Expressive means and stylistic Devices
Expressive means, stylistic Devices, Lexical Expressive Means, Stylistic Devices. International mixing of the stylistic aspect of words. Interaction of different types of lexical meaning. Interaction of primary dictionary and contextually imposed meaning.
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A comparison of such word combinations as “iron gate” and “iron will”, “temir darvoza” and “temir iroda”. In the first case “iron” is logical attribute denoting a special type of gates, whereas in “iron will” “temir iroda”- iron serves as an epithet and denotes an “unyielding will”. The same refers to “green meadow” “green old age”, “green thoughts”, Steel weapon, steel will,ham tarvuz ,xom yigit, polat sim, polat qala ets.
An erithet has always an emotional meaning or connotation. This meaning may be combined with denotatinal meaning or it may exist independently.
After the long usage epithets form fixed word combinations which established in the language and enter the group of set expressions; true-love, merry mind, lagy gay, sweet smile, heated discussions, ogir yigit, engiltak juvon, ogir yuk, qora quzgun.
Individual epithets depend on the authors stile and his artistic purpose. Eg; He looked shy and embarrassed and wild hope came to me (G. Green) Oyni kutgan oqshomgi kokda beshik-beshik bulut yurardi. (Oybek)
Semantic criterion gives us the right to distinguish associated and unassociated epithets. Associated epithets single out a feature which is essentially typical, inherent in the concept of the object they describe; the red sunset, the towering woods, dark clouds, pokiza yoshlik, ola chipor koylak, ochilgan guncha. Unassociated epithets characterize the object through a feature which is not typical and alien for this object. Such association immediately brings surprising effect, attracts the readers attention. Eg; elegant books, smiling year, dim roar, the wild moon, osmon upar uylar, shaftoli gul kuylak, sargaygan dunyo, ichakuuzdi latifalar. These adjectives indicate properties which are associated with other notions; elegant manners, smiling child, dim light, qiziq latifalar.
In present day English epithets can be by various morphological and syntactical categories. Very often and epithet is expressed in the form of an adjective in the attributive function. Eg; Bold shadows, shallow sorrows, golden autumn day.
Adjectival epithets are expressed by compounds consisting of;
1) Noun+adjective; Stone-cold water, steel-grey cloud.
2) Noun+participle: The house had a snow-beaten look.
3) Adjective (adverb+participle: much-traveled cousin.
4) Noun+adjective (derived from a noun): the key-eyed boy, her high, long-legged dreams, pot-bellied man, gun-coloured overalls.
5) Very often an epithet is expressed by a participial attributes: the gray boiling sea burst on to the sand.
In the examples given above epithets are expressed by nouns in the function of a prepositive attribute which denotes qualities such as colour, shape, consistency etc.
While speaking about epithets we must distinguish different structural types such as: simple compound, string, phrase, sentence epithets and reversed epithets. Here are the illustrations:
Simple epithets: a brainless animal, a sensible. Stroke, buyuk xasis, tengsiz mumlik, qarsillagan kulgu, mexmondo`st odam, sofdil kishilar.
Compound epithets stand very close to compound adjectives: weak-minded ideas, cast-iron opinion, a shamed-looking dog, a carefully thought out curses
String epithets, the structural attributes describe the object from different points of view. Very often string epithets constitute gradation. Eg: Moving magically to fresh and strange and exciting places; a miserable, long-nosed, dirty-looking scoundrel.
Prase epithets (sentence epithets): a life-and-death struggle; Her mother ran up, and came into the bad-room with a worrid-end-of-the-world frown on her face (E. O`. Brien). Baxtingga tasadduq zaminu olam, ko`ngli oq va o`zi qora qoshyurtim!
Such constructions serve to the reversed epithet consists of two nouns connected by an “of phrase”, a claw of fear, a day of happiness. These are called metaphorical epithets.
The essence (nature) of transferred epithets lies in the fact that it is associated with a noun other than to which it grammatically belongs: She put her careful, not her foot.) Mr. Baker stirred with a thoughtful spoon. (Mr. Baker was thoughtful, not his spoon) (Azizbek) Boshlab fuqaroga salom berdi, so`ngra siniq va ojiz qolgan bir tovush bilan xalqqa uzr aytdi.
