Lingual-Stylistic Peculiarities of G. Byron's "The Prisoner of Chillon" and "Sonnet on Chillon", and Their Reproduction in the Translations by P. Hrabovs'kyi, V. Mysyk, M. Kabaliuk and V. Zhukovs'kyi

Style as a literary notion and its reproduction in translation. The peculiarities of graphical expression as the style-forming means and their rendering. Morphological style-creating means and their reproduction. Syntax as tool for style-creating.

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Язык английский
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Let`s compare these examples with the lines in the translation of V. Zhukovs`kyi, P. Hrabovs`kyi and M. Kabaliuk correspondently:

И вод его со всех сторон

[26: 319, VI, 2]

Бурхливі хвилі досягли б

[27: 228, VI, 4]

Водою Леману Шільйон

[29: 17, VI, 1]

Гонитель вепрей и волков

[26: 319, V, 12]

За вовком, сарною слідом

[27: 227, V, 13]

Там, де лиш ходить

дикий звір

[29: 16, V, 14]

В него биющая волна

[26: 319, VI, 10]

Стіна та хвиля - мов труна,

[27: 228, VI, 7]

Подвійна - хвилі і стіна

[29: 17, VI, 7]

И слышен был мне шум

Ручьев [26: 333, XIII, 8]

Струмці вигукують,

рвучи [27: 234, XIII, 9]

Потоки прокладають шлях

[29: 18, XIII, 7]

И воды были там живей

[26: 333, XIII, 23]

Один одним посеред хвиль.

[27: 234, XIII, 18]

Повз нього теплі води йшли

[29: 18, XIII, 19]

Паук темничный надо мной

[26: 335, XVI, 17]

Де був я другом павука

[27: 235, XVI, 16]

Я з павуками подружив

[29: 18, XVI, 19]

За резвой мышью при луне

[26: 333, XVI, 19]

На мишеняток позирав

[27: 235, XVI, 17]

Спостерігати гру мишей

[29: 18, XVI, 21]

Apparently, in “The Prisoner of Chillon” this factor generally does not play an important role and therefore does not have any impact on the style. However, it is absolutely different when the object in question is used for comparison or as a symbol. In such case, both gender and number become very important, and are better left intact:

To see such a bird in such a nest [32: 356, IV, 10]

But he, the favorite and the flower [32: 359, VIII, 1]

It was the carol of a bird [32: 361, X, 2]

That bird was perch'd, as fond and tame [32: 362, X, 16]

A lovely bird, with azure wings [32: 362, X, 18]

Sweet bird! I could not wish for thine! [32: 32, X, 32]

Once again, let us refer to the translations:

При мне был должен милый цвет

[26: 319, IV, 11]

Росла ця пташка молода?

[27: 227, IV, 12]

Що птах такий в такім гнізді?..

[29: 16, IV, 10]

Но он - наш милый, лучший цвет

[26: 323, VIII, 1]

А той... кохання наше, цвіт

[27: 229, VIII, 1]

Та й він - сім`ї найкращий цвіт

[29: 17, VIII, 1]

Мой ум... то голос птички был.

[26: 327, X, 2]

Немов учулися пташки...

[27: 232, X, 1]

У мозок - був то пташки спів

[29: 17, X, 2]

И мой певец воздушный был:

[26: 327, X, 17]

Моя пташиночка ясна

[27: 235, X, 14]

Ту пташку бачив я - вона

[29: 17, X, 16]

Но кто ж он сам был, мой певец?

[26: 327, X, 33]

Прихильна братові душа

[27: 235, X, 31]

Того ж... Чи, може, райський гість

[29: 17, X, 33]

Translators used the variety of synonyms in order to render symbolic gender of “flower” and “bird” as masculine. Although noun “птица, птичка” is feminine only in Russian, V. Zhukovs`kyi managed to limit its use, and successfully rendered “bird” as “певец” in most cases. For the Ukrainian translators this problem is easier to solve, as in Ukrainian there exist feminine and masculine lexical units for both “flower” and “bird”: “квітка/квіт”, “пташка/птах”. That is why we find it strange that both Ukrainian translations abound in repetition of feminine form “пташка”, especially, taken into consideration that symbolical gender of these lexemes in G. Byron's poem is obvious, and the fact, that in provided examples from M. Kabaliuk`s translation, for instance, “пташка” may be easily substituted for “птах” without violation of rhythmical structure.

Among other problems on the morphological level there are such as rendering of possessive case of abstract nouns (Persecution's rage), use of tenses (tenses used by G. Byron include Present Indefinite, Present Perfect, Past Indefinite, Past Perfect, and Future-in-the-Past), usage of passive constructions, and modals; but all of these bear no special significance for poet's style, and do not present any peculiar problems for the translator, but for the natural difference between the English and Ukrainian, or Russian, if one refers to V. Zhukovs`kyi`s translation, languages.

“Sonnet on Chillon” does not present any peculiarities worth of detailed discussion on this level.

2.4 Lexical means in poetic style-creating and their transference

The most important stylistic means at this level are metaphors, personifications and simile. As Je. Klimenko notes, the Swiss period of G. Byron`s creativity was marked by the particularly bright personifications, metaphors and simile [12: 15]. It is absolutely true for “The Prisoner of Chillon”, inspite of its tender narration flow, which is performed in a more or less plain unembellished language, but for the moments of emotional strain, and description of nature.

The most commonly used tropes of the G. Byron's style are metaphors and personifications. Metaphor is a trope in which certain words and word combinations explain the essence of some objects and phenomena through others similar or opposite to them [34: 444]. As personification is a type of metaphor, we will include the study of their reproduction with metaphors. There are more than 30 examples of metaphor usage in the “Prisoner of Chillon”. Not infrequently they are extended and form a resemblance of a chain, where one trope goes after another to strengthen the effect and create the appearance of emotional speech. Let us refer to such a personification which includes appellation as well:

But he, the favorite and the flower,

Most cherish'd since his natal hour,

His mother's image in fair face,

The infant love of all his race,

His martyr'd father's dearest thought,

My latest care, for whom I sought [32: 359, VIII, 1-6]

Generally, translators did not encounter particular problems in reproduction of G. Byron's metaphors. V. Zhukovs`kyi tends to add his own counterparts to the trope, and to decompress it into more lines, as well as to transform some of them:

