Practical usage of british and american english in newspapers and magazines

Grammatical, phonetic, lexical differences in using British and American English. Practical comparison of the lexical usage of British and American English in newspapers and magazines. Analysis of the main grammatical peculiarities of British English.

26.04.2016
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CONTENTS

lexical english newspaper grammatical

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1. THE MAIN PECULIARITIS OF BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

1.1 Phonetic differences between British and American English

1.2 Grammatical differences in using British and American English

1.3 Lexical differences of British and American English

CHAPTER 2. PRACTICAL USAGE OF BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH IN NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES

2.1 Practical comparison of the lexical usage of British and American English in newspapers and magazines

2.2 Analysis of the main grammatical peculiarities of British and American English in newspapers and magazines

CONCLUSION

LITERATURE

APPENDIX 1

APPENDIX 2

APPENDIX 3

APPENDIX 4

INTRODUCTION

In our world, there are thousands of different languages, but only one can claim to be a more or less universal and it is English. Nowadays in the world of constant international communication a lot of people are interested in question where is British English or American English. At the same time to get the clear picture it is important to analyze these variants of English through different aspects: lexically, grammatically and phonetically.

British English is also known as Queen English that is mostly spoken and written in Great Britain. At the same time it has various dialects in various parts of the British Isles. American English is also known as the American English. It is mostly spoken and written in the United States of America. At the same time, we have to admit that American English is used by a lot of people. We cannot call American English as the dialect, because it has a literary standard normalized from calling American Standard.

The topicality of research is determined by the necessity of analyzing British and American English.

The object of the research paper is British and American English.

The subject of the research paper is the peculiarities of British and American English.

Scientific novelty of the paper: we have investigated the main peculiarities of British and American English in practice in such spheres of life as newspapers and magazines and indicated their main phonetic, grammatical and lexical language differences to improve our understanding of these languages.

The aim of this research paper is to determine the main differences of British and American English languages.

To achieve the aim of the research paper, we are necessary to do the following tasks:

to study the main phonetic differences of British English and American English;

to study the main grammatical differences of British English and American English;

to study the main lexical differences of British English and American English;

to analyze the main phonetic, grammatical and lexical peculiarities of British and American English on the basis of newspapers and magazines.

The theoretical value of this work is: the investigated material can be used in the process of studying such subjects as useful Phonetics, Grammar and Lexicology.

The practical value of the research paper is: the correct using of the phonetic, grammatical and lexical units taken from printed mass media in our communication.

The structure of the research paper is the following: Introduction, Chapter 1, where we investigated three theoretical questions as Phonetic differences between British and American English, Grammatical differences of British and American English and Lexical differences of British and American English. Chapter 2, where we discuss two practical questions: Practical comparison of the lexical usage of British and American English in newspapers and magazines and analysis of the main grammatical peculiarities of British and American English on the basis of the newspapers and magazines. At the end of the paper we make some Conclusions and put the list of references.

CHAPTER 1. THE MAIN PECULIARITIES OF BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

1.1 Phonetic differences between British and American English

It is important to mention that there are certain differences between American and British English in phonetic and in spelling. The precondition of such differences occurred in times when England was under the control of France. At that time English language was forbidden to use and people had to speak French. That is why, till present times, British English has a lot of words from the French origin. For example: onion, garage, caf, etc. In American English words are spoken practically the same as they phonetically sound. Still, Americans like omit some letters. [3, 26]

In Great Britain speakers more often use words with suffix -our and the Americans like to use words with suffix -or, leaving the u out. For example, the words colour, humour and honour in British English will be found in American written like color, humor and honor.

In British English there are words those end with ending -re, for example, theatre, centre, etc. The same stands for the British words are ending with -re for example, center, theater, etc. Moreover, for American English it is common to use two or even three vowels together and simplify them in pronunciation, for example, gynecology. [4, 30]

There are the common differences in phonetic system between British and American English:

In British English speakers pronounce letter r, when it is used after vowel. American speakers pronounce letter r in any position in the word.

sorry   /s?r?/

Final sound 

Speaking about the sound ?, it pronounced in British English as well as in American English very weak.

teacher   /ti:t??r/ it sounds similar to  /ti:t?? / (but in the phonetic transcription we still use an : /ti:t??/)

vowel  

This vowel is more open in American English than in British one. [app. 1]

The vowel 

This vowel is more close in American English that in British English.

