Difficulties in Translation of Publicistic Headlines and their Pragmatic Aspect
Publicistic Headlines as an Irreplaceable Tool of Newspaper Style. On the translability of publicistic headlines. Defining the Publicistic Headline. On the approaches of translation used in Newspaper Style. Pragmatic functions of publicistic headlines.
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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, YOUTH AND SPORTS
CAHUL STATE UNIVERSITY УB. P. HASDEUФ
ENGLISH AND FRENCH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
Difficulties in Translation of Publicistic Headlines and
their Pragmatic Aspect
Publicistic Headline is known as the name of literature, scientific or musical produce. Our research on publicistic headline will study a lot of its definition. We shall notice similarity between them as well. According to Kukharenco V.A., headline is a text at the top of a newspaper article, indicating the nature of the article below it.
Galperin finds the headline a dependent from of newspaper writing. Its main function is to inform the reader briefly about the text which follows it.
The main goal of this research paper is to analyze publicistic headline from difficulties in translation of publicistic headlines and their pragmatic aspect.
The objectives of the given work are:
- To define publicistic Headline.
- to present classification and structure of the publicistic headlines.
- to reveal linguistic peculiarities of publicistic headlines.
- to explain ways of translation the publicistic headlines and difficulties in translation the publicistic headlines.
- to analyze the pragmatic functions and difficulties in translation of publicistic headlines.
We have worked much to complete our goal. The critical analysis of the scientific literature has been fulfilled by us.
While writing this paper we have addressed to such sources as manuals, monographs, dictionaries and, of course publicistic works. In our research we have used explanation and analysis as scientific theoretical methods. As for the structure of the work, it falls into three chapters.
The first chapter deals with the theory concerning publicistic style. It is divided into four parts: 1) defining the Publicistic Headline; 2) classification and structure of the publicistic headlines; 3) linguistic peculiarities of publicistic headlines; 4) on the applicability of publicistic headlines; 5) publicistic headlines under pragmatic aspect.
In this chapter we defined the Publicistic Headline and their classification and structure. Also we showed the publicistic headlines under pragmatic aspect. We wrote about linguistic peculiarities and their applicability of publicistic headlines.
The second chapter is devoted to the translability of publicistic headlines. It is also falls into three parts: 1) on the approaches of translation used in Newspaper Style; 2) on the ways of translation the publicistic headlines; 3) on the difficulties in translation the publicistic headlines.
We defined approaches of translation the Publicistic Headline in Newspaper Style and wrote about different ways of translation. Also in this chapter we wrote difficulties in translation the publicistic headlines.
The third chapter: establishing pragmatic value of publicistic headlines and difficulties of their translation from English into Russian. It is falls into two parts:
In the first we analyze publicistic headlines and their Pragmatic functions. And the second in difficulties in translation of publicistic headlines.
It is all theoretical and practical parts of our research paper about what we will write.
1.1 Defining the Publicistic Headline
The general definition of Headline is the name of literature, scientific or musical produce. Many dictionaries define Headline as a short summary of the most important items of news read at the beginning of a news programme on the radio or television. Headline is one of the basic newspaper features. The headline is the title given to a news item or newspaper article.
To make headlines (grab; hit) means to be an important item of news in newspapers or on radio or television. To headline (usually passive) means to give a story or article a particular headline:
War breaks out in Europe
Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima
Man walks on Moon
Headlines very often contain emotionally colored words and phrases. To produce a strong emotional effect, broken-up set expressions and deformed special terms are commonly used. The Headline of news items apart from giving information about the subject-matter, also carry a considerable amount of appraisal. Headlines are usually written in bold and in a much larger size than the article text. Front page headlines are often in upper case so that they can be easy read by the potential customer. Headlines in other parts of the paper are more commonly in sentence case though title case is often used in the USE.
