Stylistic Peculiarities in a Newspaper Discourse
The ways of expressing evaluation by means of language in English modern press and the role of repetitions in the texts of modern newspaper discourse. Characteristics of the newspaper discourse as the expressive means of influence to mass reader.
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Stylistic Peculiarities in a Newspaper Discourse
1. The main features of the modern English newspaper discourse
1.1 Characteristics of the newspaper discourse as the expressive means of influence to mass reader
According to I.R. Galperin , the English newspaper writing dates from the 17-th century. It was the last of all the styles of written literary English to be recognized as a specific form of writing standing apart from other forms. But it happened only by the 19-th century that newspaper English developed into a system of media discourse, forming a separate function style.
Discourse is the term that describes written and spoken communications. As to newspaper discourse this term means the whole written communication of English press.
The modern newspaper discourse carries material of an extremely diverse character. On the pages of a newspaper one finds not only news and comments on it, press reports and articles, advertisements and announcements, but also stories and poems, crossword puzzles, chess problems and the like. It is newspaper printed matter that perform the function of informing the reader and providing him with evaluation of the information published. In fact, all kinds of newspaper writing are to a greater or lesser degree both informative and evaluative.
The general aim of the texts of modern newspaper discourse is to exert influence on public opinion, to convince the reader that the interpretation given by the writer is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the article not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well.
This brainwashing function is most effective in press. Due to its characteristic combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal, the publicistic style of the texts of modern newspaper discourse has features in common with the style of scientific prose or official documents, on the one hand, and that of emotive prose, on the other. Its coherent and logical syntactic structure, with an expanded system of connectives and its careful paragraphing, makes it similar to scientific prose. Its emotional appeal is generally achieved by the use of words with emotive meaning, the use of imagery and other stylistic devices as in emotive prose. The newspaper discourse also has some elements of emotionally coloured colloquial style as the author has no need to make their speech impersonal (as in scientific or official style), but, on the contrary, he or she tries to approximate the text to lively communication, as though they were talking to people in direct contact.
1.2 Evaluation as the main characteristic of the newspaper discourse
Evaluation is the broad covered term for the expression of a speaker's / writers attitudes, fillings and values.
Evaluation is a pervasive part of language, functioning at different levels and being expressed in a variety of ways. It plays a major part in every day communication, expressing one's self, action and environment.
The concept of evaluation is an interesting phenomenon, covering the expression of emotion and feeling, the evaluation of human character and behaviour, and the evaluation of things and states of affairs. However, the function of evaluation is not only to determine whether each of these aspects is good or bad, positive or negative, approved or disapproved, etc. but also to construe the overall value of a given message which eventually leads to the construction of the perspective of the agent behind the message.
P. Thetela argues that «although evaluation has been shown to play a central role in text and discourse, its identification in text is not always straightforward» [31, p. 102]. One of the problems raises in the study of evaluation is that there is ambiguity in what might stand for evaluation. In fact, there are several factors that decide whether a bit of language is evaluative or not, including social, cultural and contextual factors.
To make evaluation a more workable phenomenon, Thompson and Hunston suggest two criteria for recognizing evaluation, namely; «conceptual» and «lexical». From their viewpoint, «conceptually, evaluation has been noted to be comparative, subjective and value laden» [32, p. 13], whereas lexically «some lexical items are very clearly evaluative, in the sense that evaluation is their chief function and meaning» [32, p. 14], these items are: adjectives, adverbs, nouns and verbs, e.g.
Table 1. Evaluative lexical categories
To explore evaluation in texts of newspaper discourse is of great interest in various ways. Firstly, texts of newspaper discourse are one of the genres that we interact with most frequently.
Although an evaluative item basically consists of one word, it may well happen that it is a unit or a phrase rather than a single word.
The journalists' position is indicated by their choice of words, namely nouns, adjectives and adverbials, as well as the register to which they belong (formal, informal, literary). At verb level, the choice of transitive or intransitive verbs as well as the use of active or passive constructions indicates whether the people described in the article are presented as initiating or merely witnessing events and actions , while nominalizations can strengthen or reduce the effects of the actions themselves. The use of modal verbs points to the way in which the actions are presented - desirable, possible, probable, etc.
The way in which people presented in the article are called as well as the way in which they are quoted also indicates the journalist's position. J. Richardson and N. Fairclough state that quotations and the way in which they are given are important, as they provide the perspective from which the readers will understand the story. According to N. Fairclough [16, p. 17] both the reporting verbs are important (e.g. declared, acknowledged, admitted, etc.) and the way in which people's words are rendered: direct quotation, summaries of the quotation (presenting the gist of the speaker's words) and formulations of it (which actually interpret what the speaker said).