From what have been said above it is quite clear that the stylistic function of epithets is to give subjective evaluation of things and notions. In most cases it is the writer's subjective attitude to what he describes.
Oxymoron. Oxymoron is lexical device the syntactic and semantic structures of which come to clashes eg: “cold fire”, brawling love” “ishbilarmon dangasa” “achiq kulgi”. Oxymoron is the use of an epithet or in attributive phrase that is contradictory to the noun it modifies. Chopin's beautiful sorrow, a generous miser, busy idleness, a beautifully ugly face.
An Oxymoron is used to give a figurative characterization of a notion to reveal its inner complicated nature. It may serve to denote a temporary feature of a notion.
Eg: It was with an almost cruel joy. Suddenly she felt the need to speak. The wordy silence troubled her: It was a relief to be on board and no longer alone together.
Of course an oxymoron always expressed the author's subjective attitude:
Come to me in the silence of the night
Come in the speaking silence of a dream.
Uyg`on, ey malagim, tur o`rningdan tur,
Otashin muzlarda isinaylik yur
Yong`inli daryoda quloch otaylik,
Bu erdan ketaylik, faqat ketaylik.
The stylistic effect is based on the fact that the denotational meaning of the attribute is not entirely lost. If it had been lost the word combination would resemble those attributes with only emotional meaning such as: It's awfully nice of you, I'm terrible glad. Oxymoron as a rule has the following structural model: adjective+noun or adverb adjective.
2.6 Stylistic Devices Based on the Interaction of Logical and Nominal Meanings
Antonomasia. Antonomasia is lexical stylistic device in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun or vice versa. This SD is based on the immediate interplay between logical and nominal meanings of a word which is realized in the text. The realization of only one meaning does not give a SD. Here are some illustrations of antonomasia widely used in emotive prose and drama:
Mclash, one who strikes violently (compare with the verb to lash). Mr. McFaul (compare with the verb to fail, Mr. Pinch wife, one who hurts his wife by pinching; Mr. Sparkish, a dandy, a man who pays too much care to his clothes and personal appearance. Sir Fidget, a person who moves about restlessly, shows of impatience. The same refers to Mcfission. This kind of names exists in the Uzbek language also: To`lqin-primary meaning is qattiq chayqalib turgan suv betidagi ko`rtana. Second meaning is his-tuyg`u, ichki kechinma, jo`shqin xarakat va jamiatdagi, xayotdagikuchli xarakat; Erkin
1) Xar qanday to`siq, g`ov, monelikdan xoli bo`lgan bemalol;
2) Siyosiy, iqtisodiy xuquqiy mustaqillikka ega bo`lgan, ozod, xur. Oydin 1) oy chiqib, xamma yoq oy nuri bilan yorigan, oydinli (oydin kecha)
2) aniq, ko`rinib, bilinib turgan, ravshan.
Sometimes in the English language capital letters are the only marks maks of the use of antonomasia and the implication which such antonomasia carries in the text. Eg. Lord Nobody, Dr. Good fell. Traditionally proper name are built according to certain morphological patterns: noun+suffixes; -son, er, ard. Eg. Jon son, Morison, Chaster, Herbert, Howard, Bernard.
Antonomasia stands close to epithets. This closeness is traced in nature, not in form. From the semantic point of view the authors stress the prominent features of a person and stick these features to his name: Miss Sharp, Mr. Backbite, Miss. Murdstone. Mr. Choakumchild (one who can stop the breath of a child) Aka-uka baliqchilar tolmas va qo`rqmas qaytmasovlar.
Antonomasia is associated with other SDs. For example, it is often used together with epithets. Speaking about epithets we have underlined that it denotes certain qualities of a person. Many Nicknames of historical or public characters are based on the use of such characterization. Eg. The Iron Duke (the first Duke of Wellington). Old Hickory (Andrew Jackson, the seventh President of the USA), the Iron Lady (M. Thacher, the former prime Minister of Great Britain. Here are Uzbek examples. Qovoq Devona, Atala Maxsum (Bo`shashgan, lalaygan, lanj odam xaqida).