The characteristics features of Headlines are the most condensed piece of information on minimum of space. Galperin mentions typical stylistic patterns of Headlines.
a. Full declarative sentences.
e.g. 'China lifts price of domestic oil products'. (Financial Times).
b. Interrogative sentences.
e. g. `It the kitchen finished? (The Sun).
c. Nominative sentences.
e.g. `Cautious start for bourses' (Financial Times).
d. Elliptical sentences.
e.g. Child drunk griever banned' (The Sun).
e. Sentences with articles omitted.
e. g. `PM warns against hostility to US'. (Daily Express).
f. Phrases with verbal- infinitive and gerundial.
e.g. `Keeping it in the family pays off for baker'. (The Times).
g. Questions in the form of statements.
e.g. `Health food?' (The Times).
h. Headlines including direct speech.
e. g. `Blair: I should never have revealed I was quitting'. (Mirror).
Headline conventions include normally using present tense and omitting `a' and `the' as well as forms of the verb `to be' in certain context. [2, p.75]
- The Present Simple is also used to describe actions as instant, happening in a moment. For actions over a period, we use the continuous.
e.g. United are playing really well now.
The crowd is cheering them on.
Most newspaper features a very large Headline on their front page, dramatically describing the biggest news of the day. Headline is the most basic text organizing tool used to invite the reader to become involved with the publication. Limit headlines to no more than three lines. A headline is text at the top of a newspaper article, indicating the nature of the article below it. A headline which is called - banner headline. The Headline (the title given to a news item or an article) is a dependent form of newspaper writing. It is in part of a large whole. The specific functional and linguistic features of the headline provide sufficient ground for isolating and analyzing it as a specific `genre' of journalism.
1.2 Classification and structure of the publicistic headlines
The main function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that follows is about. Sometimes headlines show the reporter's or paper's attitude of the fact reported. In most of the English and American newspapers sensational headlines are quite common. The function and the peculiar nature of English headlines determine the choice of language means used. [4, p.35] Headlines also contain emotionally colored words and phrases as the italicized words: 'Crazy waste of you? Syntactically headlines are very short sentences or phrases and have a variety of pattern.
A. Full declarative sentences.
B. Interrogative sentences.
C. Nominative sentences `Atlantic sea Traffic'.
D. Elliptical sentences `Off to the Sun `.
E. Sentences with articles omitted. (Articles are frequently omitted in all types of headline). `Frock man find gold in river `.
F. Complex sentences.
G. Headlines including direct speech.
The Headlines in English language newspapers can be very difficult to understand. One reason for this is that newspaper headlines are often written in a special style, which is very difficult from ordinary English. In this style there are special rules of grammar and words are often used in unusual ways.
a. Headlines are not always complete sentences. Many headlines consist of noun phrases with no verb.
More wage cuts.
Holiday Hotel Death.
b. Headlines often contain string of three, four or more nouns; nouns earlier in the string modify those that follow.
Furniture factory pay cut row.
Headlines like these can be difficult to understand. It sometimes helps to read them backwards. Furniture Factory Pay Cut Row (disagreement) about a Cut (reduction) in Pay at a Factory that makes Furniture.
c. Headlines often leave out articles and the verb `be'.
A woman walks on moon.
d. In headlines, simple tenses are often used instead of progressive or perfect forms. The simple present is used for both present and past events.
Blind girl climbs Everest (=Еhas climbedЕ).
Student fight for course changes (=Еhas fighting Е).
The present progressive can be used, especially to talk about changes. Be is usually dropped.
Britain getting warmer, say scientist.
Trade figures improving.
e. Many headlines words are used as both nouns and verbs, and nouns are often used to modify other nouns. So it is not always easy to work out the structure of a sentence. Compare:
We cuts aid to third world (= The Us reduced its helpЕcuts is a verb, aid is a noun).
Aid Cuts Row (= There has been a disagreement about the reduction in aid. Aid and Cuts is both noun).