At sentence level the way in which the information is structured indicates once more the journalist's position: the use of topicalization, which moves to front position the element to be emphasised, (e.g. Music, he loved), or various mitigation devices (such as adverbials for instance), which soften the propositional content (e.g. He merely wanted to help).
In sentences (clause complexes), main clauses generally foreground information, whereas subordinate clauses generally background it. This is especially so when the main clause precedes a subordinate clause [16, p. 119], which indicated that foregrounding and backgrounding are strategies to which journalists resort in order to emphasise or de-emphasise information.
At text level the images used to describe the situation also have an evaluative value. The overall text organization is also linked to evaluation - for example repetitions, parallel structures, paragraph sequence. In newspapers articles the lead, which is the summary of the article which answers the questions who, what, where, when, how, is defined by Bell as fulfilling a double function - it summarizes the events and focuses them in a particular direction; it is a focus of evaluation as it indicates the author's position.
So, evaluation is one of the peculiarities of the newspaper discourse that is needed to be studied and analyzed on the text level.
1.3 The nature and the main features of repetitions in the newspaper discourse
Repetition is the simple repeating of a word, within a sentence or a poetical line, with no particular placement of the words, in order to emphasize. This is such a common literary device that it is almost never even noted as a figure of speech. It Leech and Short describe formal repetition as «repeated use of an expression (morpheme, lexical item, proper name, phrase, etc.), which has already occurred in the context» [21, p. 244].
Repetition is a stylistic device, the essence of which is to repeat one and the same word or phrase, aiming to add more expressiveness to the utterance.
Repetition of the same content word across a text or paragraph is the simplest, most basic meaning link between vocabularies. The easiest way to connect information or an idea across a text through lexical cohesion is to repeat the same word. Repetition is also defines as the basic variety of stylistic figures of addition. So we can define repetition as the use of the same words, synonyms, morphemes, sounds or syntactical constructions a few times and within noticeable distance.
Since such disciplines as linguistics and literary stylistics have appeared, the investigators have been searching for the answers on the problems of repetition and its classification. The interest to this phenomenon is constantly growing, as more and more works are dedicated to the topic of repetition. Repetition can be lexical and syntactical (including anaphora, epiphora, anadiplosis, framing constructions, syntactical tautology, etc.).
Lexical repetition, I.R. Galperin writes, is defined as the repetition of a word or a phrase in the structure of one utterance (it can be a sentence, complicated syntactical structure, a paragraph) and within the bigger units of communication, including a number of utterances (for example, a text). The distance between the repeated units and the quantity of repetitions can be different, but it is obligatory that the repetition could be noticeable by the reader. If the repetition doesn't go with the use of polysemantic function, then its function may be intensifying, or emotional, or intensifying-emotional [3, p. 258].
Repetition as a stylistic device is the typical generalization of linguistic means of expressing excited condition, which could be expressed by different means, depending on the degree and the character of the excitement. The speech can be sublime, passionate, nervous, touched, etc. The excited speech is notable for fragmentariness, sometimes for illogicality, for repetition of separate parts of the utterance. Moreover, the repetitions of the words and phrases (such as fragmentariness and illogicality of the structure) are appropriate in the emotional excited speech. They don't have any stylistic function.
Repetition includes all words with the same content meaning even if their forms are different, like those indicating different word classes, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs.
For example, psychology, psychology, psychology is the repetition of the same word of the same meaning in the same form; psychology psychological psychologically is the repetition of the same word of the same meaning in the different forms.
Repetition can be used not only in stylistic aims; it can serve as the means of clarifying the utterance and helps to avoid the obscurity of the narration.
Repetitions as a stylistic device have different functions within the texts or utterance. The most common function of the repetition is the intensifying function. Repetition in this function as a stylistic device stands near the repetitions as the norm of colloquial excited speech. Repetitions with the intensifying function are usually simple in their composition: the repeated words are situated near each other. Other functions of repetition are not connected with the emotional meaning as in colloquial speech. Other functions of repetition are usually revealed in the context of the utterance.
Another function of repetition, which is often used, is the function of increasing. Words repetition promotes the greater power of the utterance, the greater intensity of the narration. This function is similar to the intensifying function, but the difference is that increasing expresses the gradation of increasing of the emotional power. In some cases repetition can fulfil the function which contradicts the purpose of repetition as the means of distinguishing separate parts of the utterance. The repeated units, words and phrases, serve as a background to distinguish the other, unrepeated units of the utterance.
We should also mention the function of repetition, which is secondary, but it usually accompanies the abovementioned functions of repetition. This is the rhythmical function. Repetition of one and the same units (words, phrases or sentences) is conductive to the clearer rhythmical organization of the sentence, getting the text closer to poetry.