The consonant T

According to the phonetic rules of British English, the consonant / t / sounds / t / in front of a vowel or between vowels. In American English it sounds the same.

tourist   /t?:r?st/  /t?:r?st/

Peter   /pi:t?/  /pi:t?r/

Pronunciation of letter -u

The letter U in British English sometimes sounds as (fun, must, run) and very often it sounds / ju: / (tube, music, stupid).

In American English it is common to pronounce this letter as  (but, fun, must), but for many of the words with / ju: /, they use the vowel 

stupid   /stju:p?d/  /stu:p?d/

The vowel 

Basing on the British rules of pronunciation, we can say, that this sound is something between  and , in American English the same sound is pronounced longer and almost similar to.

Short and Long vowels

In British variant of English all the vowels are classified as short (   , etc.) and long (   , etc.). In American English they are similar as in British. [19]

Intonation

Another important difference between British and American English is intonationn. In the process of speaking and communication our voice goes up and down. When British people speak, their voice can go very high and very low. When American people speak their voice is quite flay, they do go up and down but not so much. So, the effect is that British people sing a lot, and American people sound much more monotonous by comparison.

1.2 Grammatical differences of British and American English

We distinguished the main peculiarities of British and American English from the lexical point of view. But at the same time, we have to say that grammar of these two variants of English is also different and has some specific features. We usually add ending -ed to the verb when we form the Past Simple. Tense and do not use the particle to. The examples are waited (to wait), cooked (to cook), worked (to work), played (to play) and watched (to watch). But at the same time there are a number of irregular verbs, such as had (to have), made (to make), did (to do). Verbs like smell learn and spell belongs to another category. To these verbs we can either add -ed or

-t. In American English, the regular -ed form is always used in the past participle of the verbs like lean (leaned), learn (learned), smell (smelled), spell (spelled), and often used with the verbs burn (burned) and dream (dreamed). These verb forms also can be used in British English, but as a rule British speakers use the forms leant, learnt, smelt, spelt, burnt and dreamt [app. 2]. From everything above mentioned, we realize that they use irregular verb forms. Still, we have to mention that there are some verbs that are regular in British and irregular in American English [16, 40].

When we want to express already happened action and stress on the result in both variants and English, we use Present Perfect Tense. For example, I have bought a new car.We have already done our homework. If we analyze the American variant, we shall hear the sentences like: I bought a new car. We done our homework. But such variants will be incorrect from the British English [18, 35].

To indicate the Present Perfect Tense, we can use the following adverbs: just, already, ever, never, since, for. But these adverbs have different positions in the sentences of British and American English. In British English we have to put the adverb after the auxiliary verb and in American English it can stand before or after auxiliary verb. For example: I have already had dinner. (British English) and I already have had dinner. (American English).

While our investigation, we saw that people who speak British English use Present Perfect Tense more often than those who speak American English. Mainly it depends on the time view.

Speaking about Future Simple in both variants of English, we have to say that it is typical to use the verb shall for the expression of future plans and events in British English. Whether in American English they do not use shall for future actions or plans. They use the verb will. For example, I shall come today.(British English) and I will come today.(American English) [17, 56].

One more grammatical difference of British and American English is in words shall and should. For example, when you want to express your opinion, to ask for advice or to make some offer it is more evident to use the verb shall in British English. Speaking about the same things, but in connection to American English, the verb should is more appropriate. For example Shall I open the window? (British English) and Should I close the door? (American English)

Another difference of these two languages is in words have and take. The common verb for British English is have. They use it in various constructions and set phrases, for example: have a shower, have dinner, have fun, etc. For American English more frequent is the verb take. A lot of set phrases, idioms and word combinations are used with take. For example, take a shower, take a nap, take rest, etc. [4, 20].

Another grammatical difference is in the noun forms. The reason is that singular nouns which used to describe multiple people are treated as plural, but in fact they use the singular form. Speaking about American English, such nouns are used in singular form. For example, The volleyball team are strong. (British English) and The team is strong (American English.)

In the process of our investigation, we also saw that in American English they use the plural noun form in case when the individual membership is clear. For example, The team won. [4, 32].

