The usage of phraseological units with color components in English and Ukrainian

The nature of onomastic component phraseological unit and its role in motivating idiomatic meaning; semantic status of proper names, the ratio of national and international groups in the body phraseology. Phraseological units with onomastic component.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 08.12.2015
Размер файла 16,5 K

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Learning idioms is an actual problem of modern linguistics. As the phraseology of science emerged only in the early twentieth century, even today there are many unresolved issues in this area. In particular, the quests domestic and foreign scholars dedicated onomastic phraseology (Betehtina K., A. Kravchuk, N. Lalayan, G. Manushkina, V. Mokienko, O. Moroz, O. Safronov, L. Stepanova et al.), Filed first of all, a general description of the test material or covered some aspects of the material of a particular language. Still have not made generally accepted theoretical approaches for dealing with such controversial issues as the nature of onomastic component phraseological unit and its role in motivating idiomatic meaning; semantic status of proper names, the ratio of national and international groups in the body phraseology of onomastic component.

Phraseology (from the Greek phrasis - expression, logos - teaching) - a branch of linguistics, which studied indivisible lexical collocation. Also called a set of phraseology peculiar language of established phrases and expressions.

Phraseology at present developed as a separate branch of linguistics. If 50 years of the twentieth century, linguists believe that it is still in a state of "covert" development, now we can say that the phraseology rightly took place independent linguistic discipline. Causes of lexicology in the Wake understandable - the last word, and studying its meaning, while studying phraseology combination of words (phraseological units, phraseological compound idioms), where the value of the entire unity of words is different from the sum of the values of the components that comprise it. For example: idiom "Dutch auction" means no auction, which takes place in the Netherlands and specialized auction of lower prices until they find a buyer for the goods (as well "Dutch courage" (bravery drunk), "Dutch comfort" (small consolation) "Dutch treat" (dangerous pleasure), reflecting the historically established certain traits and customs of the people).

Bold phraseology as science advances primarily driven by domestic scientists. According to FA Berezin, "the work of Russian and Ukrainian linguists in the last quarter of the nineteenth century can be interpreted as a qualitatively new stage in the development of European linguistics, who discovered the important provisions of modern linguistic science," As you know, the first attempt to include in the dictionary "and frazesy idiomatyzmy "that the values of similar words can be found in the works of M. University.

Based on the study of phraseology inherent in exploration and AA Potebni FI Buslaeva, PF Fortunatova, AA Chess, IA Baudouin de Courtenay, LV Scherba, II Sreznevsky and ED Polivanova. Linguistic legacy of the scientists in the field of phraseology served as the basis for its further study.

There are three main periods of development of the theoretical foundations of phraseology as linguistic science [3, p. 8]. The first is the period when works, MI Michelson (1903-1904), Charles Bally (1905), S. Abakumov (1936) to the works of V. Vinogradov.

The second period is relatively small, of studios V. Vinogradov (1946-1947) to the works of BO Larin (1956) and OI Smirnitskaya (1956).

Third period - from OI Smirnitskaya so far, where you can allocate labor, NM Amos (1962-1963), AV Kunin (1964, 1970, 1972), II Chernyshev (1964, 1970), M. Kopylenko (1967), A. Babkin (1968, 1970), VP Zhukov (1968, 1978). The third period, which began in 1963, is nayzmistovnishym in the history of phraseology. It is characterized by the activity of the most active researchers within the phraseology of science. In this period, domestic linguistics searches differential features of PI.

It should be emphasized that a significant impact on the phraseology was phraseological concept Viktor Vinogradov, who more than twenty years was the main among other phraseological research. Only in 1963, in intelligence, NM Amos she was subjected to critical analysis, which nevertheless does not reduce the theoretical value of the works by Vinogradov in phraseology.