So, repetition is one of the most important and more intensively used stylistic devices, which accomplishes different functions in speech, most common of which is the function of adding expressiveness to the utterance.
In oral narratives repetition is used as a very effective evaluation strategy to create emotional involvement because repetition is evaluative according to W. Labob . By making use of repetition, speakers contribute to their point, writers contribute to the deep meaning of the story. In other words, speakers/writers put emphasis through repetition, which contributes to involvement.
According to D. Tannen, involvement is a very important function of repetition: By facilitating production, comprehension, connection, and interaction, repetition serves an over-arching purpose of creating interpersonal involvement. Repeating the words, phrases or sentences of other speakers
a) accomplishes a conversation;
b) shows one's response to another's utterance;
c) shows acceptance of others' utterances, their participation, and them;
d) gives evidence of one's own participation. It provides a resource to keep talk going, where talk itself is a show of involvement, of willingness to interact, to serve positive face. All of this sends a metamessage of involvement [30, p. 52].
Repetition may show up as self-repetition or repetition of others, exact repetition or paraphrase, and as «repetition with variation» which is defined by D. Tannen as «questions transformed into statements, statements changed into questions, repetition with a single word or phrase changed, and repetition with change of person or tense» [30, p. 54].
So, repetition is one of the most important and more intensively used stylistic devices, which accomplishes different functions in speech, most common of which is the function of adding expressiveness and involvement to the utterance.
There are different types and functions of repetition. According to Gunnar Persson there is lexical repetition that is used for intensifying, emphatic, imitation and purposive reasons. The author identifies several types of syntactic repetition, such as the exact repetition of a syntactic unit in the form of a substitute and syntactically parallel constructions. Another type of repetition is thematic (discoursal) repetition, which is composed of paraphrase, repetition with variation, reverse paraphrase and rewording .
According to Barbara J. Koch, thematic repetition occurs on all levels of discourse and in different forms [19, p. 542]. These different forms of repetition have a variety of functions. For example, repetition is «an essentially poetic aspect of language» [30, p. 46]. It is, furthermore, a cohesive device, which links new utterances to previous ones  in oral discourse and in literature. In other words, repetition ties ideas in a discourse together.
As Barbara J. Koch has observed, repetition is a device of persuasion . In modern discourse lexical, syntactic morphological, and thematic repetitions are used to create linguistic cohesion of the texts to increase the rhetorical effect. Writers use synonymous words and phrases; syntactically parallel structures, paraphrase, reverse paraphrase and repetition of morphological roots for persuasive and artistic purposes.
So, repetition serves intensification, humour, control in conversation, expression of anger/pleasure/displeasure, cohesion/coherence, emphatic, evaluative and thematic functions.
Among the types of repetitions there are thematic repetition, cohesive repetition, artistic repetition, persuasive repetition.
Thematic Repetition. Different forms of repetition contribute to the theme of the story. In other words, repetitious words, word combinations and syntactic structures cohere into a total meaningful and significant pattern and thus produce the overall meaning in the story.
There are two types of thematic repetition. Repetition is a device to suspend action. Narrators use repetition to suspend action, to delay resolution so that the climax of the story could come in full power. Various forms of repetition are used to create tension in the narratives. To achieve this effect they repeat details that do not contribute to the overall meaning of the story. In addition, narrators create suspense through putting emphasis on the tension in the atmosphere. To achieve this, they use words and phrases that are directly or indirectly related to tension or that denote the psychological moods of the people in the stories. Repetition of very specific details or use of immediacy contributes to tension and therefore suspension. Suspension comes to an end when the climactic moment is reached. Some narrators use two types of suspense in their stories: initial suspension and immediate suspension. Initial suspension comes into existence when they start building suspense from the first moment on until the climax is reached. Some narrators provide too much, unnecessary background information to achieve this effect. Immediate suspension comes into operation just before the narrator reaches the climax. Repetition of specific details that are related to the climax adds to immediate suspension. Example (initial suspension): then we started running haphazardly, without knowing where to run, there was construction near the place during that period, I saw my father running toward the construction but in the construction a construction pit had been dug you know my father will fall…
Cohesive repetition. Cohesive repetition in the text links referents together through repetition of words that mean nearly the same or exactly the same and thus builds the previously mentioned referents around a major theme. M.A.K. Halliday and R. Hasan define «cohesion» as «relations of meaning that exist within the text, and that define it as a text» [18, p. 4]. According to scientists, «the potential for cohesion lies in the systematic resources of reference, ellipsis and so on that are built into the language itself» [18, p. 5]. They state that structure in a stretch of discourse coheres parts of a sentence together to display the texture of the organic unity. In other words, relations that are cohesive in a sentence refer to the same entity in a sentence by means of pronominalisation rules: the second mention of an entity should be in the pronoun form.