Cuts Aid Rebels (= the reduction in aid is helping the revolutionaries. Cuts is a noun, Aid is a verb).
f. Headlines often use infinitives to refer to the future.
PM to visit Australia.
Hospitals to take fewer patients.
For is also used to refer to future movements or plants.
TROOPS FOR GLASGOW? (= Are soldiers going to be sent to Glasgow?).
g. Auxiliary verbs are usually dropped from passive structures, leaving past participles.
Murder Hunt: Man Held (=Еa man is being held by police.)
Six killed In Explosion (=Six people have been killedЕ).
Note that forms like held, attacked are usually part participles with passive meanings, not past tenses (which are rare are newspaper headlines). Compare:
AID ROW: PRESTDENT ATTACTED (=ЕThe President has attacked.)
AID ROW: PRESTDENT ATTACTED CRITICS (=ЕThe President has attacked her critics.)
Boy Found Safe (= The missing boy had been found safe.)
Boy Find Safe (= A boy has found a safe.)
h. A color is often used to separate the subject of a headline from what is said about it.
Strikes: PM to ACT.
Motorway crash: Death toll rises. Quotation marks (`Е') are used to show that words were said by some else, and that the newspaper does not necessarily claim that they are time.
Crash Driver `Had been drinking'
A question mark (?) is often used when something is not certain.
Crisis over by September?
Short words save space, and so they are very common in newspaper headlines. Some of the short words in headlines are unusual in ordinary language (e.g. curb, meaning 'restrict' or `restriction'), and some are used in special senses which they do not often have in ordinary language (e.g. big, meaning `attempt'). Other words are chosen not because they are short, but because they sound dramatic (e.g. blare, which means `big fire', and is used in headlines to refer to any fire). The following is a list of common headline vocabulary.
Act - take action: do something.
-Foot Crisis: Government to act.
Aid - military or financial help: to help
-More aid for poor countries.
-Unions aid hospital strikers.
Alert - alarm, warning.
-Flood alert on east coast.
Allege - make on accusation.
- Woman alleges unfair treatment.
Appears - appear in court accused of a crime.
- MP to appear on drugs charges.
Axe - abolish, close down: abolition, closure.
- Country bus services axed.
- Small schools face axe.
Knowledge as to the usage of the pun's mechanisms in publicity lead to better understanding of the specificity of English press and may be used in the theory of translation or during the creation of newspaper or advertisement headline with the help of a pun.
The headline (the title given to a news item or article) is a dependent form of newspaper writing. It is in fact a part of a larger whole. The specific functional and linguistic features of the headline provide sufficient ground for isolating and analyzing it as a specific УgenreФ of journalism. The main function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly what the text that follows is about. But apart from its, headlines often contain elements of appraisal i.e. they show the reporter's or the paper's attitude to the facts reported or commented on, thus also performing the function of instructing the reader.
English headlines are short and catching; they Уcompact the gist of news stories into a few eye-snaring words. A skillfully turned out headlines tells a story, or enough of it, to arouse or satisfy the reader's curiosity.Ф
Such group headlines are almost a summary of the information contained in the news item or article.
The functions and the peculiar nature of English headlines predetermine the choice of the language means used. The vocabulary groups considered in the analysis of brief news items are commonly found in headlines.
An excellent way for a more advanced learner to increase their English proficiency is to read an English-language newspaper on a regular basis. Most people who read a newspaper do so selectively and skim though the pages looking for the most interesting-looking articles to read first. They usually make their choice on the basis of the headlines of the articles. And this is where the difficulty for the non-native speaker of English arises, since newspaper headlines are often extremely difficult to understand. There are two main reasons for this. The first reason is that newspaper headlines have to be brief and consequently use words that are rarely used in everyday speech or indeed in the rest of the article itself. (Probe for investigation, blast for explosion etc.) And the second reason is that headline writers, at least in British newspapers, look for every opportunity to include a pun in their headlines. It is the main aspect of newspaper headlines that we want to concentrate on in this work.