Но он - наш милый, лучший цвет,

Наш ангел с колыбельных лет,

Сокровище семьи родной,

Он - образ матери душой

И чистой прелестью лица,

Мечта любимая отца,

Он - для кого я жизнь щадил [26: 325, VIII, 1-7]

The usage of lexeme “ангел” is probably due to the translator's orientation on the religious aspect of Bonivar`s fighting. P. Hrabovs`kyi applies lexical reproduction with syntactic, as he uses ellipsis to create aposiopesis in the first line, and thus strengthen the emotional impact, which was lessened due to the repetition of appellation “flower”, though expressed via synonyms. The same reason is probably the cause for reproduction of “favourite” as stronger “кохання”:

А той... кохання наше, цвіт,

Утіха батька з перших літ,

Краса, квіточок польовий,

Малюнок матері живий,

Що муки, в`янучи, долів,

За кого надто я болів [27: 229, VIII, 1-6]

The best reproduction of this extended metaphor is done by M. Kabaliuk, who extended “fair face” to occupy the whole line; but generally kept to G. Byron's scheme of the trope:

Та й він - сім`ї найкращий цвіт,

Кого любив увесь наш рід,

Хто образ матері зберіг

У рисах ніжних і ясних,

Він батька-мученика син

Омріяний. І та з причин [29: 17, VIII, 1-6]

Let us now consider the following G. Byron's metaphors:

My limbs are bow'd, though not with toil,

But rusted with a vile repose [32: 353, I, 6-7]

I said my nearer brother pined,

I said his mighty heart declined [32: 357, VII, 1-2]

I was the mate of misery [32: 361, X, 8]

These are their translations by V. Zhukovs`kyi, P. Hrabovs`kyi, and M. Kabaliuk, correspondently:

Но не труды, не хлад, не зной -

Не труд кістки проїв, а ржа

[27: 224, I, 6]

Не труд - кайдани і тюрма

Тюрьма разрушила меня.

[26: 315, I, 6-7]

Звели в неробстві та ганьбі.

[29: 16, I, 6-7]

Середний брат наш - я сказал -

Середній брат - мовляв я - гас;

Середній брат - я вже казав -

Душой скорбел и увядал.

[26: 327, VII, 1-2]

Він умирав, він кидав нас

[27: 228, VII, 1-2]

Гас духом, серцем знемагав

[29: 17, VII, 1-2]

Но ненадолго... мысль моя

Мій ум зворушений прочнувсь;

Що нерозлучний з горем я

[29: 17, X, 8]

Стезей привычною пошла,

Все те ж, і стіни, як Були

[27: 232, X, 8-9]

И я очнулся... и была

[26: 327, X, 8-10]

V. Zhukovs`kyi sometimes omits G. Byron's metaphors, as in the third example, but generally he tends to transform them for his target reader, as in the second example, or combine with previous or following one, as in the first. P. Hrabovs`kyi sometimes follow his example as to the omission (third example in the second column), or generalizes the metaphor into simple statement (the second example), but mainly he is attentive to metaphors and translates them accurately (the first example). On the whole, M. Kabaliuk is the most attentive one when it comes to metaphors, and reproduces them where only possible.

Though, not all of the metaphors of the “Prisoner of Chillon” are rendered by at least one translator. For instance, this is the line in which the attention is equally divided between the protagonist and chains, and thus makes them equal, “friends”:

My very chains and I grew friends [32: 365, XIV, 24]

V. Zhukovs`kyi makes this line more general, and focuses on the protagonist:

Я к цепи руку приучил [26: 333, XIV, 21]

P. Hrabovs`kyi combines this trope with following lines and comes with the following translation:

Тягучі ретязі тюрми

(Так час панує над людьми)

Я щирим жалем спом`янув [27: 235, XIV, 25-27]

M. Kabaliuk destroys the trope altogether:

Я звик уже й до ланцюгів [29: 18, XIV, 29]

The next large group of tropes to be discussed is that of simile and comparisons, which includes around 20 examples. Some of them are disguised simile and deserve special attention:

Of whom this wreck is left the last [32: 354, I, 26]

To him this dungeon was a gulf [32: 357, V, 14]

And the whole earth would henceforth be

A wider prison unto me [32: 363, XII, 6-7]

And I, the monarch of each race [32: 365, XIV, 20]

Others are rather extended and combine a few simile as their counterparts:

For he would never thus have flown,

And left me twice so doubly lone, -

Lone as the corse within its shroud,

Lone as a solitary cloud,

A single cloud on a sunny day,

While all the rest of heaven is clear,

A frown upon the atmosphere [32: 362, X, 41-47]

M. Kabaliuk is the only one who translated all the four above-enlisted examples of the first subgroup (the third column of the table). P. Hrabovs`kyi omitted the first latent simile, and transformed the image of the second, while V. Zhukovs`kyi transformed both, second and third, and omitted the fourth one.

style literary translation syntax

Лишь я, развалина одна

[26: 315, I, 24]

З тих трьох - руйна із руїн

[29: 16, I, 25]

И гроб тюрьма ему была

[26: 319, V, 13]

То скуті ноги, царство мли

[27: 227, V, 15]

Тюрма була безодні дном

[29: 16, V, 15]

Мир стал чужой мне, жизнь пуста

[26: 331, XII, 5]

Тюрма чи світ - одно були

[27: 233, XII, 4]

Земля, де рідних вже нема,

Лише просторіша тюрма.

[29: 17-18, XII, 5-6]

Я був владикою між їх;

[27: 235, XIV, 21]

Я, їх володар, будь-коли

[29: 18, XIV, 25]

As to the translation of the example of extended simile, V. Zhukovs`kyi omitted it in the tenth section, but included it to the section twelve:

Я был бы лишний гость на нем,

Как облако при ясном дне,

Потерянное в вышине

И в радостных его лучах

Ненужное на небесах...

[26: 331, XII, 13-17]

Both P. Hrabovs`kyi and M. Kabaliuk left this simile intact, and reproduced it according to the principle of accumulation of simile, as G. Byron had it:

Немруща, - чи знялась би ж та,

Я добре знав це - брат ніяк

Щоб я, удвоє сирота,

Не кинув би мене отак,

Отут навіки самотні

Подвійно у самотині.

Остався трупом у труні,

Мов трупа у тісній труні,

Один, - хмариночка одна,

Мов одиноку в вишині

Що в небі іноді зрина,

Хмарину на небеснім тлі, -

Як небо ясне, а земля

Похмурість в синяві ясній,

Чарує, манить, привабля.