Relations that are cohesive in a text display a semantic relation that helps interpret the existence of repetitive linguistic entities. Example: people leaning from the windows are looking down, they don't know where to look.
Artistic Repetition. Syntactic repetition, lexical repetition or paraphrase can be used to create a poetic effect. Language can be used for poetic purposes in everyday conversations «when speakers respond to hearers' requests for clarification by citing another member of the same paradigm, couched in the same grammatical form. Moreover, syntactic parallelism provides the flow of the story, creating a poetic effect. According to D. Tannen the rhythm that is created through syntactic parallelism «is basic to conversational involvement in the most mechanical sense. It contributes in conversation, as it does in music, poetry, and oratory, to the impact of the discourse on the audience» [30, p. 139]. In other words, rhythm moves the listener emotionally and at the same time «convinces» them. Therefore, syntactic parallelism serves artistic and persuasive purposes. In this study the use of syntactic parallelism and exact repetition of words, which were used in close juxtaposition, are taken as the artistic use of the unit.
Exact repetition of words of emotions and perceptions that denote anger, fear, sarcasm, happiness, pleasure, and displeasure create cohesion. Cohesion is poetic for D. Tannen: «…all discourse is poetic, operating on systems of coherence in which form and meaning intertwine. Repetition is one of an array of dynamics by which conversation, like literary discourse, achieves this aesthetic effect» [30, p. 30]. In this study, the function of exact repetition of words of emotions and perceptions is taken as persuasive. Example: I remember grabbing my father and hurling him with a child's strength, I remember running together holding each other's hands…
Persuasive Repetition. According to Barbara J. Koch, reverse paraphrase is used to provide different perspectives . Thus, the speaker shows different aspects of an emotion or an action/event to persuade the listener that what s/he is narrating is the point of the story and is worth narrating. Syntactic parallelism serves this purpose, too. And repetition of descriptive details tends to be persuasive. Repetitive use of words of emotions and perceptions, employment of repetitive contrasts, words that denote tension directly or indirectly, and repetition of words or phrases that underline the repeated nature of actions/events are taken as persuasive. And finally, the use of subordinate clauses, comparative clauses, unreal conditional clauses and, clauses of reason and cause and past conditional clauses contribute to the persuasive effect. Example: …and behind me you know some people were screaming, cries, screams, very very bad…
There are several categories and subcategories of repetitions, lexical repetition, syntactic repetition and dicoursal repetition are among them.
Lexical Repetition. This type of repetition covers repetition of one word only and can be classified under four subcategories: lexical repetition of addition where the same lexical item is repeated by adding an intensifier or a modifier; lexical repetition of substitution which falls into two subdivisions: word substitute and lexical repetition of a syntactic unit. In some cases speakers use a pronoun which is in anaphoric relationship with a lexical item previously used in the sentence context (word-substitute); in others, they use a lexical item which refers back to a syntactic unit (lexical repetition of a syntactic unit). Speakers furthermore use reduplication and exact (1exical) repetition.
Syntactic Repetition. This type of repetition covers repetition of two or more words or word combinations. Prepositional phrases fall into this category. The first subcategory is exact repetition of a syntactic unit. When a lexical item is replaced by a syntactic structure, speakers use syntactic repetition of substitution. The next subcategory is syntactic repetition of addition. Speakers repeat the same syntactic structures by adding a modifier or an intensifier. When they repeat the same syntactic structures by leaving out a modifier or an intensifier, they use syntactic repetition of units with missing lexical items. And finally, syntactic parallelism is used when speakers prefer syntactically parallel structures.
Discoursal Repetition. This type of repetition covers examples of paraphrase and use of different structures through which speakers prefer to convey the same meaning. The first subcategory is single word paraphrase, which includes synonymy (synonymous or partially synonymous words) and metonymy. The next subcategory is paraphrase. This category is composed of two subdivisions, namely, rewording and reverse paraphrase. When speakers use different syntactic structures to convey their meaning, their repetition is called rewording; when they provide opposing perspectives while repeating the content of their utterances, this is termed as reverse paraphrase. The third one is syntactic repetition with expansion where speakers provide additional information while repeating their utterances by adding «like/I mean…,» or by using various syntactic structures that provide additional information or by presenting immediate explanation. The next one is expansion with different structures. They expand their utterances by using different structures. And the final one is explanation with different structures where narrators provide explanations to their utterances by using different syntactic structures.
So, we can make a conclusion that repetition is a complete stylistic device. The main functions of repetitions in texts may be intensifying, increasing, expressive or persuasion. For these aim words, word combinations or even sentences may be repeated within the text.
Repetitions as stylistic device play great role in the texts of media as means of persuasion. In the next chapter of this paper we try to analyse the role of repetitions in the texts of English newspaper discourse.
