубопроводов, сколько их построили с 1878 по 1950 год. В пятой пятилетке сооружены самый крупный нефтепровод Туймазы - Омск, протяженностью 1332 км, диаметром 530 мм (трубы такого диаметра использовали впервые) и нефтепродуктопровод Уфа - Омск, протяженностью 1180 км, диаметром 350 мм.

Согласно Постановлению Совета Министров СССР от 25 мая 1949 года и приказу министра нефтяной промышленности от 31 мая 1949 года, Государственный союзный трест «Центрспецстройпроект» разработал проект второго нефтепровода Туймазы - Уфа. Строительство нефтепровода осуществлялось в несколько очередей. Предполагалось сначала продлить нефтепровод диаметром 350 мм и довести пропускную способность двух нефтепроводов до 4 млн тонн. Потом построить промежуточную станцию перекачки нефти в Языково, увеличив пропускную способность нефтепровода до 5 млн тонн, затем, используя промежуточную станцию для двух нефтепроводов, довести ее до 6 млн тонн в год.

Генподрядчиком строительства второго нефтепровода Туймазы - Уфа был трест «Востокнефтепроводстрой». Строительные и монтажные работы механизировали: земляные работы выполняли экскаваторами и бульдозерами, сварку - газопрессовыми машинами, от ржавчины и загрязнений трубы очищали механическим способом, антикоррозийную изоляцию наносили изоляционными машинами. Второй нефтепровод прокладывали по трассе первого, что позволило вводить нефтепровод в эксплуатацию отдельными участками в качестве лупингов к первому.

В промышленную эксплуатацию нефтепровод Туймазы - Уфа-2 был введен в конце сентября 1950 года.

На первом этапе перекачка по нефтепроводу Туймазы - Уфа производилась дизель-насосной нефтеперекачивающей станцией «Субханкулово». В 1951 году ввели в эксплуатацию электронасосную, оснащенную тремя насосами АЯП-150. Позже установили еще два насоса АЯП. Полной пропускной способности удалось достичь после пуска в 1954 году насосной на промежуточной станции «Языково», оборудованной четырьмя поршневыми насосами НТ-45 с приводом от дизелей «Шкода» 6S-350.

Постановлениями Совета Министров СССР от 30 июня 1947 года и 25 февраля 1948 года разрешалось строительство магистрального продуктопровода Уфа - Омск, диаметром 350 мм.

В 1949 году в Главнефтесбыте Миннефтепрома было создано Управление по строительству бензопровода. Строительство продуктопровода осуществляли тресты «Востокнефтепроводстрой», «Нефтепроводмонтаж» (Уфа) и «Бензинопроводстрой» (Челябинск). Участок Уфа - Челябинск сооружали преимущественно вручную, так как строительная техника того времени не была приспособлена для работы в горных условиях.

В августе 1951 года ввели в эксплуатацию временную перекачивающую станцию в Уфе, участок продуктопровода от Уфы до Бердяуша (Челябинская область) и наливную станцию «Бердяуш» с эстакадой для одновременного налива восьми четырехосных цистерн, с четырьмя резервуарами РВС-2000 и наливной насосной с двумя насосами 5НДВ, а в декабре 1951 года - головную станцию в Уфе с насосной, оснащенной перекачивающими агрегатами 8МБ9х2 и подпорными ЗВ200х2, с товарным парком из 14 резервуаров РВС-4600, изготовленных из «кипящей» стали. Тогда же сдали в эксплуатацию участок Бердяуш - Си-неглазово и станцию «Синеглазово» с наливной эстакадой, насосной с тремя агрегатами 8НДВ и 12 резервуарами РВС-4600, изготовленными из «кипящей» стали. Участок продуктопровода до города Петропавловска был введен в эксплуатацию в 1953 году. В том же году была сдана в эксплуатацию промежуточная станция «Кропачево» и наливная станция «Петропавловск» с эстакадой гале-рейного типа, насосной с двумя агрегатами 8НДВ и резер-вуарным парком из 6 резервуаров РВС-3200 и РВС-2000.

Строительство линейной части продуктопровода (1176 км ) было полностью закончено в 1954 году.

Промежуточную перекачивающую станцию «Петропавловск», оборудованную пятью насосами типа НТ-45 с приводом от дизелей «Шкода» 65-350, ввели в эксплуатацию в 1956 году. Пропускная способность продуктопровода достигла проектной величины - 2 млн тонн. По решению Правительства СССР, предполагалось увеличить пропускную способность продуктопровода до 3,9 млн тонн в год на участке Уфа - Челябинск и до 3,5 млн тонн в год на участке Челябинск - Омск. Для этого были построены перекачивающие станции: в 1957 году - «Аша», «Травники»; в 1959 году - «Хохлы» и «Суслове»; в 1960 году - «Исиль-Куль». С вводом в эксплуатацию этих станций был завершен весь предусмотренный проектами комплекс сооружений первого продуктопровода Уфа - Омск. В конце 40-х - начале 50-х годов было открыто и частично разведано несколько месторождений типа Туйма-зинского и Ишимбайского.