All the headlines of all types (primary or page headlines, secondary or paper headlines, paper subsection headlines, leads and captions) of the local daily called Kauno diena) is emotionally destructive and people should be aware of this in order to diminish its emotional impact.
By the basic functions of newspaper titles nominativna, informing, communicative, and also pragmatic or attraktivna, that will realize the action of text, his having a special purpose orientation. Exactly some researchers consider this function basic, as setting of title consists above all things in bringing in of attention to the article, in creation of stimulus for its reading, which is often achieved by the use of the system of expressive means of languages, among which an important place is taken a play on words.
1.3 Linguistic peculiarities of publicistic headlines
The role of newspaper in the nowadays life and its influence on the modern society is generally recognized. The printed media remains one of the oldest a most effective way to communicate the freshness news. Newspaper has the following basic features: brief news items, advertisements and announcements, the editorial and the headline. This paper investigates only one element of the newspaper- the headline.
By the pragmatic effect of application of play on words in this title arising up as a result of combination of frock'n'roll, that is paradoxical on character and owns a fully certain estimating plan is something amusing and unusual. Appropriately to assume that speech in the article will go about the place of woman in modern music. A question is this serious, however estimating a plan, formed the element of frock that is brought in a title complex bring in the tint of sarcasm in the supposed interpretation of problem the author of the article.
The following title gives the very dim picture of Te, what theme of the article:
Ugly noises from Los Angeles mayor's nest
An author orients a reader in the value of attitude toward the described facts, them marks and uses a play on words: mayor's nest omonimichno mare's nest - to expression, that a Уsenseless deviceФ means, and the question is about machinations on selections, thus one of candidates - mer city Los-Angeles. A pun in dannomu case carries expressively stylistic information which represents author emotionally evaluation attitude toward an object, or expressively cognitive setting of this linguistic registration of idea. Negative attitude of author is here traced toward a situation which was folded on elections, and a pun specifies on personality which to a certain extent is herein guilty, and characterizes her. Except for it, a pun is directed on Te, to come into notice of reader to the described events and compel him not only to laugh above them but change their motion. [11, p.52]
The short and capacious form of this pun is based on the vivid use of languages. Exactly an associative vivid component adds maintenance a reception convincing and bright character which predetermines him attractive function. In spite of trouble of information which is stopped up in a title, a reader gets certain aesthetically beautiful pleasure at his reading.
Attention is attracted the satiric orientation of title, reader will want to read a note. The example of pun, beaten element based on etymologyzation is the English title:
The article is about creation of artist I. Isupova, which attained extraordinary trade in art of tattoo.
In a stylistic relation this case is imposition: simultaneous actualization and beating of auditive and etymologic values of word УtattooФ takes place- 1) tattoo; 2) prohibition [11, p.772]. Connection of metaphoric-metonymy appears between LSV: overt associations (tattoo -that it is forbidden) and transferences for contiguity (prohibition as subject action and tattoo is as a result of this prohibition), and epithet of УsweetestФ - the УsweetФ contains illusion on biblical really a fruit is forbidden. Tempting and beauty of tattoo is in a great deal conditioned exactly the prohibition imposed on her. The use in the title of English dissemination has, cleanly linguistic base: the semantic structure of the English noun of УtattooФ, unlike proper him loan-word in Russian (what has one only, visual value), enables to express in one entrance both LSV of this unit. In the considered example is very brightly expressed marked researchers pragmatic a meaningful feature of pun is aspiring to most semantic capacity at the use of the least of means of languages.
The article about plagiarism of sings of commodities is published under a title: Sony against Soni. The article of beating and mean of creation of visual effect is exactly different graphic design components of pun at community of their sounding.