There are several differences in the usage of adverbs. As a rule the adverb is used to modify the verb, adjective or another adverb. It has the function of informing about the manner, circumstances, time, peculiarities denoted by the verb. In simple daily American language it is common to use adjective as an adverb. For example, a real good film. But in the formal language of both British and American English we normally use adverbs, for example: a really good film.

There are a few peculiar features in the usage of adverbs in British English and American English. For example, the word with can also be used as an adverb in American English: I will come with instead of I will come along, in British English it is not appropriate. Moreover, it is common to add suffix -s to the following words in American English: Sunday (or any other day of week), morning, evening, day, night etc. [8, 43].

Speaking about the position of adverbs there are also several specific points. For example, in American English we can put adverbs in different positions: before and after auxiliary verb. But the sentence will have the similar meaning. For example, We will never visit Spain. or We never will visit Spain. Both variants, for American English are right. Speaking about British English we have to say that adverbs of frequency have three common places:

after auxiliary verb: I don't usually sad.;

before the common verb: I usually buy bread at the supermarket.;

between the auxiliary and common verb: I don't usually cook by myself.

There are several distinctive aspects in the usage of adjectives. Some adjectives of British English have different meaning with the adjectives of American English. The example is the adjective quite. In American variant it means very and in British variant it means somewhat. [8, 35]

Speaking about the possession, nowadays exist two variants of its expression possession in English: you could either use have or have got. Both forms are right as in American English as well as in British English. Still, Americans mostly use have and British speaker use have got. But have got is preferred in British English while Americans prefer to use have. For example: I have got a big family (British English) and I have a big family (American English). [2, 23]

Analyzing everything above mentioned, we can say, that there are a lot of differences between British and American English from the grammatical point of view. Still, it isn't difficult to remember those differences as well as understand them. [app. 2]

1.3 Lexical difference of British and American English

It is known that more than 300 million people speak English as the native language. From these 300 million, nearly 200 million live in the USA and nearly 50 million live in the UK. Speaking about the total number of English speakers, it constantly rises and now it is more than 700 million people all over the world. At present time, American English is particularly influential and essential. There are many other varieties of English all over the world.

For example, Canadian English, Australian English, South African English, New Zealand English, Indian English and Caribbean English. Among the different variants of English two the best known are American English and British English. We have to admit, that there is a number of differences in these two variants. To be consistent in the use of English, and more importantly, to be understood, the nonnative speaker needs to know which words have distinct meanings and pronunciations depending on whether they are used by an Englishman or an American [3, 15]. It is important not only for the productive and successful communication, but also to avoid embarrassment. Thanking to the consideration the main difference between British and American English, we have to talk about their vocabulary.

The great number of differences in vocabulary between British English and American English are in connection with the concepts originating from the 19th century to the mid 20th century. It was the time when new words were coined independently.

Generally speaking, the vocabulary of these two varieties of English can be very confusing and sometimes even embarrassed. Mostly the problems appear with the words that are used in order to describe the same types of things. When British and American people meet, the first and the most obvious difference is their accent and pronunciation of the words. But the detailed, dipper and more convenient if there is the lexical difference [12, 21]. The difference in vocabulary gives the opportunity to talk about two different languages. Very often the same words are used in different ways and in different contexts. For example the word railroad tie, it is an American word and British equivalent is railway sweeper. There are cases when two different words have quite clear similar meaning, for example, American word luggage and British word baggage. Moreover we have to admit, that there are some words that are common for one language and unknown for the other. The vivid examples are the words soppy and row. They are in American vocabulary, but people do not use them. But these words are very popular in British English. Still, there are a number of words that retained in British English, but still alive in American English. The bright example of such words are fortnight and constable, fall etc. [7, 34]

We have to understand that language does not stand on one place; it changes and develops through the generations. One of the most important social groups in the process of language evolution is youth. Young people more often do some experiments with the language. They are using slang, as well as idiomatic expressions, set phrases, deviant spelling and so on.