Another type of antonomasia is metonymic antonomasia which is based on the relation of contiguity. A product can be named after the inventor, manufacturer or after the place where it is produced: Channel, Nina Ricci (French scent), Bordeaux (white or red wine from the Bordeaux region of France). The name of a painter, writer, and sculptor can be used to denote his work: “A Titian-haired girl”, the reference is made to the paintings of the world's greatest Italian painter Titian, women in his pictures are generally red-haired. Wall street, the chief financial center of the USA, the white House, the US President's residence and office; the Pentagon, the building where US Army head quarters are placed; Downing street, street in London with official residences of the Prime Minister, the Government. Here are Uzbek examples.
Tonnalab paxta terib
Tursunay bo`lay deyman.
Yosh oybeklar, zamonamiz farxodlari, don kixotlar. Shunisi muximki, endi bu zo`larning ba`zilari kichik xarf bilan yoziladi. Umumiy tushunchani ifodalovchi avvaldan mavjud bo`lgan va qo`llanib keladigan tilningbu xususiati antonomasiaga xosdir.
We distinguish metaphoric antonomasia which is usually considered to be a clichй. Eg. What will Mrs. Grundy say, what is conventional; He is a regular Sherlock Holms, may be said about an observant person; Romeo and Juliet, yong people who love each other.
Here Uzbek examples. Sherlok Xolmsning o`zginasi sinkov kishi xaqida; Jiblajibon-mayda qadam tashlab, noz-qarashma qilib yuradigan nozik, xipcha ayol;
Oradan ych-to`rt kun o`tdi. Abdulla xech kim kutmagan gapni topib keldi. -Yangilikdan xabaring bormi, olqindi?-so`radi u omontoydan, -xali jiblojibon boru, ja-a, amali kattami deyman-da?
Stylistic Devices of Descriptive Character.
In order to understand the linguistic nature of the SDs of this group it is necessary to clear up some problems, so far untouched, of definition can point out only one or two properties of a phenomenon. Therefore in building up a definition the definer tries to single out the most essential features of the object. These are pinned down by the definer through a long period of observation of the object. its functioning, its growth and its changes.
However, no definition can comprise all the inner qualities of the object and new combinations of it with other objects as well; a deeper penetration into the ontology of the object will always reveal some hither to unknown qualities and features. In the fourth group of stylistic devices, which we now come to, we find they one of the qualities of the object in question is made to sound essential.
Simile. Things are best of all learned by simile
Simile reveals the most essential features of an object or person and draws a comparison between two different things.
Such formal elements as; like, as, such as, as if, seem etc. introduce similes and comparison. We must not confuse ordinary comparison and simile as a SD. Comparison implies estimation of two objects which belong to one class of object. Its purpose is to show the features which bring these objects together; if he is like his mother he must be a good-looking boy.
1. Stylistics. I.R.Galperin.M “H.S.”. 1977.
Two human being are compared. Eshik ochilib, shop mo`ylov, go`shtdor yuzidan zaxar tomchilagan Mocholov bilan birga, uning kabi pochonli, yarog`-aslaxali ikki tora zinada qaqqaydi.
The nature of simile is to compare two (or several) objects which belong to different class of things. Simile finds one or several features which are common to the objects compared: The sun was as red as ripe new blood. (J. Steinbek). Men seni olganimda, oftobda qurigan turshakdek butishgan, qop-qora eding. Endi to`lishib, tuxumdek silliq tortib ketding …, dedi Jamoliddin Nuriga.
Different features may be compared in simile: the state, actions, manners, Eg. My heart is like a singing bird; I crawled like a mole onto my bed; the body was tensed as a strong leaf spring. U quyosh nurida cho`g`dek lovillab turardi. Boshimdan laptarlardek uchdi ming-minglab xayol.
If we compare a simile with a metaphor we can see that a metaphor is also based on the similarity of two ideas, but in simile both ideas are denoted by word used in their direct meaning: Della's beautiful hair fell about her ripping and shining like a cascade of brown water … Arbab quyning mayib bo`lganini ko`tib qaynar qozondek toshdi. In a metaphor an idea is expressed by a word used in a figurative meaning. Down rippled the brown cascade of her hair. (Down fell in ripples her hair). Shamol kuchaygan sari, dengiz chayqalar, qaynar, ko`pirar. In the first sentence the word “cascade” “qaynar” has retained its direct meaning, in the second examples it is used in a figurative meaning as a metaphor.