2. The role of stylistic means in the newspaper discourse
2.1 Analysis of the Means of Expressing Evaluation in the Texts of Modern English Press
The article entitled «Rebels in Libya Gain Power and Defectors» was written by David D. Kirkpatrick and Kareem Fahim and appeared in the on-line edition of New York Time, the 28th of February 2011 issue. It reports on the situation in Libya at the beginning of the revolt against the country's current leader, Colonel Muammar el-Qaddafi, namely the victories obtained by the rebels and the support they have from the population, army, government officials and foreign countries. The article is a feature as it brings additional information about the situation in Libya in order to present to the readers a more detailed image. We took this article for analysis with the aim of identifying ways in which the authors express evaluation at lexical, syntactic and discourse levels.
From the very beginning the headline catches the readers' attention because of the unexpected coordination between the two nouns power and defectors: rebels gain power and defectors.
The emphasis in the lead is on the rebels, presented as highly successful in their fight - they have increasing military coordination and firepower, better leadership and more guns to fight with. The defectors who joined the rebels are presented in a positive light - they support the rebels and try to improve the rebels' military strategy (defecting officers in the east took steps to establish a unified command).
The enumeration of weapons held by rebels indicate their strength their followers in this rebel-held city, just outside the leader's stronghold in the capital, displayed tanks, Kalashnikovs and antiaircraft guns . The use of the emphasiser just indicates the rebels' close victory (just outside the leader's stronghold in the capital): Zawiyah, Libya - The Libyan rebels challenging Col. Muammar-el-Qaddafi demonstrated their increasing military coordination and firepower on Sunday, as defecting officers in the east took steps to establish a unified command while their followers in this rebel-held city, just outside the leader's stronghold in the capital, displayed tanks, Kalashnikovs and antiaircraft guns.
The adjectives and adverbials chosen by the reporters indicate that their approve of the rebels' actions: the rebels' military coordination is increasing, the command is unified, they give further sign of their strength, they have growing power, they make a global effort to bring down Colonel Qaddafi, they hold the town firmly, they become more confident in their power and provide the most striking display of strength. The state of mind is of confidence, based on the victories obtained so far and the residents of the city are gleeful: Gleeful residents invited newcomers to clamber aboard one of several army tanks now in rebel hands .
The rebel army, ready to support the revolt in other Libyan cities is called national army.
The adjectives used for Colonel Qaddafi's forces indicate oppression and violence: his forces mounted a deadly assault, he orders repeated attacks …to retake the city.
Therefore, while the adjectives used to describe the protesters carry positive connotations (good management and firm control, thoughtful support of population, strong hope in the result of the uprising), the ones used to describe the officials indicate negative connotation (violence and death).
The signs of the battle fought by these forces are holes in the city's building and ammunition that littered the central square, litter suggesting dirt. The violence of their attacks is also suggested by the verb blast:
Several said that on Thursday the Qaddafi forces blasted peaceful protesters gathered in the square with machine guns and artillery, pointing to holes in the sides of pillars and even a mosque .
As far as nouns are concerned, there is an enumeration of professions used to describe the rebels - they are doctors, lawyers, judges, engineers and the like - therefore respectful and reliable professions, relating to the civil society. The enumeration describing the official forces relates to the military - Colonel's Qaddafi's militias, plainclothes police and other paramilitary forces, suggesting repression and violence . Later in the article these forces and called gangsters (Qaddafi and his gangsters will not have a hand on them [revenues from the national oil company] and Colonel Qaddafi is called an autocrat, as illustrated by the following passage:
…he has shed far more of his citizens' blood than any of the regions' other autocrats .
In conclusion there is a powerful lexical contrast between the two parties, as indicated by the choice of nouns, adjectives and adverbs used to describe them.
D. Reah [28, p. 78] classifies verbs as actional (transactive and non-transactive), which are dynamic and indicate control of the subject and relational, which are the copulative ones that indicate qualities or states.
The majority of verbs used to describe the rebels are actional, a choice that reflects once more the journalists' position - the rebels are in full control of their actions: they demonstrate their increasing military coordination, they have repulsed repeated attempts by Colonel Qaddafi's forces to retake the rebel-held cities, they are organizing public services and continued defence, they mock Colonel Qaddafi's allegations.
The authors of the article use a different approach to describe Colonel Qaddafi's actions: although no passive constructions appear, the journalists avoid describing Colonel Qaddafi as an agent: it is not him that orders the position of his troops, but they are presented as having a will of their own, as if having no ruler:
…his forces were massing again on its [Zawiyah's] outskirts .
The nominalization illustrated in the example below presents the Libyan rules as playing a less active part: Colonel Qaddafi has shown a willingness to shed far more of his citizens' blood.