Де не лишила місця їй

[27: 232, X, 37-44]

Вся радість неба і землі.

[29: 17, X, 41-49]

Comparisons are far rarer than simile and occur only three times. The translators` approaches to their translation do not differ from those applied to the translation of simile, and therefore will not be discussed.

The next problem to be studied is the translation of epithets. This group is not that numerous as the previous two, but it includes some interesting examples of G. Byron's style:

I lost their long and heavy score [32: 355, II, 19]

But with that pale and livid light [32: 355, III, 5]

They coldly laugh'd - and laid him there [32: 358, VII, 34]

Evidently, the reproduction of collocation consisting of two one-syllabic words, one of which is emotionally loaded epithet, is a problematic issue, which becomes even harder task, taking into consideration the presence of two such epithets (long and heavy, pale and livid), and phonetic effect (livid light).

Again we will refer to the table to see the way translators dealt with this task:

Вже погубив їх довгий лік.

[27: 226, II, 22]

Я їм рахунок загубив

[29: 16, II, 19]

Нам бледный мрак тюрьмы мешал.

[26: 317, III, 6]

Було нас троє бранців тьми

[27: 226, III, 7]

В тім світлі, мертвім і блідім

[29: 16, III, 7]

Холодный смех; и брат мой там

[26: 321, VII, 42]

Зареготались в одвіт...

[27: 229, VII, 35]

Й по смерті спокою. Кати

Сміялись з мене в той момент.

[29: 17, VII, 33-34]

V. Zhukovs`kyi omits the first collocation altogether, while M. Kabaliuk omits the epithets, preserving the word “score”; and P. Hrabovs`kyi goes even further preserving one of the epithets as well: довгий лік. Of special interest is the translation of the second example, with all the translators applying different approaches: V. Zhukovs`kyi uses oxymoron, P. Hrabovs1kyi makes antonymic translation strengthening it with lexeme “бранці”, and M. Kabaliuk rather accurately translates the whole collocation and emphasizes it by detachment. The third example shows us one more direct translation with the omission of adverb, but additional emotional colouring of the verb (P. Hrabovs`kyi); conversion of adverb + verb into epithet + noun (P. Hrabovs`kyi); and conversion of the emphasis and connotations onto the noun (M. Kabaliuk). All of these methods are equally creative and preserve the stylistic effect.

As to the other lexical means that may influence the style, these are archaisms; but all the obsolete grammatical forms used in “The Prisoner of Chillon” were at G. Byron`s time almost an obligation for the poetic work [12: 59], especially in Romanticism: hath, I found him not. Thus, the one way of the archaism rendering in this case is to translate them by correspondent Ukrainian archaic words. The example of such translation may be the translation of W. Shakespeare`s sonnets by I. Kostets`kyi, who in this way wants to achieve the same effect as the W. Shakespeare`s poetry has on the contemporary reader. The other method is to use traditional Ukrainian forms and characteristic features, peculiar for the Ukrainian Romantic poetry: for instance, shortened/lengthened formes of words. The example of such a method may be the translation by P. Hrabovs`kyi, who used однії, вража, обляга. However, it is worth noting that this translation was done in 1894 when such forms were more common. The third method is the one used by V. Mysyk, D. Pavlychko and M. Kabaliuk, and it presupposes the omission of archaisms in translation, substituting them for the common words, as they were a norm for G. Byron`s style, but were not at the time of the translation. Each method has its merits and drawbacks, though the first one is more of an experiment as it complicated the comprehension of the poem by readers. The second may be also a cause for misunderstanding and creation of the wrong stylistic effect if its usage is not regulated by the contemporary norms of the Ukrainian language, as with the development of the language some words or constructions may become outdated. For instance, though the translation by M. Kabaliuk is very good and many of the translator's findings are more than adequate; and it was published in not so far 1982, it already needs editing. That is why we feel it would be reasonable to review this translation as to the changed language norms:

На мене із-за мокрих грат [29: 17, VI, 14]

Мов звіра, посадив між грат. [29: 17, VII, 12]

І я радів судьбі такій [29: 18, XII, 10]

Могла звести мене з ума [29: 17, XI, 12]

Хоч крізь гратоване вікно [29: 17, XI, 14]

“Sonnet on Chillon” may be regarded as a combined extended trope on itself, as almost every line contains personification (addressing abstract notions, in particular), simile, and epithets. Their reproduction by P. Hrabovs`kyi has already been discussed, so let us have a closer look on the translations by V. Mysyk and D. Pavlychko:

Brightest in dungeons, Liberty! thou art

[32: 353, sonnet, 2]

Свободо! Ясно ти в темниці сяєш

[30: 421, VII, 2]

Свободо, найсяйливіша в темниці

[31: 16, sonnet, 2]

Their country conquers with their martyrdom

[32: 353, sonnet, 7]

Їх жертва сили додає країні

[30: 421, VII, 7]

То їхня слава, наче крила птиці

[31: 16, sonnet, 7]

Chillon! thy prison is a holy place

[32: 353, sonnet, 9]

Шільон! Ти найсвятіша із руїн

[30: 421, VII, 9]

Шільйоне, знай, твоя тюрма - то храм

[31: 16, sonnet, 9]

V. Mysyk reproduces the metaphor in the first example by addition of extra verb with the meaning of “bright”, combined with adverb “ясно”, while D. Pavlychko follows G. Byron's lead creating epithet “найсяйливіша”. The translation of the second example is more problematic: V. Mysyk resolves it changing the subject into object and vice versa, which seems a good choice and successful translation; and D. Pavlychko omits this line and does not reproduce it, but creates his own simile, connected with the following lines. The third example is a latent simile. V. Mysyk reproduces it introducing the noun “руїни” as an equivalent for “place”, and additionally strengthens the line with the superlative. However, the general mood of the sonnet allows for such an elevation. Nevertheless, he does not use vocative case for address, as would be proper; although, in case “ти” is omitted, it is possible to introduce vocative case without violation of rhythm. D. Pavlychko achieves accurate and laconic translation by finding single equivalent “храм” for the collocation “holy place”.

Of special interest is the poet's use of lexical repetitions in the sonnet:

For there in thy habitation is the heart

The heart which love of thee alone can bind;

And when thy sons to fetters are consign'd -

To fetters, and the damp vault's dayless gloom [32: 353, sonnet, 3-6]

Unfortunately, neither of translators managed to reproduce it.