At the same time, we have to admit that those who made a decision to study English language as the foreign one have to choose whether he/she prefers British or American variant. Still, many schools, colleges and universities usually choose British English. Just a few years ago, some schools began to teach American English. Moreover, to avoid misunderstanding it is better to know the main lexical changes of there two variants of English. [1, 48]

In the process of our investigation, we studied that American people have their own character that has peculiar differences of British people. Firstly, they are more effective and pragmatic. In this way, a lot of common English colloquialisms from different times are American in origin. For example, words as: OK, darn, hot, cool, doing great, hang, gnarly, hip, gross, fifty-fifty, way back etc. At the same time some English words are in general use, such as: disc jockey, hijacking, boost, jazz, bulldoze etc. [2, 54]

We can say that American English frequently uses substantives as verbs and form of compound words. For example, the following nouns can also be used as verbs: vacuum, interview, lobby, mail, buffalo, advocate, skyrocket, transition, pressure, corner, major, vacation, backpack, factor, service etc.

Compounds coined in the U.S. are for instance flatlands, landslide, badlands, side hill, foothill, overview, teenager, bandwagon, upfront, front man.

Nowadays we have many different online sources that offer useful and clear comparisons between British and American lexicon. For example we can use the Macmillan English Dictionary Magazine 2004 and James Smith's American to British Dictionary. Both of the dictionaries have been very useful for this work. However, the problem is that before dealing directly with speakers of the other variety, some people do not even think that there are any divergences, apart from pronunciation. In particular, attention must be paid to false cognates. For instance, British English `suspenders' are called `garters' in US English, which use `suspenders' for the British `braces'. This also occurs for American `shorts' that are British `underpants'; American `pants' are British `trousers'. Naturally, awareness of lexical differences is not only for sake of linguistic curiosity: globalization has increased the possibility of interaction between speakers of the two varieties, and thus the issue has urged the attention of attention of professional linguists and translators, due to a considerable demand of the market. The following sections will briefly give a description of lexical differences in the fields of housing, transport, shopping, food, and numerical systems, as part of everyday language that could be quite confusing [1, 27].

To get the clear picture of vocabulary differences between British English and American English we made the following tables. [app. 3, 4]

Vocabulary Clothes

British English

American English

Wellington Boots / Wellies

Galoshes

Pinafore Dress

Jumper

Jumper / Pullover / Sweater /Jersey

Sweater

Pants / Underwear / Knickers

Underwear / panties

Vest

Undershirt

Trousers

Pants

Waistcoat

Vest

Swimming costume / Cozzy

Bathing Suit

Trainers

Sneakers

Plimsolls

Gym Shoes

Suspenders

Holds up stockings

Braces

Suspenders

Pinny / Apron

Apron

Nappy

Diaper

Dressing Gown

Robe

Dressing Gown

Bath Robe

Polo Neck

Turtle Neck

Mac (slang for Macintosh)

Rain Coat

Vocabulary School

 British English

 American English

Glue

Gum

Friend / Mate

Friend

Maths

Math

Rubber

Eraser

Holiday

Vacation

State School

Public School

Public School

Private School

Staff Room

Teachers Lounge

School dinner

Hot Lunch

"Mucking Around" / Off Task

Off Task / Fooling Around /"Goofing Off"

Plimsolls

Gym Shoes

Play Time / Break Time

Recess

Open Day / Open Evening

Open House

Marking Scheme

Grading Scheme

Drawing pins

pushpins or thumbtacks

Vocabulary Houses

 British English

 American English

Flat (one storey) appartment

Apartment

Semi-Detached House

Duplex

Terrace (row of houses joined)

Town House

Bungalow

House (one story)

Cafe / Caff (not 24 hrs)

Diner

Chemist

Drug Store / Druggist

Other words

As we can see, the variety of words differences is big, but still it is better to remember them and communicate British English as well as American English without problem [app. 5]

CHAPTER 2. PRACTICAL USAGE OF BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH IN NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES

2.1 Practical comparison of the lexical usage of British English and American English in newspapers and magazines

While our investigation, we have analyzed many different American and English kinds of newspapers and magazines. We have made a conclusion that this mass media used the formal writing style and formal expressions, especially those who deal with politics, finances, law and medicine. But still we have found a lot of differences in word usage.

To get the clear picture of the difference in lexicology, we analyze nouns that were utilized in house holding, advertisement about buying or selling houses, education and fashion.

The murder has happened in the victims flat on the third floor.[21, 4] - in this sentence we see the usage of word flat, that gives us the opportunity to talk about British variant of English.

Spacious flat with four big windows will be perfect for living.[21,6]- in this sentence, that was taken from the advert, we also see the word flat that used in British English.

The apartment is very spacious and convenient. [29, 5] - in the following sentence that is also taken from the advert, we see the American word apartment.