В связи с этим было принято решение о строительстве нефтепровода Туймазы - Омск, его проект утвержден Постановлением Совета Министров СССР 28 марта 1951 года. Трасса шла параллельно первому нефтепроводу Туймазы - Уфа и продуктопроводу Уфа - Омск. Строительство нефтепровода начали в феврале 1952 года. В зимний период производили лишь сварку труб на стационарных установках, а с мая на трассе развернулись земляные и изоляционные работы.

30 декабря 1952 года были приняты в эксплуатацию участок Нарышево - Субханкулово (127 км) и экспериментальная насосная на узле № 1 головных сооружений в Субханкулово. Здесь испытывались вновь созданные насосы 8НД10х5. Участок был подключен в качестве лупинга к первому и второму нефтепроводам Туймазы - Уфа.

В ноябре 1954 года комиссия приняла участок нефтепровода Туймазы - Омск (127 - 261 км), нефтеперекачивающую станцию «Черкассы» и перемычку диаметром 350 мм от головной (город Уфа) нефтепродуктоперекачивающей станции до нефтеперекачивающей станции «Черкассы».

В те же годы построены трубопроводы небольшой протяженности: Шкапово - Ишимбай, Альметьевск -Куйбышев, Бавлы - Куйбышев, Карабаш - Бавлы, Куйбышев - Саратов, Вышка - Красноводск (вторая нитка), Покровское - Сызрань, Миннибаево - Бавлы, Ромашкино -Клявлино, Бугуруслан - Куйбышев, Озек-Суат - Грозный и другие. Нефтепровод Озек-Суат - Грозный, протяженностью 144 км, введен в эксплуатацию в 1955 году. Это первый советский «горячий» нефтепровод - для перекачки высоковязкой нефти с подогревом.

На 1 января 1957 года (год сорокалетия Октябрьской революции) в эксплуатации находилось 11500 км магистральных трубопроводов со 101 перекачивающей станцией.

В 1957 году начинается строительство транссибирской магистрали Туймазы - Иркутск, протяженностью 3662 км, диаметром 720 мм. Трубопровод строили поэтапно: Туймазы - Омск (1332 км); Омск - Новосибирск - Иркутск (1639 км). Первые два участка нефтепровода ввели в эксплуатацию в 1959 году. В том же году завершили строительные работы на втором нефтепродуктопроводе Уфа - Омск, протяженностью 1083 км, диаметром 530 мм. В 1956 году сооружен нефтепровод Альметьевск - Азнакаево - Субханкуло-во, протяженностью 110 км, диаметром 530 мм. По нему альметьевская нефть поступала в Субханкулово и далее в магистраль Туймазы - Омск - Новосибирск. До окончания строительства нефтепровода Альметьевск - Горький, протяженностью 579 км, диаметром 530 мм, нефть перекачивали по первому участку до Чистопольской пристани на реке Каме. Потом ее грузили на танкеры и доставляли на заводы Горького и Ярославля. С пуском всего трубопровода водные перевозки значительно сократились.

В шестой пятилетке построили нефтепроводы Альметьевск - Пермь, протяженностью 446 км, диаметром 350 мм, и небольшие по протяженности Муханово - Куйбышев, Серные Воды - Кротовка, Чекмагуш - Уфа (в будущем часть продуктопровода Уфа - Камбарка), Калтасы -Уфа, Альметьевск - Субханкулово - Орск, Жирное - Волгоград, Кротовка - Куйбышев, Шкапово - Субханкулово, Челекен - Белек, Белек - Красноводск и другие.

Новую жизнь в шестой пятилетке получает уже известный продуктопровод Астрахань - Урбах - Саратов. Он переходит в разряд нефтепроводов и меняет направление перекачки. С развитием нефтеперерабатывающей промышленности в восточных районах отпала потребность поставки нефтепродуктов в эти районы, поэтому загрузка трубопровода снизилась до 30 %. После ввода в эксплуатацию нефтепровода Куйбышев - Саратов от него до насосной станции «Урбах» построили ответвление протяженностью 49 км и стали перекачивать нефть из восточных нефтяных районов на заводы юга. Дальнейшая эксплуатация нефтепровода показала высокую надежность его работы. Железнодорожный транспорт был значительно разгружен. А участок Урбах - Саратов, протяженностью 65 км, стали использовать для перекачки нефти Степановского месторождения.

В 1959 году Совет Экономической Взаимопомощи принял решение о строительстве магистрального нефтепровода из СССР в Польшу, Чехословакию, ГДР и Венгрию. Равных этому нефтепроводу в мире не было. Общая протяженность нефтепровода со всеми ответвлениями превышала 6000 км. Он начинался в Куйбышевской области (НПС «Лопатино») и около города Мозыря (Белоруссия) делился на две части. Северная часть, протяженностью 700 км, проходила через Польшу в ГДР, южная (400 км) - через Чехословакию в Венгрию. Предполагали построить еще одно ответвление до порта Вентспилс. Каждая страна должна была поставить необходимые для строительства нефтепровода материалы, машины и оборудование. Все строительные работы были механизированы. Было уложено более 730 тысяч тонн труб диаметром 530, 630, 720, 820 и 1020 мм. Для обеспечения нормальной работы нефтепровода построили 31 насосную станцию с полностью автоматизированным управлением.

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