It is understandable that some losses in translation at this level or any other level are inevitable, as shorter English words allow for more extended tropes, moreover, some of the losses may be caused by the necessity to adhere to rhyme, and to reproduce the meaning properly. Still, the above-mentioned examples prove that it is possible to render G. Byron's linguo-stylistical peculiarities on the lexical level.

2.5 Syntax as a style-creating means and its rendering

The most characteristic means of G. Byron's style at this level are syntactic repetitions, parallel constructions, polysyndeton and asyndeton, rhetorical questions and exclamations, and ellipsis.

At first the different kinds of syntactic repetition will be studied. There are 5 examples of anaphor in “The Prisoner of Chillon”, one of them encompassing repetition of the beginning of the line thrice:

I've seen it rushing forth in blood,

I've seen it on the breaking ocean

Strive with a swoln convulsive motion,

I've seen the sick and ghastly bed

[32: 359, VIII, 16-19]

V. Zhukovs`kyi, P. Hrabovs`kyi, and M. Kabaliuk render it in a following way:

Смерть человека... я видал,

Я бачив збитого борця

Я бачив смерть не раз в боях,

Как ратник в битве погибал;

В годину смертного кінця;

Коли рікою кров текла,

Я видел, как пловец тонул

Пловець - пригадую - вмирав,

Я бачив, як в глибінь морську

С доской, к которой он прильнул

Зі смертю п*явся - не здолав;

У корчах йшли людські тіла,

С надеждой гибнущей своей;

Знавав я грішника, що чах

[27: 230, VII, 17-21]

В огиднім ліжку смерть, де Гріх

[29: 17, VII, 15-19]

Я зрел, как издыхал злодей

[26: 325, VIII, 19-24]

Due to the demands of rhyme and rhythm, it is hard to adjust words in a way that they create repetition at the beginning of the line, and even to preserve that repetition within the line. As we can see, only M. Kabaliuk succeeded to achieve the repetition of two lines of three; V. Zhukovs`kyi uses three synonyms, managing to place two of them in the anaphoric position; and similar translation belongs to P. Hrabovs`kyi, though he changes “I`ve seen” for “пригадую” in one case of the three. Nevertheless, the syntactic repetition is partly preserved because of the preservation of the general syntactic structure of the lines.

While G. Byron does not use anaphor often; he does not apply epiphor at all, the same considers frame repetition. What concerns chain repetition, there are two examples of it in “Sonnet on Chillon”:

For there in thy habitation is the heart

The heart which love of thee alone can bind;

And when thy sons to fetters are consign'd -

To fetters, and the damp vault's dayless gloom

[32: 353, sonnet, 3-6]

As we discussed their reproduction in the previous section, we will not dwell on them again.

Probably, the largest group of examples on syntactic repetition refers to the enumeration. The combination of two homogeneous nouns or verbs is very common, but longer chains of homogeneous parts of the sentence are not infrequent as well, and more often than not are emphasised with the repetition of different kinds, or even punctuation:

He faded, and so calm and meek,

So softly worn, so sweetly weak,

So tearless, yet so tender, kind [32: 359, VIII, 23-25]

It is highly problematic to render all of these taking into consideration the preservation of meaning and poetic form; however, it is possible to compensate for it:

Он гас, столь кротко-молчалив,

А тут був інший жах: журба -

Він в`янув лагідно, без сліз,

Столь безнадежно-терпелив,

Тиха, покірна та слаба...

Покірно всі страждання ніс

Столь грустно-томен, нежно-тих.

Марніла знищечку краса;

І з ніжним сумом шкодував

Без слез, лишь помня о своих

[26: 325, VIII, 31-34]

Так сумно іноді згаса

Про тих, кого він тут лишав.

[29: 17, VII, 23-26]

Веселки промінь чарівний...

Як завжди, добрий, привітний

[27: 230, VII, 23-28]

Both V. Zhukovs`kyi and P. Hrabovs`kyi use a brightly expressed anaphor in combination with other kinds of repetition, though P. Hrabovs`kyi tears the long enumeration into two shorter stems and even separates them with three lines. M. Kabaliuk does not reproduce the enumeration.

Another type of parallelism is climax:

There were no stars - no earth - no time -

No check - no change - no good, no crime - [32: 359, IX, 15-16]

Let us look at the way translators reproduced it:

Без неба, света и светил,

Ні зір, ні неба, ні землі,

Зник простір, зорі, час, буття, -

Без времени, без дней и лет,

Ні часу, близу, ні далі,

Ні змін, ані добра, ні зла

[29: 17, IX, 15-16]

Без Промысла, без благ и бед

[26: 327, IX, 18-20]

Ні руху, зміни, ні добра,

Ні тиші тихої, ні зла,

Ні відпочинку, ні буття,

Ні смерті навіть, ні життя...

[27: 230, IX, 17-22]

V. Zhukovs`kyi and P. Hrabovs`kyi reinforce this expressive means by decompression, and lengthening chain of synonyms on their own. No matter how expressive such an approach may be, it is better not to overuse it as decompression weakens the general emotional impact of poetry, lengthens it and weakens the condenced meaning of each word. M. Kabaliuk in his translation even preserved the same quantity of homogeneous parts in the chain, and managed to keep them all within two lines, as in “The Prisoner of Chillon”.

Parallel constructions have less to do with lexical “flesh” of the sentences, but rather with the “reiteration of the structure of several successive sentences or clauses” [Kukh: 79], and are in fact another type of repetition; which does not mean that they cannot include the repetition of lexical units as well. The latter is particularly true for G. Byron's style, as his parallel constructions are almost always enhanced with lexical repetition of some kind or other:

My hair is gray, but not with years,

Nor grew it white

In a single night,

As men's have grown from sudden fears:

My limbs are bow'd, though not with toil, [32: 353, I, 1-5]

Six in youth, and one in age,

Finish'd as they had begun,

Proud of Persecution's rage;

One in fire, and two in field [32: 354, I, 18-21]

There are seven pillars of Gothic mould,

In Chillon's dungeons deep and old,

There are seven columns, massy and grey [32: 353, II, 1-3]

Reproduction of parallel constructions does not present any particular problems, as translator may choose what lexical units he will use for lexical repetition and correspondently, their strengthening, if any:

Взгляните на меня: я сед,

Не від лихих старечих днів

Я сивий; хоч не вік, не страх,

Но не от хилости и лет;

Я весь заслаб, я весь змарнів,

Що сивину

Не страх внезапный в ночь одну

Не жахом ночі однії,

За ніч одну

До срока дал мне седину.

