The Olympic Games

The concept of the Olympic Games as a religious and sporting event. The Olympic flame as one of the main symbols of the Games. Principles, Rules and Regulations Game defined by the Olympic Charter and the International Athletic Congress in Paris in 1894.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 30.10.2013
Размер файла 16,5 K

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1. Olympics

1.1 History

The concept of the Olympic Games come to us from ancient Greece. And they were a religious and sports festival, held in Olympia. The cult of the body typical of the time, demanded that the people are very good shape. The inhabitants of ancient Greece were going to show both strength and beauty. Even then, people started to play sports, to maintain his good physical fitness. Competition winners honored as heroes in the war. Actual start of the Olympic Games belongs to the 776 BC. and were established by Heracles. But the games were held in the past. Time passing games in Greece was considered sacred. At that time it was impossible to conduct any military action, although this ban was repeatedly violated.

First thirteen games were only one kind of competition. Is running on one stage, in line with the length of the six steps of the priest of Zeus. According to legend, Hercules himself measured out the distance in Olympia, and it was equal to 192 meters 27 centimeters. There was so familiar to us the word "stadium".

With the approach of the Olympic Games from Elis to the ends sent messengers, who declared "sacred truce". Their power was to stop the war. But to participate in the Games, not by anyone. It was forbidden to participate in the Olympics slaves, foreigners, that is, persons not citizens of the Greek states, criminals, done the crime or sacrilege. Only freeborn Greeks could take part in the Games. But a complex system of rules for participation, shown to the participants actually severely limited capacity to be competition. Under the rules of the Olympic Games, women should not have been present at the Games on pain of death. Disobedient dropped from a high rock, which stands on the banks of Alpheus. There was only one case where a woman was spared. That was the legendary Kallipatera or as it was called, Ferenika. Her son participated in the Games and won. Mother dressed in male clothes and made his way among the audience, could not help it, and ran to his son's neck, to congratulate here and opened her deception disguise. But the judge did not find the strength to condemn it, because she was the daughter of the champion, the champion's sister and mother champion. But all the spectators in the immediate vicinity of the participants, since had to be naked.

In time for the race to add other kinds of competitions: a double jogging - dolihodrom, at a distance of 384.54 meters, in 708 BC appeared simple pentathlon, consisting of a simple running, long jump, and javelin throwing, wrestling. In five Olympics, in 688 BC. The program included fights, through the following two - chariot races, and in 648 BC. appeared the most difficult and the most brutal competition - Pankration, including techniques of boxing and wrestling. Later in the program of the Games have been included in the armament race, running trumpeters and heralds, race chariots pulled by mules, competitions for children to combat, racing, pentathlon, and in 200 BC, to 145 Olympiad, pankration was approved for children .

The first day of the competition took place in all types of racing, the second - the pentathlon, and the third - fighting, fighting and pankration. The fourth day was completely at the disposal of the children. Running distance they had 2-fold lower. On the fifth day of competitions held chariot drawn by four horses in a circle at 1538 meters and 14 kilometers. And ends with a series of grandiose Olympics banquets, which were held in turn by each state that participated in the Games.

But with the advent of Christianity the idea of the Olympic Games announced a manifestation of paganism and virtually prohibited by Theodosius I. Organized in 884 BC. Ifit King on the advice of the Delphic oracle for political purposes, games have died in 394 by Emperor Theodosius I, followed the advice of another saint - Ambroise. And just for the political. In the name of Christ and the faith were burned and destroyed the magnificent temples and works looted, destroyed, destroyed by people at first, and later after the earthquake, which appeared suddenly flooded shores of rivers and disappeared under the sand and silt completely.

1.2 Olympic traditions

Olympic flame - this is one of the main symbols of the Olympic Games. It lit in Ancient Greece. It was considered as a reminder of the heroism of Prometheus, who stole fire from Zeus and gave it to people. This tradition was revived in 1928. Electricity company employee Amsterdam lit the first Olympic flame in the bowl of Marathon tower at the stadium in Amsterdam and since this ritual is repeated at the beginning of each Olympic Games, where they do not pass. Fire extinguished at the closing ceremony of the Games.

It is considered the modern tradition of providing the fire to the venue of the competition symbolic relay race that originated in Greece, and passing through the five continents. But the tradition was initiated at the Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936. The idea was developed by Carl Dimom relay, General Secretary of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympic Games.