1.4 On the applicability of publicistic headlines
The publicistic style has its spoken variety - the radio and TV
Commentaries and the oratorical sub - style. The written sub - styles are the essay and journalistic articles in newspapers, magazines and journals. The basic aim of the publicistic style is to exert an influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is correct and to make them accept his or her views though logical argumentation and emotional appeal. [13.p.159] The development of the radio and television has brought into a new spoken variety namely the radio commentary. The other two are the essay (moral, social, economic) in newspapers and magazines. The general aim as we have said is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion. Publicistic style is also characterized by brevity of expression. In some varieties of this style it becomes a leading feature and important linguistic means. In essays brevity sometimes becomes epigrammatic. [14.p.824] The most characteristic language features of the essay remain:
- Brevity of expression
- The use of the first person singular which justified a personal approach treated.
- The use of emotive words.
- The use of similes and metaphors.
Some essay depending on the writer's individuality is written in a highly emotional manner resembling the style of emotive prose. Others resemble scientific prose. The essay in our days is often biographical: persons; facts and events are taken from life. These essays differ from those of previous centuries, their vocabulary is simpler.
1.5 Publicistic headlines under pragmatic aspect
Pragmatics studies the factors that govern our choice of language in social interaction and the effects of our choice on others.
Pragmatics is concerned with the study of meaning as communicated by a speaker (or writer) and interpreted by a listener (or reader). It has, consequently, more to do with the analysis of what people mean by their utterances than what the words or phrases in those utterances might mean by themselves. Pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning. This type of study necessary involves the interpretation of what people mean in a particular context and how the context influences what is said. It requires a consideration of how speakers organize what to say in accordance with who they're talking to, where, when, and under what circumstances. Pragmatics is the study of contextual meaning. This approach also necessary explores how listeners can make inferences about what is said in order to arrive at an interpretation of the speaker's intended meaning. This type of study explores how a great deal of what is unsaid is recognized as part of what is communicated. We might say that it is the investigation of invisible meaning. Pragmatics is the study of how more gets communicated than is said. This perspective then raises the question of what determines the choice between the said and the unsaid. The basic answer is tied to the notion of distance. Closeness, whether it is physical, social, or conceptual, implies shared experience. On the assumption of how close or distant the listener is speakers determine how much needs to be said. Pragmatics is the study of the expression of relative distance. These are the four areas that pragmatics is concerned with. To understand how it got to be that way, we have to briefly review its relationship with other areas of linguistic analysis. [17, p.3] УPragmatics is all about the meanings between the lexis and the grammar and the phonology...Meanings are implied and the rules being followed are unspoken, unwritten ones.Ф[16, George Keith]
УPragmatics is a way of investigating how sense can be made of certain texts even when, from a semantic viewpoint, the text seems to be either incomplete or to have a different meaning to what is really intended. Consider a sign seen in a children's wear shop window: УBaby Sale - lots of bargainsФ. We know without asking that there are no babies are for sale - that what is for sale are items used for babies. Pragmatics allows us to investigate how this Уmeaning beyond the wordsФ can be understood without ambiguity. The extra meaning is there, not because of the semantic aspects of the words themselves, but because we share certain contextual knowledge with the writer or speaker of the text.
Pragmatics is an important area of study for your course. A simplified way of thinking about pragmatics is to recognize, for example, that language needs to be kept interesting - a speaker or writer does not want to bore a listener or reader, for example, by being over-long or tedious. So, humans strive to find linguistic means to make a text, perhaps, shorter, more interesting, more relevant, more purposeful or more personal. Pragmatics allows this.
George Keith notes that: УThe vast majority of pragmatics studies have been devoted to conversation, where the silent influence of context and the undercurrents are most fascinating.