Що несподівано вража,

Дає і в молодих роках,

Я сгорблен, лоб наморщен мой

[26: 315, I, 1-5]

Сивини вигнало мої,

Тут винні. Й руки ці слабі

Не труд кістки проїв, а ржа;

[27: 225, I, 1-6]

Не труд - кайдани і тюрма

[29: 16, I, 1-6]

Нас было шесть - пяти уж нет.

Було нас семеро - нема;

З шести синів скінчили путь,

Отец, страдалец с юных лет,

Не сяє день над шістьома.

Крім мене, всі в юнацький час -

Погибший старцем на костре,

Загинув, батькові услід,

Та Переслідування лють

Два брата, падшие во пре,

Його коханий, певний рід, -

Лиш гордість збуджувала в нас;

Отдав на жертву честь и кровь,

За пересвідчення лягли

Один в огні, а два в бою

Спасли души своей любовь.

Сини так славно, як жили:

За Бога й волю оддали,

Три заживо схоронены

Один - на вражому огні,

Три здобиччю тюрми були,

[29: 16, I, 17-23]

На дне тюремной глубины -

Два інші - зотнуті в борні;

[27: 225, I, 17-22]

И двух сожрала глубина;

[26: 315, I, 15-23]

Там, в подземелье, семь колонн

У підземеллі - сім колон -

Важких готичних сім колон;

Покрыты влажным мохом лет.

Готичні, сірі, кам*яні...

[27: 225, II, 17-22]

Їх сірі форми ледь могли

[29: 16, II, 2-3]

На них печальный брезжит свет

[26: 315, II, 2-4]

As we can see, only one example of three, the last one, proved to be challenging for translation; and was not preserved by any translator. V. Zhukovs`kyi and M. Kabaliuk compensated by the repetition of the meaning (колонн - на них, колон - їх); and P. Hrabovs`kyi - by enumeration.

Polysyndeton and asyndeton constitute another group of expressive means typical of G. Byron's style in “The Prisoner of Chillon”. There are plenty of examples of both: in fact, “and” is used for 141 times, which is more often than in each third line; “or” is used for 78 times, “but” - for 32 times. Nevertheless, asyndeton is not a rare case as well. Still, some of the most characteristic examples only, and hard to translate ones will be discussed:

And I have felt the winter's spray

Wash through the bars when winds were high

And wanton in the happy sky;

And then the very rock hath rock'd,

And I have felt it shake, unshock'd

[32: 353, VI, 13-17]

We were seven - who now are one,

Six in youth, and one in age,

Finish'd as they had begun,

Proud of Persecution's rage;

One in fire, and two in field,

Their belief with blood have seal'd,

Dying as their father died,

For the God their foes denied;

Three were in a dungeon cast,

Of whom this wreck is left the last.

[32: 354, I, 17-26]

Apparently, polysyndeton is frequently emphasised by anaphor, but the beginning of a line is rather common position for the conjunction. Still, asyndeton and polysyndeton are hard to render; even though V. Zhukovs`kyi fulfils the task, he is the only of three translators to do so. While hard to preserve, these expressive means are not impossible to compensate for, whether via any other kind of repetition on phonetic level as P. Hrabovs`kyi does it with polysyndeton; or using other punctuation marks (dashes in the second example in the translation by P. Hrabovs`kyi). M. Kabaliuk does not pay any special attention to the reproduction of asyndeton and polysyndeton, and his style seems to be a bit “drier” than G. Byron's; however, the style of “The Prisoner of Chillon” does not suffer significant losses because of it, as it is “style within the style”, and M. Kabaliuk applies enough repetition of conjunctions, and their omission to compensate for any losses to be:

Бывала взброшена волна,

Над головою сумно б`є,

На мене із-за мокрих грат

И брызгов дождь нас окроплял;

Щодня, щоночі хвилю рве;

Спадав холодних крапель град.

Случалось - вихорь бушевал,

А часом буря зареве,

Дрижав наш склеп, і ждав я - смерть

И содрогалася скала;

Скалою страшно захита

[27: 228, VI, 14-17]

Зламає ту гранітну твердь

[29: 17, VI, 14-17]

И с жадностью душа ждала

[26: 321, VI, 14-18]

Нас было шесть - пяти уж нет.

Було нас семеро - нема;

З шести синів скінчили путь,

Отец, страдалец с юных лет,

Не сяє день над шістьома.

Крім мене, всі в юнацький час -

Погибший старцем на костре,

Загинув, батькові услід,

Та Переслідування лють

Два брата, падшие во пре,

Його коханий, певний рід,

Лиш гордість збуджувала в нас;

Отдав на жертву честь и кровь,

За пересвідчення лягли

Один в огні, а два в бою

Спасли души своей любовь.

Сини так славно, як жили:

За Бога й волю оддали,

Три заживо схоронены

Один - на вражому огні,

Три здобиччю тюрми були,

На дне тюремной глубины -

Два інші - зотнуті в борні;

З тих трьох - руйна із руїн -

И двух сожрала глубина;

Лилася кров братів моїх,

Тепер лишився я один.

[29: 16, I, 17-25]

Лишь я, развалина одна,

Бо не признали бога їх.

[27: 225, I, 15-24]

Себе на горе уцелел,

Чтоб их оплакивать удел.

[26: 315, I, 15-26]

Rhetorical questions, exclamations, and ellipses were mentioned in the discussion of punctuation. Let us now look deeper into the matter. Altogether, there are three rhetorical questions and nine exclamations in “The Prisoner of Chillon”. In the “Sonnet on Chillon” there are five exclamations and no rhetorical questions at all. Such a difference in usage of such strong emphatic means, as exclamation, and rhetorical questions are for the English language, is caused by the narrative manner of “The Prisoner of Chillon”, which is thoughtful, sorrowful, tenderly sad and placate. Thus rhetorical questions are present as marks of this mood in inner monologue:

But what were these to us or him? [32: 358, VII, 13]

But why delay the truth? - he died. [32: 358, VII, 19]

And why should I feel less than they? [32: 365, XIV, 19]

Unlikely M. Kabaliuk, both V. Zhukovs`kyi and P. Hrabovs`kyi do not render the first rhetoric question. Nevertheless, generally the reproduction of rhetoric questions is not problematic. All the three translators solve this task according to their translation position, and their view of the poem's style, introducing rhetoric questions of their own (see table on page 22). Moreover, they do it within G. Byron's style, enhancing and explicating the effects of the verse-tale.