Similes enrich English phraseology: like a squirrel in a cage; as clear as crystal; to sleep like a dog; like a streak in lighting, busy as a bee, blind as a bat, qo`yday yuvosh, it olgan tulkiday, qutirgan bo`riday, suvga tushgan mushukday, muzday sovuq, bolday shirin, tulkiday ayyor, qora qarg`aday. These phraseological units are trite similes and have become clichйs. The stylistic function of simile may be different:
1) Imaginative characterization of a phenomenon.
2) To produce a humorous effect by its unexpectedness. A nice old man, hairless as a boiled onion. …boshi oshlangan teriday silliq, qoshlari quay tushgan po`stakdeksiyrak sex boshlig`i
Periphrasis. Periphrasis is the nomination of an object or action through exhibiting certain features of this object or action. Such periphrasis is based on one of the original features of the object: The sun was beginning to yawn and edge towards his bed, behind the far mountains (S. Maugham), the sun was setting. She wondered a little to and fro, perhaps clumsily, but still with marked success, maintaining her balance on those two tiny supports (A.Bennett), standing on her little feet.
Biroq qizi tushmagurning xusnimi, shirin so`zlarimi, xar qalay G`iyossiddinning til-jag`ini bog`lab, qulog`ni kar, ko`zini ko`r qilib qo`ygan edi.
Periphrases are divided into to group: logical and figurative. In the first group of periphrasis the logical notion prevailes while in the second group-the figurative notion is leading and periphrasis is based on some image. The logical periphrasis constitutes the essence of traditional dictionary periphrasis: to turn over a new leaf (make a new, a better start), one's better half (one's wife), to tie the knot (to marry); the House of God (the church or chapel) “til jag`ini bog`lab” gapira olmaydigan, “qulog`ini kar”xech narsani eshita olmaydigan, “ko`zi ko`r”xech narsa ko`rmaydigan. All these word combinations are synonyms by nature and have become phraseological units. Many of such word combinations are used in the language of mass media. Some of them are spread in the language of official style because they have become clichйs.
Figurative periphrasis is often based on the use of a metaphor or metonymy; Five weeks of perfect liberty … would have prepared her for the day of bells (for the day of wedding). He jumped to his feet, rattled his throat, planted firmness on his brows and mouth … that his blood might be lively at the throne of understanding (his brains).
“Yoz bo`yi elpig`an elpig`ichini,
Erga yo`shab soldi qishga ko`rpacha”
“Oppoq mo`ylovini burab kelar qish”
One of the stylistic functions of periphrasis is to produce a satirical or humorous effect sarcastic description. In “Come on”, said Miss Hand forth, “has the cat got your tongue?” (Can you speak?).
Euphemism is a periphrasis, which is used to rename an unpleasant word or expression. Eg. Death: the journey's end; to die; to cross the bar; to join the majority, to hop off the twig, “aqli qisqa” instead of “axmoq” qulog`I og`ir instead of kap, qo`li egri instead of o`g`ri; olamdan o`tmoq, qurbon bo`moq, jon bermoq instead of o`lmoq. Usually euphemisms are defined as words or phrases which produce some mild effect. Instead of saying “to lie” people usually use such expressions as: to tell stories, to possess a vivid imagination.
The origin of the term “euphemism” discloses the aim of the device very clearly. I.e. speaking well--from Greek -eu=well+-pheme=speaking.
Euphemisms do not live for a long time. We trace periodic changes in terminology: the madhouse, lunatic asylum, and mental hospital; “qizamiq” “gul, oymoma, xaymoma”; “chayon” “oti yo`q, benom, besh bo`g`in”;
We distinguish the following groups of euphemisms; religious, moral, medical, poetical. The political euphemisms always delude public opinion, distort the political events. Instead of saying “a liar” in the political sphere we usually come across such expressions as; terminological inexactitudes; “ishsizlar” ijtimoiy-foydali mexnat soxasida band bo`magan kishilar.
In emotive prose euphemisms are usually expressed by metonymy, metaphors or periphrases.
One of the stylistic functions of euphemisms-is to produce a humorous effect or to distort the truth, to make the statement milder. Eg. Intoxication drunkenness; perspiration-sweat; tomog`ini moyladi-pora berdi, kesilib ketdi-qamaldi.