A lot of people couldn't even imagine what salary the politics must get, to buy such a huge apartment.[30, 4] - in this sentence, that was taken from that article about politics, we also see the American word apartment.

A huge poisoning has happened in one local caf in London.[24, 6] - in this sentence we see the usage of British word of French origin caf.

Interesting, small caf in the centre on the town will catch your attention.[24, 7]- this advert sentence shows the usage of British word caf.

New diner was opened last week. - in this sentence we see the usage of American word diner, that is similar to British caf.

A big fight has happened in a local diner.[28, 3]- one more time we see the usage of American word diner.

Black trousers are the most appropriate for official events.[9, 16]- in this sentence about fashion, we see the usage of British word trousers.

Before buying some trousers you have to try them on.[9, 17] - one more time we see the British word trousers.

These pants were too expensive.[5, 7] - in the following sentence we see the practical usage of the American word pants.

The most expensive clothes in the fashion week in France were black pants.[5, 9] - here we also see the usage of word pants.

The woolen jumper will be great in cold winter.[10, 10] - in the following sentence we see the word of the British origin jumper.

This jumper is of bright colours that are very fashionable.[11, 4] - in the following sentence we see two British words - jumper and colours.

Is you want to buy some sweater, then visit our boutique.[6, 25] - in the following sentence we see the usage of the British word sweater.

The victim was in a blue sweater and black jeans.[11, 4] - this sentence presents to our attention the usage of word sweater.

The following autumn is going to very rainy.[11, 5] - in the following sentence we will see the usage of British word autumn.

This autumn the Queen has the meeting with the President of the USA.[11, 6] - here is one more vivid example of the usage of British word autumn.

The fall comes and brought rains.

This fall will be very dry in the US.[25, 11]- these two examples show the usage of the American word fall, that has similar meaning to British word autumn.

The next two sentences present the sage of words mac (British English) and the word rain coat (American English).

The mac will be very useful this autumn.[11, 6] - the sentence presents the usage of the word mac, that shows that sentence is used in British English style.

The mac is a new fashion of rainy weather.[9, 17]

Nobody saw the rubber. The only thing that people remembered is his long rain coat. [27, 2] - the following sentence shows the usage of an American word rain coat.

The rain coat is a very practical piece of clothes, especially in rainy days. [7, 20]

The next sentences will show the difference in usage of the words holiday (British English) and vocation (American English).

If you want to relax and enjoy the perfect service, then visit the Gentleman Resort and we will make your holidays unforgettable.

Summer holidays will give you a lot of new impressions.[31, 4]- these two sentences present the usage of British words holiday.

The vocation of the President were very simple.[28, 4]

These were the last vocation for the manager of Apple.[28,5] - these sentences show the usage of the word vocation, that is similar to British holiday.

One more example shows us the difference in British and American English. Here we compare the words chemist (British English) and drug store (American English).

The chemists was on the Baker Street.

The accident has happened near the local chemists.[32, 3] - these sentences show the usage of British word chemists.

The US drug stores now can sell light drugs.

The murder has happened in the drug store.[28, 4] - the above mentioned sentences shows the American word drug store.

Another pair of words with similar meaning is underground (British English) and subway (American English).

The new underground branch will be opened in a few days.[33, 6]

The accident has happened on one underground station.[34, 2]

The subway is the most comfortable means of transport in the USA.[28, 5]

The new branches were presented in the local subway.[24, 7]

From the above mentioned sentences from different British and American newspapers and magazines we have seen that the variety of different words is big, but it is easy to understand them.

2.2 Analysis of the main grammatical peculiarities of British and American English on the basis of newspapers and magazines

While our investigation, we have seen that many differences are in comparison of British and American English grammar. To get the clear picture we are going to analyze the following sentences.

The usage of Present Perfect Tense

British English

The weather has recently changed.

The meeting has changed the attitude to the nuclear power stations.[32, 5]

The President has decided to visit the Charity Ball.

The new project has already been presented.[30, 6]

The situation in the Parliament has recently changed.

The police has already found the murderer.[30, 7]

The actor has won the Oscar for the main role.

The new restaurant has opened in Baker's Street.[32, 4]

Strong wind had damaged the city.

Students have done the charity action; they wanted to help people with mental illnesses.[32, 5]

American English

The footballer scored the last ball.[24, 7]

The President done a lot of work.