It is not different with exclamations, which appear when the protagonist feels emotional turmoil, or rebels against the injustice with the fervour of righteous indignation. The latter is the general mood of the whole “Sonnet on Chillon”; hence the exclamations:

Such murder's fitting monument! [32: 358, VII, 38]

Sweet bird! I could not wish for thine! [32: 362, X, 32]

A hermitage - and all my own! [32: 365, XIV, 13]

Eternal Spirit of the chainless Mind!

Brightest in dungeons, Liberty! thou art, [32: 353, sonnet, 1-2]

Ellipsis as a means of punctuation is frequently used by translators together with aposiopesis to create the effect of emotional agitation or alarm. Its application is absolutely justified as long as translator does not overuse it, since abundance of ellipsis leads to the fragmentation of poetic text and damages its integrity. Moreover, it may distort the image of protagonist, as the whole poem presents his monologue; hence its lingual organisation characterises the main hero. This is the reason we believe that a part of ellipses introduced by V. Zhukovs`kyi and P. Hrabovs`kyi is not only unnecessary, but even improper for G. Byron's style (see table on page 22).

Ellipsis a “deliberate omission of at least one member of the sentence” [Kukh: 85], as well as inversion, detachment, and enjambment is generally characteristic of poetic speech, and G. Byron's is not an exclusion:

As men's <hair> have grown from sudden fears [32: 353, I, 4]

And thus together - yet apart,

<we were> Fetter'd in hand, but join'd in heart, [32: 355, III, 7-8]

And mine has been the fate of those

To whom the goodly earth and air [32: 354, I, 8-9]

For he was as beautiful as day -

(When day was beautiful to me

As to young eagles, being free) -

A polar day, which will not see [32: 356, IV, 11-14]

Because our mother's brow was given

To him, with eyes as blue as heaven - [32: 356, IV, 6-7]

His corse in dust whereon the day

Might shine - it was a foolish thought, [32: 358, VII, 28-29]

As these are not particularly peculiar features of G. Byron's style and are more related to the general study of English-Ukrainian contrastive stylistics, their reproduction is not discussed in this paper.

2.6 Lingual-stylistic peculiarities of the prosodic means and their rendering

“The Prisoner of Chillon” is mainly written in iambic tetrameter, with masculine rhyming (aabb). All the translators reproduced this meter and type of rhyming; however, not the violations which G. Byron tends to introduce to the prosody of the poem for the effect of defeated expectancy. These are some examples of variations which poet applies (the second column presents the scheme of rhyming, whereas the third - type of the rhyme: masculine, feminine, or dactylic):

My hair is gray, but not with years, a m

Nor grew it white b m

In a single night, b m

As men's have grown from sudden fears [32: 353, I, 1-4] a m

There are seven columns, massy and grey, a m

Dim with a dull imprison'd ray, a m

A sunbeam which hath lost its way

[32: 354, II, 1-3] a m

Because our mother's brow was given a f

To him, with eyes as blue as heaven - [32: 356, IV, 6-7] a f

Lake Leman lies by Chillon's walls: a m

A thousand feet in depth below b m

Its massy waters meet and flow: b m

Thus much the fathom-line was sent c m

From Chillon's snow-white battlement, c d

Which round about the wave inthrals

[32: 357, VI, 1-6] a m

Unfortunately, V. Zhukovs`kyi does not reproduce these changes in the verse prosody:

Взгляните на меня: я сед, a m

Но не от хилости и лет; a m

Не страх незапный в ночь одну b m

До срока дал мне седину.

[26: 315, I, 1-4] b m

Покрыты влажным мохом лет. a m

На них печальный брезжит свет - a m

Луч, ненароком с вышины

[26: 315, II, 3-5] b m

Наш младший брат - любовь отца... a m

Увы! черты его лица

[26: 317, IV, 5-6] a m

Тюрьму совокупились там; a m

Печальный свод, который нам

[26: 319, VI, 5-6] a m

Moreover, he does not treat the sections of the poem separately when rhyming; as a result, whenever the number of lines in the section is odd, V. Zhukovs`kyi rhymes the first line of the next section with the last of the previous one, and distorts the relative autonomy of each section:

Терзался на полу тюрьмы.

[26: 317, II, 25] a m

Цепями теми были мы a m

К колоннам тем пригвождены, b m

Хоть вместе, но разлучены;

[26: 317, III, 1-3] b m

P. Hrabovs`kyi`s approach to the reproduction of prosody of “The Prisoner of Chillon” is very similar to that of V. Zhukovs`kyi, and follows the same pattern: aabb masculine rhyme, iambic tetrameter. Nevertheless, he preserves the autonomy of sections within the poem, as there is not a single section in his translation the number of lines in which is not even. The only departure from aabb rhyming scheme may be noticed in the first section, even though it does not resemble G. Byron's rhyming:

Не від лихих старечих днів a m

Я весь заслаб, я весь змарнів, a m

Не жахом ночі однії, b m

Що несподівано вража, c m

Сивини вигнало мої, b m

Не труд кістки проїв, а ржа

[27: 225, I, 1-6] c m

M. Kabaliuk is the closest to the transference of G. Byron's peculiar prosody, both in metre, and in rhyming patterns (prosodic means which differ from G. Byron's are in bold):

Я сивий; хоч не вік, не страх, a m

Що сивину b m

За ніч одну b m

Дає і в молодих роках

[29: 16, I, 1-4] a m

Їх сірі форми ледь могли b m

Виднітись тьмяно серед мли b m

Холодних мокрих стін, коли

[29: 16, II, 3-5] b m

За наймолодшого - було d m

У нього матері чоло

[29: 16, IV, 6-7] d m

Водою Леману Шільйон a m

Оточений з усіх сторін, b m

І мість масивних білих стін b m

Продовжує могутній плин c m

Тисячофутових глибин - c m

І то найкраща з охорон

[29: 16, VI, 1-6] a m

As we can see, despite the imminent losses, on the whole M. Kabaliuk managed to preserve the prosody of the original, and to reproduce its stylistic effect, and suggestive power, encoded in rhythm and rhyming patterns.