In modern society, when the resurgent national consciousness of the people, the study PI as symbolic means of material and spiritual understanding of the world a certain ethnic group is of particular interest to researchers who demonstrate particular, exploration of such scholars as BM Azhnyuk, AV Burda-Lassen, E. Vereshchagin, LI Danilenko, V. Notes on, OP Levchenko, NV Lyubchuk, AP Prorochenko, VM Telia, YA Firsov.

Over the past decade, the theory of phraseology has made considerable progress, developed and refined a number of criteria for FD, created many classification schemes of distribution; actively conducting research on the structural and semantic properties of phraseology and their functioning in the language, gradually solved the problem ideographic description idiomatic of different languages and so on.

At this stage there is a desire to linguists holistic knowledge about the object to the synthesis of various sciences through understanding the explanation of language is impossible without the involvement of the scientific potential of different disciplines.

Phraseological units with onomastic component

Functioning of onyms in phraseological units was always the subject of researcher's consideration. In Modern English the phraseological units with onomastic component were researched already especially the phraseological units of biblical origin. The role of onyms in formation of whole phraseological meaning is found in studies of H.Manushkina in 70 years of the last century. However, many problems have not yet been solved.

The issue of structural and semantic systematization of English phraseological units with onomastic component still unresolved. The functional aspect of language units and their national-cultural specificity is not clarified sufficiently. The analysis was carried out without the extensive system of onyms in these studies. onomastic phraseological idiomatic semantic

`Onyms are the secondary, specific names that supplement and clarify the primary, general name and serve to distinguish the name of one kind.

Local labellness is determined relatedness of linguistic units to certain variant of English language. This concept acquires the features of extralinguistic dependency and is interpreted as the ability of the phraseological units to reflect the material conditions of people life, the geography of the country, its history, culture and reality.

Phraseology is the most specific and national labeled branch of linguistics. The specificity of phraseological units very often is caused by extralinguistic factors which according to O. Kunin, `preserved in their imagery'.

Phraseological fund - is not only the language but also the cultural and historical heritage of every people. The linguists have access to important information about the people - a native speaker through investigation of phraseological units. Sometimes it is not enough to know only phraseological unit, you need to know what it stands for; it should be considered in connection with the culture of the country and its history.

Local labellness is a direct expression of sociolinguistic factors in phraseological units with onomastic component.

The analysis of phraseological units with onomastic component suggests that expressions of the same structure, the same onomastic component have different semantic load or connotations. Investigated phraseological units can be divided into the following groups, such as:

I. Human and society.

1) Appearance, physical and physiological characteristics of a person, e.g.: Beau Brummel - "красунчик, чепурун, дженджик"; Sloppy Joe - "нечепура, неохайна людина"; plain Jane - "неприваблива жінка";

2) Personality and traits of character, e.g.: doubting Thomas - "Хома невірний, скептик"; lazy Lawrence - "ледащо, нероба"; as wise as Solomon - "дуже мудра людина"; Barbie Doll - "приваблива, але дурна людина";

3) Emotions and feelings of the person, e.g.: as happy (pleased) as Punch - "задоволений; радий як дитина"; as happy as Larry - "щасливий, задоволений";

4) Financial position and financial relations, e.g.: as rich as Croesus - "дуже багата людина"; to rob Peter to pay Paul - "позичити гроші в однієї людини, аби розплатитися з іншою";

5) Socio-professional or national identity of people, their social status, e.g.: Jack in office - "чиновник"; girl Friday - "асистентка в офісі з низьким службовим становищем"; G.I. Joe - "американський солдат";

6) Relationships in society, e.g.: What will Mrs Grundy say? - "що скажуть люди?"; to keep up with the Joneses - "намагатися бути не гірше за інших"; to astonish the Browns - "зробити виклик суспільству";

7) Marriage and family relationships, e.g: Gretna Green marriage - "шлюб між закоханими, що втекли"; Darby and Joan - `старе подружжя"; Lares and Penates - "родинний добробут, домашнє вогнище";