The hurricane done a mess in the city.[28, 4]

The pupils choosen the best variant of saving our planet from Global Warming.

A new caf opened in Pamela Road.[26, 11]

Tom eaten the greatest number of hamburgers just for 5 minutes.

The climate changes brought floods.

They already destroyed the old building.[26, 5]

The police found the man who killed a person in the local drug store.

The storm damaged houses that were near to a coast line.

The car crash caused very big accident.[24, 7]

The place of adverbs of frequency

British English

We have already built a new hospital for local people.

The road has already been reconstructed.

Police usually catch the thieves.[32, 4]

The National Basketball team hasn't won the Cup yet.

The Queen always polite with simple people.[31, 3]

American English

The President already has made his decision.[26, 11]

The weather already has changed.

The fashion always means much.[25, 10]

Sometimes Americans decide to leave their country.

The financial system recently has changed.[27, 7]

Shall and will

British English

British people shall go to the annual parade.[30, 6]

Police shall find a murderer in a few days.[30, 8]

The football players shall do a charity auction next weekend.[29, 7]

The doctors of the local hospital shall do a strike next Wednesday.[29, 8]

All London drivers shall pass driving test again.[35, 5]

American English

The charity auction will hold on Friday evening.[24, 7]

The weather will change recently.[25, 11]

The financial situation will cause the rising of dollar.[28, 4]

A lot of reconstructions will happen the following year.[27, 7]

The old hospital will be destroyed in a few days.[27, 8]

Have and take

British English

To save water resources it is better to have a shower that a bath.

In a new, luxury resort you will have the perfect rest.[34, 5]

American English

The government asked people not to take a bath, instead of that takes a shower.[33, 2]

The President did a lot of work and now he needs to take a rest.[33, 4]

From the above mentioned sentences that were taken from various British and American newspapers and magazines we can see the clear differences in grammatical system of British and American English. For some native British speakers the American variations of grammar expression can be confusing and sometimes even ridiculous. On the other hand native speakers of American English express their misunderstanding of British rules. Still, we can easily understand them and distinguish where the person speaks British English or American English.

CONCLUSION

Taking to the consideration of the whole compared phonetic, lexical and grammatical differences of British and American English we can say, that there are many of units. The language develops every day, some words have been fixed their permanent existence and the new once are appeared. It happens with British English and American variant of English. Moreover, we have to take to the consideration that British English is more stable and conservative and American English does not scare some lexical or grammatical changes.

In the process of our investigation we have reached the aim and researched the main differences of British and American English.

We also have done the following tasks:

studied the main phonetic differences of British English and American English;

studied the main grammatical differences of British English and American English;

studied the main lexical differences of British English and American English;

analyzed the main phonetic, grammatical and lexical peculiarities of British English and American English on the basis of newspapers and magazines.

From the sentences, that were taken from various newspapers and magazines we can see that really there are a lot of words of the similar meaning but different form in both languages. The same we can say analyzing grammar aspects.

We would like to mention, that still it is easy to understand British and American English. Still, to know the most frequent lexical and grammatical variation is very important.

For the research were taken a lot of resources such as newspapers (The Bay Mirror, The London News), magazines (Fashion, Cosmopolitan), textbooks, scientific articles, dictionaries (Bartlett John R. Dictionary of Americanisms: A Glossary of Words and Phrases usually Regarded as peculiar to the United States, Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles, Oxford English Dictionary) and Internet resources.

To make a conclusion, the investigated material can be used in the process of studying such subjects as useful Phonetics, Grammar and Lexicology.

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18. Murphy Raymond. English Grammar in Use. Advanced. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. - 260

19. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition.- Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

20. Peters Pam. The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. - 270

21. Schneider Edgar. Focus on the USA. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Press, 2009. - 170

22. Stuart Berg. I hear America Talking. An Illustrated History of American Words and Phrases. - NY: New York Press, 2006. - 150

23. Stuart Berg Flexner. Listening to America. Illustrated History of American Words and Phrases. - NY: New York Press, 2007. - 160

24. The Bay Mirror. - NY. 4, 2015. - p. 6 - 8

25. The Bay Mirror. - NY. 6, 2015. - p. 10 - 12

APPENDIX 1

APPENDIX 2

APPENDIX 3

APPENDIX 4

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