The battle between the two parties acquires a symbolic dimension because of the use of verbs belonging to the literary field - for example gird, thus bringing to mind the eternal fight between good and evil:
The maneuverings by both sides suggested they were girding for a confrontation that could influence the shape of other protest movements and the responses of other rulers who feel threatened by insurrections .
The verbs used for the rebels are very many in number and most of them actional, while the ones used for the official forces can be described as pseudopassives, conveying the current leader's lack of control.
It is worth to say, that not only the person who is quoted is important but also how the quotation is provided. In the article the rebels are associated with comments made by highly reliable financial aspect is irrelevant:
And he insisted the proceeds would ultimately flow to the rebels, not Colonel Qaddafi. «Qaddafi and his gangsters will not have a hand on the money,» he said». We are not worried about the revenues» .
As far as the foreign countries and officials supporting the Libyan rebels are concerned, the reporting verb is urged, indicating the dramatic character of the situation:
Senator John McCain…urged the Obama administration to consider military action and recognize a rebel government .
From Libya's official side only two people are quoted, namely Colonel Qaddafi's two sons - Saadi el-Qaddafi and Seif al-Islam el-Qaddafi. Their words indicate denial of reality - one of them does not admit that there are fights in the country, while the other one states the opposite, there is unrest in the country, this being caused not by the political situation but by the people's desire of having more. He also warns that if the rebels were to win, the country would enter in a state of chaos. Unlike for the rebels' words for which the journalists make no comments, for these two officials they insert their own comments, indicating denial of reality and deceit of public opinion. The comments are softened by the verb appear:
In interviews with ABC news, two of Colonel Qaddafi's sons appeared to mix defiance and denial. «The people - everybody wants more», said Saadi el-Qaddafi, apparently dismissing the public outcry for a more accountable government. «there is no limit. You give this, then you get asked for that, you know?» .
He described the uprisings around the region as an «earthquake» and predicted, «Chaos will be everywhere». If his father left, he said, Libya would face a civil war «one hour later».
The journalists do not overtly interpret his words, but they use verbs and adverbials indicating possibility, such as appeared, apparently and conditional would to make his statement less credible.
Colonel's Qaddafi's son presents the rebels as children, who want more and are not aware of the gravity of their action. In opposition to his brother, Seif al-Islam el-Qaddafi denies the existence of any unrest, claiming that the situation is normal.
He seemed to challenge journalists to look for signs of unrest. «Please, take your cameras tomorrow morning, even tonight», he said. «Everything is calm. Everything is peaceful» .
Towards the end of the article his lies are exposed, the journalists interpreting his words, not quoting them: The Qaddafi government implicitly acknowledged for the first time on Sunday that it feared elements of its military falling into rebel hands, as Colonel Qaddafi's son Seif said in the television interview that the Libyan government had bombed its own ammunition depots in the east .
The presentation of the official position is characterized by words indicating possibility, not an actual state of things as well as verbs such as suggest or conditional would: the tour appeared to do more to discredit than bolster the government's line, the minder appeared to mingle easily with people, some suggested, the journalists would discover .
The allegations made by the officials that the rebels are actually influenced by drugs provided by Osama bin Laden is a statement that indicates once more the current leaders' absurd position.
In conclusion, there are many quotations of the rebels, given either fully or partly, the verbs used being said, stated, etc, while for the official side there are only two people that are quoted or interpreted, with sentence including words related to modality. In this way the two parties are opposed - the rebels seem to be telling the truth while the officials lie.
The article presents two opposing parties Qaddafi's armed forces and the rebels. The images associated with them are conflicting: while the officials are presented as deadly, violent, deceitful and lifeless, the rebels are presented as full of life, hope and determination to win the battle.
In order to convey these ideas, the choice of words is related to death, dirt and lifelessness when describing the officials: they mounted a deadly assault, the streets are deserted, ammunition is littering the central square, the ruler wants to shed far more of his citizen's blood, Colonel Qaddafi's militias, plainclothes police and other paramilitary forces have kept the deserted streets of Tripoli under a lockdown .
As far as the rebels are concerned the selected words indicate hope - gleeful residents, determination - increasing military coordination, unified command, good management and civic responsibility: they are organizing public services, they had formed a national council to manage the «day-to-day living» of the liberated territories», thus proving that they care about the common people's existence.
There is permanent tension between the rebels' and the officials' position.
As to the text level the paragraphs are not balanced, since far more are devoted to describing the rebels' position as well as the support they are offered by the defected army and foreign governments and organizations.