8) Language and communication, e.g.: double Dutch - "абсолютно незрозуміла мова"; in plain English - "простою мовою"; to be Greek to someone - "бути незрозумілим для когось";

to pardon (excuse) someone's French - "вибачати комусь вживання лайливих слів";

9) The actions and human behavior, e.g.: to cross the Rubicon - "зробити рішучий крок"; to climb one's Golgotha - "прийняти страждання";

10) Socio-economic and political events and institutions, e.g.: Madison Avenue - "рекламна індустрія США"; Wall Street - "американський фінансовий ринок";

11) Anthroponym, e.g.: the Swan of Avon - "Вільям Шекспір"; old (or honest) Abe - "старий Ейб (прізвисько американського президента Авраама Лінкольна)".

II. Objects and phenomena of the material world

1) Subjects, e.g.: Teddy bear - плюшеве ведмежа; Jack Johnson - важкий снаряд; California blankets - "каліфорнійські ковдри" (газети, якими вкриваються безхатченки, які ночують у парках);

2) Constructions and their parts, e.g.: Big Ben - "Біг-Бен, "Великий Бен""; French window - "вікно, що доходить до підлоги";

3) Names of things and symbols, e.g.: Jolly Roger - "піратський прапор"; the blue Peter - "прапор відплиття, прощання"; Union Jack - "прапор Великобританії".

4) Substances and minerals, e.g.: French chalk -"тальк"; Adam's ale - "вода"; Dutch gold - "сплав міді й цинку"; German silver - "сплав міді, цинку та нікелю";

5) Food and drinks, e.g.: Yorkshire pudding - "йоркширський пудинг"; Colchester natives - "устриці"; John Barleycorn - "спиртний напій"; Russian tea - "чай із лимоном".

6) Animals, plants and natural phenomena, e.g.: Jerusalem pony - "віслюк"; Dutch nightingale - "жаба"; mother Carey's chicken - "буревісник"; the bird of Jove - "орел"; the bird of Washington - "американський орел"; Brussels sprout - "брюссельська капуста"; Mother Carey is plucking her geese - "іде сніг".

III. Abstract concepts, e.g.: Alpha and Omega - "початок і кінець, сутність"; Hamlet with Hamlet left out - "щось позбавлене своєї суті".

IV. Time attitudes and characteristics, e.g.: a month of Sundays - "дуже тривалий час"; when two Sundays come together (in one week) - "ніколи".

V. Spatial features, e.g.: from Dan to Beersheba - "повсюди, від одного куточка країни до іншого"; garden of Eden - "райський куточок"; Tom Tiddler's ground - "нічийна земля, спірна територія".

There are phraseological units (toponyms) with onomastic component which contain a special subgroup, e.g.: the mistress of Adriatic - "Венеція"; the Western Babylon - "Рим"; perfidious Albion - ""підступний Альбіон" (про Англію)"; the Queen City of the Pacific - ""перлина Тихого океану" (м. Сан-Франциско)".

VІ. Other meaning, e.g.: the last of the Mohicans - останній представник явища, що відмирає; Jack in the (low) cellar - дитина, яка ще не народилася, дитина в утробі матері.

Phraseological units have some kind of proper names and may act in relation of synonyms, for example: Paul Pry - a Nosey Parker (надміру цікава людина, яка повсюди пхає свого носа); Joe Doakes - Joe Blow - every Tom, Dick and Harry - Brown, Jones and Robinson; Sloppy Joe - messy Marvin; as happy (pleased) as Punch - as happy as Larry; as old as Charing Cross - (as) old as Adam.

Some phraseological units can act like contextual synonyms, e.g.: Pandora's box - Trojan horse; the Gordian knot - a Chinese puzzle; the vicar of Bray (безпринципна людина, пристосуванець) - Jack of both sides (людина, яка служить і нашим і вашим).

The phenomena of antonomacy can be observed in the system of investigated units, e.g.: in Queer Street - on Easy Street та clever Dick (розумник) - a proper Charlie (дурень, дурний як колода).

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