But he goes on to show how written texts of various kinds can be illuminated by pragmatics, and he cites particular examples from literature. Pragmatics gives us ways into any written text. Take the following example, which is a headline from the Guardian newspaper of May 10, 2002. This read: УHealth crisis looms as life expectancy soars.Ф
If we study the semantics of the headline, we may be puzzled. The metaphor (УsoarsФ) indicates an increase in the average life-expectancy of the UK population. Most of us are living longer. So why is this crisis for health? Pragmatics supplies the answer. The headline writer assumes that we share his or her understanding that the crisis is not in the health or longevity of the nation, but in the financial cost to our society of providing health care for these long-living people. The UK needs to pay more and employ more people to provide this care. Reading the article will show this. Or take any item of unsolicited mail more or less at random - such as a letter sent to me by Mr. David Moyes, the manager of Everton Football Club. Mr. Moyes opens with an invitation: УSUPPORT YOUR TEAMФ, followed by the question:
УHow would you like to support Everton and receive some excellent benefits at the same time?Ф
After this come details of a Platinum Plus credit card and some associated offers of free gifts. The letter closes with a copy of Mr. Moyes' signature, with his name and position (УTeam ManagerФ) in print below. We can conjecture that the immediate writer of this letter is not Mr. Moyes, but someone with knowledge of financial products, employed by the club to help raise money from fans. I can be more confident that this is so, since it is only a few months since I received a near-identical letter, bearing the signature of the previous manager, Mr. Walter Smith. The writer assumes that he or she is addressing people who have at some point described themselves as supporters of Everton FC - the mail shot will have gone only to names on a database of such potential cardholders. Closer inspection suggests that the letter does not necessarily come from the club, as УEvertonФ appears in a typeface different from the surrounding text - prompting the thought that the card issuer (MBNA Europe bank Limited) is the real source of the letter, and has signed up various sporting clubs to endorse its product. The card issuer understands that recipients of such offers will rarely wish to apply for a new credit card, and therefore attempts to exploit my affection for Everton FC as a novel or sentimental reason to do so. The second half of the opening sentence may reflect a sense that most supporters do not receive Уexcellent benefits at the same timeФ - though perhaps the humour here is unintended. This kind of practical analysis is a good exercise. Sometimes a teacher will need to ask students to write it, but this will limit how much you can do. It would be better for members of a teaching group to spend five or ten minutes at least once a week, producing an unprepared spoken pragmatic reading of texts chosen at random by the teacher or student. Pragmatics as an explicit field of study is not compulsory for students taking Advanced level courses in English Language. But it is one of the five Уdescriptions of languageФ commended by the AQA syllabus B (the others are: lexis, grammar, phonology and semantics). In some kinds of study it will be odd if some consideration of pragmatics does not appear in your analysis or interpretation of data. In commenting on texts you are seeing for the first time, you may need to make use of some pragmatic concepts, as in this example, from Adrian Attwood:
We know from the question that Text F is a sales script. The pragmatic consideration of this text makes us look for features, which are designed to reassure the potential customer rather than to inform them. Particularly, in this case, where the script is for a telephone conversation and one of the objects from the sales-person's viewpoint is to keep the other person talking. This means that the text will try to close off as many potential exits as possible and therefore be similar to some of the normal co-operative principles of spoken language.
In language investigations or research into language, you can choose whether to undertake a task in which pragmatic analysis is appropriate. So if you really don't like it (or fear it), then you should avoid a task where its absence will look suspicious, and draw attention to your dislike. One area of language study where pragmatics is more or less unavoidable is any kind of study of spoken language in social interactions (and written forms like e-mail or computer chat that approximate to speech). In studying language and occupation or language and power, you cannot easily avoid the use of pragmatic frameworks for analysis. This guide has few examples in it, because I have supposed that you will apply the analytical methods, under your teachers' guidance, to texts that you find for yourself - including spoken data in audio and video recordings.
heading newspaper translation
Chapter II On the translability of publicistic headlines
2.1 On the approaches of translation used in Newspaper Style
English newspaper style may be defined as a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader.
Since the primary function of newspaper style is to impart information, only printed matter serving this purpose comes under newspaper style proper. Such matter can be classed as:
1. brief news items and communiques;
2. press reports (parliamentary, of court proceedings, etc.);
3. articles purely informational in character;
4. advertisements and announcements.