“Sonnet on Chillon” is a classical sonnet: 14 lines, abba|acca|ded|ede (G. Byron does not separates the stanzas, though some lines are shifted, thus a kind of classical sonnet`s stanzas division 4 + 4 + 3 + 3 is presented graphically), masculine rhyming. P. Hrabovs`kyi did not preserve the form of sonnet altogether, and translated it by three quatrains. Though, generally successfully achieving the reflection of G. Byron`s images by combination (line 9 and 10 of “Sonnet on Chillon” are translated as one, unifying the images of “holy place” and “altar” into the “holy altar” - “святіша з вівтарів”), he did not render a number of lines:

To fetters, and the damp vault's dayless gloom [32: 353, sonnet, 6]

And Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. [32: 353, sonnet, 8]

Worn, as if thy cold pavement were a sod [32: 353, sonnet, 12]

It is necessary to admit that P. Hrabovs`kyi himself called his translation a “foresong” (“передспів”), and above all valued the transference of ideas and general mood.

Both D. Pavlychko and V. Mysyk preserved the form of a sonnet and its peculiar rhyming pattern; but introduced feminine rhymes to it. V. Mysyk calls the sonnet “Chillon” (“Шільйон”), and separates it into stanzas of 4 + 4 + 4 + 2 lines; while D. Pavlychko`s translation is 4 + 4 + 3 + 3. O. Tsishchuk believes that the reason why G. Byron decided against the separate stanzas may be poet's wish not to transfer enjambment to the separate stanza [20]. In any way, it is a kind of violation of classical sonnet's form, which reason is definitely not the poet's ignorance of the formal rules of classical sonnet, but deliberate departure from them. As both D. Pavlychko and V. Mysyk preserved enjambment, they could as well preserve the structure of the verse. The substitution of masculine rhymes for feminine makes sharp G. Byron's lines softer in translations, but none of the three translators managed to reproduce the sonnet without such substitutions. We believe, that such losses are inevitable, and take into consideration the fact that feminine rhyme is very characteristic of Ukrainian as synthetic language; therefore it did not prevent translators from proper representation of the “Sonnet on Chillon”.

CONCLUSIONS

The contrastive analysis of the English-Ukrainian translations of “The Prisoner of Chillon” and “Sonnet on Chillon” shows that rendering of the formal elements of the artistic text is a necessary part of the author's style reproduction. The research proves that omission or transformation of an artistic means results in a general alteration of the author's style in translation. Thus, the author's style can be considered the integrity of author's intent, theme and ideas with the whole range of different formal artistic means (graphons, alliteration, metaphors, parallelism, etc) of their introduction; and the translator's style can be viewed as the integrity of translator's intent and his interpretation of the author's themes and ideas with different formal artistic means. While the reproduction of such style-creating factors as intent or idea cannot be measured objectively, study of the style-creating means rendering may provide a basis for the relatively objective criterion for the assessment of the author's style reproduction.

The results acquired can be phrased as follows:

1. “The Prisoner of Chillon” is a romantic verse-tale and may be called a typical poem of G. Byron due to its themes and images as its style-creating means are usual for the Swiss period of poet's creativity. The main style-creating means of the poem are as follows: alliteration, onomatopoeia, rhyme (inner rhyme including), address to abstract notions and inanimate objects, metaphors, simile, parallel constructions, as well as synonymic chains, and enumeration.

2. V. Zhukovs`kyi chose to translate the poetic works which were close to his worldview in their ideological and aesthetical values, and therefore resonated with his own poetic world. His main purpose was to introduce motifs and ideas of G. Byron's poem to Russian literature, and not to preserve the poet's style. That is the cause of some liberties taken with the text: omission of “Sonnet on Chillon”, lengthening the poem and introduction of his own lines (all in all, V. Zhukovs`kyi added 46 lines, which resulted in the decompression of images and thoughts), restructuring images (adding “ангел” in the simile), etc.

3. P. Hrabovs`kyi developed the part of style-creating factors almost alternative to the one chosen by V. Zhukovs`kyi; however, in some formal features, that is, style-creating factors (prosody, for instance) he followed V. Zhukovs`kyi`s translation decisions. Still, in many cases P. Hrabovs`kyi`s version is closer to the original or renders the nuances missed in V. Zhukovs`kyi`s translation. Among the drawbacks of his translation one may name the abundance of diminutive suffixes, ellipses, and usage of pleonasms.

4. M. Kabaliuk combined the views of the poem as a lyrical verse and as a manifest for freedom and managed to recreate both of these ideas together, in their unity presented by G. Byron. Not only his translation is faithful to the philosophic and poetic author's concept, but it is also accurate in the rendering of the formal features. Nevertheless, it is necessary to review it as to the new language norms introduced after 1982 when the translation was published.

5. As compared to “The Prisoner of Chillon”, the “Sonnet on Chillon” presents more sophisticated language and richness of particularly bright and livid metaphors, exclamations, and high spirited, full of pathos lines.

6. V. Mysyk`s translation preserves the form of sonnet and is an example of adequate translation. Among the drawbacks of his translation one may name the irregular use of vocative case, which is used for the address to Liberty, but omitted in the first line and in addressing Chillon.

7. D. Pavlychko`s rendering of the sonnet tends to omit images, and even whole lines of the source text, developing those, which he likes and which are close to him. Nevertheless, his rendering includes some very bright translation findings (“найсяйливіша”, “натхненнолиці”) and is very melodic.

8. Each of the three translations of “The Prisoner of Chillon” (by V. Zhukovs`kyi, P. Hrabovs`kyi and M. Kabaliuk) and the three translations of the Sonnet on Chillon (by P. Hrabovs`kyi, V. Mysyk and D. Pavlychko) met the requirements of their time and served their purpose in the development of both Ukrainian Translation Studies and Byroniana; however, not always the translators` intents corresponded to that of the author, and not always the formal means by which these intents were shaped fall into the frame of the author's style and style-creating means characteristic to him.

9. These above-mentioned transformations of the author's style especially concern the translations by V. Zhukovs`kyi and P. Hrabovs`kyi, whose translations were done as far back as the 19th century (1822 and 1894 correspondently), when the main purpose of a translated work was to acquaint the reader with the best samples of world literature and to serve for the general purposes of education of the readers.

10. In the Ukrainian school of translation the Classic method of the most adequate rendering of the original presupposes that the more translator is able to reproduce the author's style, the better (M. Ryl`s`kyi, M. Zerov, H. Kochur). The example of such a translation is the one done by M. Kabaliuk.