In order to defend the rebels against Colonel Qaddafi's allegations, the journalists begin a sentence with but, a less common coordinator used in sentence initial position. Its presence has the aim of cancelling official allegations, according to which the protesters are drugged and no longer behave normally. The journalists' position is indicated by the use of but and the adjective little interest, both indicating irony: Some (officials) suggested that the Qaddafi government might in fact believe its own propaganda; that the journalists would discover in Zaweiyah radical Islamists, young people crazed by drugs supplied by Osama bin Laden. But the residents showed little interest in Islamist politics ort hallucinogenic drugs. They mocked Colonel Qaddafi's allegation, painted the tricolored pre-Qaddafi flag that has become the banner of the revolt on the side of a burned-outgovernment building and chanted Free, free, Libya .
As we can see, the rebels are presented as people fighting for freedom and democracy, not for religious or other reasons. The high number of paragraphs devoted to the description of the rebel's position is indicative of the journalists' position itself.
So, the article presents the onset of the civil war in Libya. The topic makes the article newsworthy and from the very beginning (headline and lead) the article indicates that the authors support values such as democracy, the citizens' right of having a say in the political situation, the right to better living, values which the journalists share with their readers.
Their evaluation of the situation presented is reflected in the choices made in terms of lexis, sentences (types of verbs, voice, structuring the information), imagery and text level.
The material of the research is the extracts of examples of evaluation from the article «Rebels in Libya Gain Power and Defectors» by Kirpatrck David and Fahim Kareem from the newspaper New York Times.
There are such quantitative findings as the results of our research work:
At the lexical level the author used such lexical meanings that indicate evaluation:
1) nouns - 45% of total evaluative vocabulary
2) adjectives and adverbial 35% of total evaluative vocabulary
3) verbs 20% of total evaluative vocabulary.
It worth to say, that the evaluative vocabulary of the article can be divided into two parts positive (for describing the rebels, their strength and approval of their activities) and negative (is used for Colonel Qaddafi's forces, for indication of their violence). Positive and negative evaluative lexis is used equally in the article.
2.2 Peculiarities of repetitions in the texts of modern English newspaper discourse
The texts of newspaper discourse became nowadays an integral part of people's life. Newspapers today play the important role in the forming of social thoughts and spirits. The information of the media is the one-day text that isn't kept in the culture. So, the main task of the authors of media texts is to form such text that would influence the thoughts of the readers. Repetition in the text of newspaper discourse helps to mark the importance of information to the readers. So, repetition can be regarded as the most typical stylistic device of the English newspaper discourse.
We analyzed the role of repetitions in the newspaper discourse on the base of the texts of the English newspaper the Guardians.
Repetitions in newspaper texts can be formed at different linguistic levels. At lexical level it can be repetition of the same words:
Documentaries have influenced how actors can perform more naturally, or film-makers create mises-en-scene convincingly. But more than anything, they have changed us all, allowed us to understand others we have never met or will never have the chance to meet ;
My recent viewing has included The Only Way is Essex, which is part reality, part fiction, where the fictional improvisation bring out true feelings that become a new reality for the participants .
At the level of morphology repetition can be formed with the different forms of the word:
Mankind has, and continues to have, a huge impact on the planet ;
or different parts of speech within the cognate words:
The problem for critics and some viewers was that the family revealed their personal problems and argued among themselves - there was a lot of judgment about the way they lived their lives .
At the level of syntax different parts of the sentences or even the whole sentence can be repeated:
Most of human expansion came through manipulating nature. When we ran out of game to hunt, we domesticated the wild auroch and turned it into a cow. When we ran out of seeds to collect, we cultivated wild grass and turned it into wheat, corn and rice. Each of these, and many other domesticated species, is as much a product of technology as the mobile phone or the car .
Important role of the repetitions in the texts of newspaper can be explained by not only their abilities to influence the emotions of readers, but also to make changes in the system «opinions - valuable - social norms» [6, р. 42].
With the aim of expressive accentuation in the media texts repetitions of the same lexical elements can be used at the beginning of several sentences:
The more we look, the more we pay attention to every detail. He does exactly the same with Empire, although nothing changes but the light.
The more we watch, the more we think about it, and the more we think about it, the more important it becomes ;
It is a shock to the system and it brings you to your senses. I have always wondered if Tarr had taken this scene's inspiration from Frederick Wiseman's documentary Titicut Follies. It is a shocking and grim look behind the scenes of Bridgewater ;
The questions need to be asked: why were they abandoned by the same Nato forces acting to save the lives of people on the ground in Libya? Why did the European coastguard and military vessels ignore their calls for help? ;
When we ran out of game to hunt, we domesticated the wild auroch and turned it into a cow. When we ran out of seeds to collect, we cultivated wild grass and turned it into wheat, corn and rice ;
We need a new inquiry along the lines of the 1960s Kerner commission, which can provide a detailed annual assessment of the state of race relations in the US, looking at all the data on social justice - healthcare, employment, education etc - to see how we are fulfilling the obligations we set ourselves in the civil rights era. We need a revival of the civil rights commission at the federal level. We need to pass new laws to combat racial profiling at the federal, state and local levels  such often repeat of the word «need» express the miserable life of people, they are ready even «to cry» about their needs.