The most concise form of newspaper informational is the headline. The headlines of news items, apart from giving information about the subject-matter, also carry a considerable amount of appraisal (the size and arrangement of the headline, the use of emotionally colored words and elements of emotive syntax), thus indicating the interpretation of the facts in the news item that follows.
a) Brief news items
The function of a brief news item is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. Newspaper style has its specific vocabulary features and is characterized by an extensive use of:
1. special political and economic terms;
2. non-term political vocabulary;
3. newspaper cliche;
The following grammatical peculiarities of brief news items are of paramount importance, and may be regarded as grammatical parameters of newspaper style:
1. complex sentences with a developed system of clauses;
2. verbal constructions;
3. syntactical complexes;
4. attributive noun groups;
5. specific word order.
b) The headline
The headline is the title given to a news item of a newspaper article. The main function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that follows is about.
Syntactically headlines are very short sentences or phrases of a variety of patterns:
1. full declarative sentences;
2. interrogative sentences;
3. nominative sentences;
4. elliptical sentences;
5. sentences with articles omitted;
6. phrases with verbals;
7. questions in the forms of statements;
8. complex sentences;
9. headlines including direct speech.
c) Advertisements and announcements
The function of advertisement and announcement is to inform the reader. There are 2 basic types of advertisements and announcements in the modern English newspaper: classified and non-classified(separate).
In classified advertisements and announcements various kinds of information are arranged according to subject-matter into sections, each bearing an appropriate name.
As for the separate advertisements and announcements, the variety of language form and subject-matter is so great that hardly any essential features common to all be pointed out.
d) The editorial
Editorials are an intermediate phenomenon bearing the stamp of both the newspaper style and the publistic style.
The function of the editorial is to influence the reader by giving an interpretation of certain facts. Emotional coloring in editorial articles is also achieved with the help of various stylistic devices(especially metaphors and epithets), both lexical and syntactical, the use of which is largely traditional.
e) Scientific prose style
The language of science is governed by the aim of the functional style of scientific prose, which is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of existence, development, relations between different phenomena, etc. There are following characteristic features of scientific style:
1. the logical sequence of utterances;
2. the use of terms specific to each given branch of science;
3. so-called sentence-patterns. They are of 3 types: postulatory, argumentative and formulative.
4. the use of quotations and references;
5. the frequent use of foot-note, of the reference kind, but digressive in character.
The impersonality of scientific writings can also be considered a typical feature of this style.
f) The style of official documents
In standard literary English this is the style of official documents. It is not homogeneous and is represented by the following substyles or variants:
1. the language of business documents;
2. the language of legal documents;
3. that of diplomacy;
4. that of military documents.
The main aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking. The most general function of the style of official documents predetermines the peculiarities of the style. The most noticeable of all syntactical features are the compositional patterns of the variants of this style.
The over-all code of the official style falls into a system of subcodes, each characterized by its own terminological nomenclature, its own compositional form, its own variety of syntactical arrangements. But the integrating features of all these subcodes emanating from the general aim of agreement between parties, remain the following:
1. conventionality of expression;
2. absence of any emotiveness;
3. the encoded character of language; symbols and
4. a general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncements into one sentence.[1, Stylistics]
On the approaches of translation used in Newspaper Style are pragmatic value of publicistic headlines and difficulties of their translation it is grammatical features in English and Russian Headlines.
2.2 On the ways of translation the publicistic headlines
The second half of the 20th century has seen the in-depth study of translation, which is sometimes called Theory of Translation, Science of Translation, Translation Linguistics, or even Translatology.
It has been claimed abroad that translation studies began in 1972 with Holmes's paper presented at the Third International Congress of Applied Linguistics, УThe Name and Nature of Translation StudiesФ.1 However, unfortunately, European and American scholars seemed to have been unaware of the achievements of the Russian school of translation studies. Works by V. Komissarov, A. Shveitser, A. Fedorov and many others confirmed the status of translation studies as a discipline of its own even in the 1950s.