Another attribute of the modern Olympic Marks is the motto of the Olympic Games - it gendriatis (figure of speech, in which three words are used to express the same idea.) Citius, Altius, Fortius - translated from Latin - Faster, higher, stronger. The motto was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin in the creation of the International Olympic Committee in 1894. The motto was represented at the Olympic Games in Paris in 1924.

Olympic rings - it is also an example of modern traditional symbols Olympics. It is presented in the form of five interlaced rings in different colors - blue, yellow, black, green, red on white background. Symbols also designed by Pierre Coubertin, but already in 1912. The five rings represent the five communities of the world, taking part in the Olympic and sports movement.

In 1913, the International Olympic Committee proposed and developed by Pierre de Coubertin, the text of the Olympic oath, which is traditionally pronounced as a ritual in ancient Greece. Oath of honor reads: "On behalf of all competitors I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules by which they are held, in true sporting spirit, for the glory of sport and the honor of their team." Olympic oath was first uttered at the Olympic Games in 1920. Utter an oath to honor Olympic National Olympic Committee honors usually one of the outstanding athletes.

1.3 The modern Olympic Games

After the ban of the ancient Olympic Games competitions idea has not disappeared altogether. It is known that in England during the XVII century often held "Olympic" contests and competitions. Later similar events organized in France and Greece. These activities were not particularly significant and visible character. But the first real precursor of the modern Olympic Games are considered "Olympia" are held regularly in the period from 1859 to 1888. The idea of reviving the Olympic Games in Greece belonged to the poet Panagiotis Sutsosu. But the idea embodied in the life of a public figure Evangelis Zappas.

In the excavations at ancient Olympia were discovered sports and temple buildings. And in 1875, archaeological research and excavations were continued under German leadership. Desire to revive the Olympic movement and the culture has spread rapidly across Europe. French Baron Pierre de Coubertin seeks to change the poor physical condition, improving physical fitness French. At the same time he is trying to overcome national egoism and to contribute to the struggle for peace and international understanding. His position was to take on the enemy in sports, and not on the battlefield. The most simple and fast to achieve these goals and objectives was to revive the Olympic Games. At the congress, held in June 1894 at the Sorbonne (University of Paris), Pierre de Coubertin presented their ideas of the world public. And thanks to his performance, it was decided that the first modern Olympic Games to be held in 1896 in Athens, in the country ancestor Games - Greece. In order to organize the Games, founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Vikelas Demetrius, a Greek, was the first President of the Committee. They remained until the end of the Olympic Games I in 1896. A Baron Pierre de Coubertin became the general secretary.

The first modern Games were indeed a success. In those games attended 241 athlete from 14stran. Games have gained immense popularity in the world and has become the largest sporting event like after the days of Ancient Greece. Greek officials were extremely pleased and suggested the idea of "eternal" of the Games in their home country, Greece. But the IOC has introduced rotating between different states, so that every four years Games were held in different places.

But not everything went smoothly, and evolved in the history of the modern Olympic Games. After initial success, the Olympic movement has experienced the first crisis ever. The Olympic Games in 1900 in Paris (France) and in 1904 in St. Louis (Missouri, USA) were combined with the World's Fair. Sporting events almost never used interest of the audience, the organization was very bad, and many athletes are simply not able to get to the games and take part in them on the organizational and technical reasons. Therefore, at the Olympic Games in 1906 in Athens (Greece) again came out on top. IOC initially recognized and supported the holding of these "intermediate Games." But at present these are not recognized by the Olympic Games. olympic game sporting athletic

The modern Olympic Games are a major international multi-sport event of our time, which is held every four years. Principles, rules and regulations of the Olympic Games are defined by the Olympic Charter, the foundations of which were approved by the International Athletic Congress in Paris in 1894. Olympic countdown started from the time of the first games (I Olympiad - 1896 year). Even if the game does not take place, the Olympics gets its own number, for example VI Games in 1916, XII Games in 1916 and in 1944 year XIII. Besides the Olympic sports, the organizing committee has the right to choose to include a demonstration event on 1-2 sports not recognized IOC. Olympic venue chooses IOC, the right of their organization provided the city, not the country. The title of Olympic champion is the most honorable and desirable in the athlete's career. This recognition of his skill in their sport at the world level and these achievements are in the world history of the sport forever.

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