To conclude, this work cannot be named an exhaustive research of the style reproduction as it mostly represents the study of the formal style-creating means and does not discuss the problems of the style-creating factors, while it is both that translators have to take into consideration in their work. Moreover, due to the limited space of our work some of the problems at the syntactic and lexical levels were only touched upon as well as the artistic means not characteristic to G. Byron`s style. One should also consider the complexity of the topic, for the notion of style as a literary notion in general and of the style of the particular author is rather vague and ambiguous as different researchers choose different principles as a basis for definition, and different interpretations of the phenomenon may exist. General possibility of sufficient and adequate research of poetry and poetic translation on the whole is also ambiguous and its analysis cannot be considered totally objective. Therefore this work was just an attempt to draw attention to some of the problems English-Ukrainian poetry translator may face while rendering the author's style; as well as to study their possible solutions and the development of correspondent translation methods as introduced by the prominent Ukrainian translators in the period from the late 19th to the late 20th century.

CRITICAL LITERATURE

1. Алексеев В. Поэтика выбора // http://zhurnal.lib.ru/a/alekseew_wadim_wiktorowich/poetica.shtml [28.01.08].

2. Арнольд М. Байрон. Есе // Всесвіт. - 1974. - № 4. - С. 158-164.

3. Бех П. О. Поетичний переклад і принцип еквілінеарності // Теорія і практика перекладу: Респ. міжвід. наук. зб. / Київ. держ. ун-т. - Вип. 1. - С. 83-93.

4. Виноградов В.В. Избранные труды. О языке художественной прозы. - М., 1980. - 360 c.

5. Гачечиладзе Г. Введение в теорию художественного перевода. - Тбл.: ТГУ, 1970.

6. Гарасимчук Л. Вічножива тривога творчості // Всесвіт. - 1974. - № 4. - С. 153-157.

7. Герасимчук Л. Радощі і печалі нашої байроніани // Прапор. - 1985. - № 11. - С. 151-159.

8. Дзера О. Біблійне підгрунтя в містерії «Каїн» // Слово і час. - 1999. - № 3. - С. 76-79.

9. Жуковский - гений перевода // http://bobych.ru/soch/zhukovskiy/raznoe_23.html [25.01.08]

10. Зорівчак Р.П. Британця пісня голосна. Роздуми над рядками українського Байрона // Україна. - 1984. - № 22. - С. 13.

11. Кабалюк М. Від перекладача «Каїна» // Всесвіт. - 1984. - № 3. - С. 128-129.

12. Клименко Е. И. Байрон. Язык и стиль. Пособие по курсу стилистики англ. яз. - Москва, 1960. - 112 с.

13. Коломієць Л. В. Концептуально-методологічні засади сучасного українського поетичного перекладу. (На матеріалі перекладів з англійської, ірландської та американської поезії). -- К.: ВПЦ «Київський університет», 2004. -- 522 с.

14. Кузик Д. М. Перша збірка поезій Байрона українською мовою // Теория и практика перевода. - 1985. - Вып. 12. - C. 56-62.

15. Кузик Д. Повний український переклад «Дон Жуана» (Дж. Байрон. Дон Жуан. Пер. з англ. С. Голованівського. - К.: Дніпро, 1985. - 543 с.) // Жовтень. - 1987. - № 1. - С. 123-125.

16. Лозинський І. Над строфами Байрона. (До 150-річчя з дня смерті поета) // Жовтень. - 1974. - № 4. - С. 124-128.

17. Новикова М., Тютюнник М. Байрон різний, але не всякий / Джордж Гордон Байрон. Лірика. Упоряд. і пер. з англ. Д. Паламарчук. - К.: Дніпро, 1982 // Всесвіт. - 1985. - № 3. - С. 145-148.

18. Павличко Д. Джордж Гордон Байрон // Ранок. - 1982. - № 8. - С. 16.

19. Паршин А. Теория и практика перевода // http://teneta.rinet.ru/rus/pe/parshin-and_teoria-i-praktika-perevoda.htm [28.01.08]

20. Ціщик О. О. Зіставний аналіз перекладів поеми Дж. Байрона “The Prisoner of Chillon” // Теорія і практика перекладу. - 1992. - Вип. 18. - с. 80-93.

21. Чуковский К. Высокое искусство: О принципах худож. перевода / Чуковский Корней Иванович. - М.: Искусство, 1964. - 355 с.: портр.

22. Kukharenko V.A. A book of Practice in Stylistics: A manual. - Vinnytsia: Nova knyha, 2000. - 160 p.

23. Simeoni D. Trading Sense // http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/epc/srb/srb/trading.html [5. 03.08].

24. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907-21). Volume XII. The Romantic Revival // http://www.bartleby.com/222/0210.html [10.02.08]

25. The Prisoner of Chillon. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia // http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Prisoner_of_Chillon [28.01.08]

LITERARY SOURCES

26. Байрон, Джордж Гордон. Избранная лирика. Сборник. Сост. Зверев А. М. - На англ. яз. с параллельным русским текстом. - М.: Радуга. - 1988. - 512 с.

27. Грабовський П.А. Вибрані твори: В 2-х томах. / Упоряд., передм. і приміт. В.Ф. Святовця. - К., Дніпро, 1985. Т. І. - 599 с. Іл. портр.

28. Джордж Гордон Байрон. Твори. -- К.: Дух і Літера, 376 с. - 2004.

29. Кабалюк М. Шільйонський в`язень // Ранок. - 1982. - № 8 (серпень). - С. 16-18.

30. Мисик В.О. Захід і Схід: Переклади / Авт. передм. О.І. Никанорова. - К.: Дніпро, 1990. - 543 с. (Майстри поетичного перекладу).

31. Павличко Д. Сонет до Шільйона // Ранок. - 1982. - № 8 (серпень). - С. 16.

32. The Poetical Works of Lord Byron. - London: Oxford University Press (Humphrey Milford) - 1935. - 924pp.

DICTIONARIES

33. Великий тлумачний словник сучасної української мови // http://www.slovnyk.net [08.02.08]

34. Літературознавчий словник-довідник / За ред. Р.Т. Гром`яка, Ю.А. Коваліва, В.І. Теремка. - К.: ВЦ „Академія”, 2003. - 752 с. (Nota bene)

35. Словник української мови: B 11 т. - К.: Наук. думка, 1970-1980. - Т.9.

36. A new English dictionary on historical principles: In 10 vols. - Oxford: Claredon Press, 1888-1928. - Vol. IX.

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