Such repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of every clause is called anaphora. It gives the texts the special rhythm and have emotional power as attract the reader's attention to the fact.
Along with repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of every clause we fixed the repetition of a word at the end of every clause (epistopher):
Of course there are dangers. But doing nothing is also dangerous .
Such repetitions have a great expressive meaning and impact. It create the effect of culmination and several times accent the attention of reader on the fact / subject.
Sometimes repetition of the cognate words is used in press with the aim to convince readers of the truth of somebody's words:
The US secretary of state, Hillary Clinton, has said time is running out for diplomacy over Iran's nuclear programme and confirmed talks aimed at preventing Tehran from acquiring a nuclear weapon would resume in mid-April.
Our policy is one of prevention, not containment. We are determined to prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon ;
We need to change laws, and change society .
Repetition of the same word can be used with aim to intensify the thoughts of reader according the material:
Government accused of encouraging panic-buying of petrol as garages report 81% week-on-week rise in fuel sales ;
With a quiet location on a Falmouth back street, this is a hostel with a home-from-home feel - the owner lives in the tall terraced house and keeps a friendly eye on the place .
Sometimes repetition creates the rhythmic effect and aims to attract attention of readers or just create «warm» style of the article:
Smug, nous? - lovey dovey couples are everywhere, why can't they just go away ;
A mother and daughter, «little Edie» and «big Edie» Beale, live together in a ramshackle house in the Hamptons, New York, where they seem to have retreated from the outside world .
The concrete word combinations in the direct speech can be used as the mean to stress the importance of the thought:
«What he [Maude] was trying to do was help people get though a very difficult situation. If the strike goes ahead - and we don't want the strike to go ahead, that's why we have Acas involved - it's going to be a much better-prepared situation if petrol tanks are topped up. You don't have to queue for it but if you're driving past [a garage] and you've got half a tank then top up» ;
I was oblivious to most of these criticisms as I was young and accepted what I saw, and in fact what I saw felt like real life .
Along with repetitions of the same words, word combinations or sentences such stylistic device as synonymic repetition is actively used in the texts of modern English press. It is one of the leading stylistic devices:
Is it any wonder so many in the US and around the world have responded with disbelief, with anger, with outrage to Trayvon's death? ;
We had to change the law. Change institutions. Change society ;
In the US, racial profiling - where black people are judged negatively, purely on account of our skin colour - is everywhere. The police profile us, the judges profile us, and the banks profile us ;
The media often likes to present a veneer of success: we have top athletes, musicians, a screenful of actors, business people - and, above all, a president. But beneath that veneer black people are three times more likely to be unemployed than whites; and our infant mortality is higher, our life expectancy shorter, our imprisonment greater and our homicides higher than for any other ethnic group .
Synonyms contain not only general meanings, but also more concrete meanings, which help to add semantic nuance to the general meaning. So, synonyms using helps to accent attention to the problem of the article.
So, we can make conclusions on the base of our research.
The general aim of the texts of modern newspaper discourse is to exert influence on public opinion, to convince the reader that the interpretation given by the writer is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the article not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well.
The category of evaluation is important to newspaper discourse for two reasons: it plays a vital role in constructing the ideological basis of a text, thereby locating writer and reader in an ideological space; and it plays a vital role in organizing a text. Evaluation on both the autonomous and the interactive planes take part in both functions.
The journalists' position in English modern newspaper discourse is indicated by their choice of words, namely nouns, adjectives and adverbials, as well as the register to which they belong (formal, informal, literary). During research one should remember, that evaluation consists of both explicit and implicit types of evaluation expression.
The way in which people are quoted in article indicates the journalist's position. Quotations and the way in which they are given are important, as they provide the perspective from which the readers will understand the story.
Repetition is the simple repeating of a word, within a sentence with no particular placement of the words, in order to emphasize. Repetition is a stylistic device, the essence of which is to repeat one and the same word or phrase, aiming to add more expressiveness to the utterance.
Repetitions as a stylistic device have different functions within the texts or utterance. The most common function of the repetition is the intensifying function, function of increasing, rhythmical function, expressive function and the function of persuasion. For these aim words, word combinations or even sentences may be repeated within the text.
Repetitions as stylistic device play great role in the texts of modern newspaper discourse as means of persuasion as the general aim of the texts of modern press is to exert influence on public opinion.
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