Hyperbole. Hyperbole as a SD must be distinguished from exaggeration as every exaggeration cannot be regarded as a SD. For example, the following expressions: Haven't seen you for ages; I`m dying to see it; Immensely obliged, Seni deb o`lib turibdi, osmonga ustun bo`1armiding; osmondan kelmoq, bir dunyo narsa oldik. Are common colloquial phrases used in every day speech. Usually individual hyperboles constitute a SD;I ought to be shot for not recognizing it. My mother was shocked to morrow of her bones by the thought. Toychoqqinam, kolxoz osnginatuzilmagan, qon to`kkanmiz.
A hyperbole is employed for direct quantitive exaggeration: “Do you think we have anything to say one another?”-She asked quickly-“miles”. I don't know any of my relations, are they many? -“Tons”
Hyperbole may be expressed in a periphrastic descriptive way: What I suffer in that way no tongue can tell. (K.Jerome). “No tongue can tell” means “it is very difficult to express by means of the language”. In this case hyperbole is based on metonymy (tongue) Hyperbole may be used in combination with other SD, hyperbolic similes: His mind began to move like lighting. She was as grace full as a meridian of longitude; hyperbolic metaphors; Gradually he was becoming acclimatized to the strange town, primitive and isolated entombed by the mountains. Hyperbole may be found in repetition. I'd have been out there days ago-days ago. Mendek dangalchiga xam shunaqa tuxmat qilasizlarmi oshnalar? Menman degan xo`kizning shoxini sindirishga xam kuchim etadi-ya.
In the conclusion section I'd like to write brief in formations about lexical stylistic devices of the Uzbek and English languages with examples.
The stylistic device based on the principle of identification of two objects is called a metaphor. The SD based on the principle of substitution of one object for another is called metonymy and the SD based on contrary concepts is called irony.
There is an opinion that a metaphor is a productive way of building up new meanings and new words. Language can be called the “dictionary of faded metaphors”.
Examples of trite metaphors: The salt of life; a flight of imagination: the ladder of fame; to burn with passion (anger). The following metaphors enriched English phraseology; foot of a bed, leg of a chair, head of a nail, to be in the same boat, blind window, to fish for complements. Here Uzbek examples o`q yomg`iri, o`lim do`li buloq ko`zi.
Examples of genuine metaphors: The lips were tight little traps the whole space was a bowl of heat; this virus carried a gun; the dark swallowed him;
Mrs. Small`s eyes boiled with excitement; the words seemed to dance …. Xademay, ularning safari qoridi. Daryo oqar, vaqt oqar, umr oqar paydar-pay. Boshimdan kaptarlardekuchdi ming-minglab xauol. Gullar go`yo eshitar ta`zim.
SD based of the interaction of dictionary and contextual Logical Meanings.
a) The epithet is a stylistic device which is built on the interplay of two meanings of a word: emotive and logical. Eg. Eng. green old age.
Uzb. Pokiza yoshlik.
b) Oxymoron joins two antonymous words into one syntagm, most frequently attribute or adverbial, less frequently of other patterns.
Ex: Eng. Shouted silently
Uzb. Ishbilarmon dangasa.
SD. Based on the interaction of lexical and emotive meaning. The interplay between the logical and nominal meanings of a word is called antonomasia
Ex: Eng. Lord Nobody; Miss Careless
Uzb. Tolmas, qo`rqmas.
Eng. The Iror Lady (M.Tcatcher, the former Prime Minister of G.B)
Uzb. Atala Maxsum Qovoq Devona.
SD of descriptive character. Sometimes for a specialreason one of the features of the thing is made the most essential, describes some detail and intensifies it.
Periphrasis is the nomination of an object or action through exhibiting certain features of this object or action. Such periphrasis is based on one of the original features of the object.
Ex: Eng. He showed satisfaction as he took possession of his well-earned reward; instead of “He grinned as he” pocketed the coin.
Uzb. Onasini chizgan chizig`idan chiqmaydi. “Onasini aytganini bajaradi”o`rniga
In conclusion I'd like to say that in many cases lexical E.M. and SD of both languages are similar in many cases.
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