The main concern of translation theory is to determine appropriate translation methods for the widest possible range of texts and to give insight into the translation process, into the relations between thought and language, culture and speech.
There are several aspects of this branch of linguistics:
General theory of translation, whose object is general notions typical of translation from any language.
Specific (or partial, in terms of Holmes) theory of translation that deals with the regularities of translation characteristic of particular languages - for example, translation from English into Russian and vice versa.
Special (partial) theory of translation that pays attention to texts of various registers and genres.
There are two terms corresponding to the Russian word УпереводФ: translation and interpretation. Those who discriminate between the terms refer the term `translation' to the written text, and the term `interpretation' to oral speech. However, the terms are polysemantic: to interpret might mean Уto render or discuss the meaning of the textФ - an outstanding British translation theorist P.Newmark, for example, states that Уwhen a part of a text is important to the writer's intention, but insufficiently determined semantically, the translator has to interpretФ.4 The term to translate is often referred to any (written or oral) manner of expression in another language.
We should also differentiate the terms translating and rendering. When we translate, we express in another language not only what is conveyed in the source text but also how it is done. In rendering, we only convey the ideas (the what) of the source text.
Several approaches are used for defining translation: in Newspaper Style with pragmatic value of publicistic headlines and difficulties of their translation it is grammatical features in English and Russian Headlines.
2.3 On the difficulties in translation the publicistic headlines
Often enough headings of newspapers or news on the Internet in English are difficult enough for understanding. First, they have the grammatical nuances. Secondly, in headlines use the words which are not so often used in colloquial speech. In this post we will stop on grammatical features of headlines.
1) As a rule, headlines represent incomplete sentences, that is, they consist only of keywords, without articles, auxiliary verbs etc.
4 found guilty in London bomb plot - то есть - four people have been found guilty in London bomb plot (четырех человек объ€вили виновными в подготовке взрывов в Ћондоне);
Heavy fighting at Lebanese camp ( гор€чий бой произошел в ливанском лагере)
Steegmans too strong for Boonen - Steegmans is too strong for Boonen (—тигменс слишком силен дл€ Ѕунена) 
2) In headlines simple times are used: Present Simple used, when event has already occurred or occurs. It can sometimes be used Present Continuous to underline process or change of the present situation. But, besides, it will be used without an auxiliary verb. If in headline says that will occur in future, may be it is the infinitive will be used. (A verb + a participle to) 
Pakistani soldiers storm mosque (солдаты ѕакистана вз€ли штурмом мечеть);
Strong earthquake strikes Mexico - Strong earthquake has struck Mexico (сильное землетр€сение обрушилось на ћексику);
NASA robot to dig on Mars ( робот Ќј—ј будет раскапывать почву ћарса);
Actress Collette expecting child - Actress Collette is expecting child (актриса олетт ждет ребенка) 
3) the translation must retain the same communicative function as the source text. The description and enumeration of speech functions can be found in the work by R. Jakobson, who pointed out the following:
informative function, i.e. conveying information: Ћавры моего конкурента не дают мне спать. - I am green with envy because of the success of my competitor.
emotive function, i.e. expressing the speaker's emotions: Ќа кой леший мне такой друг? - What on earth do I need such a friend for?
poetic function, i.e. aesthetic impact:
Tiger, Tiger, burning bright,
In the forests of the night;
What immortal hand or eye,
Could frame thy fearful symmetry? (W.Blake)
“игр, “игр, в лесу ночном
ћрачный взгл€д горит огнем.
„ь€ бессмертна€ рука
∆изнь влила в твои бока? (ѕер. .‘илатовой)
These sentences have only one thing in common: general intent of communication, communication aim, or function. At first glance, the source and target texts have no obvious logical connection; they usually designate different situations, have no common semes (i.e. smallest components of meaning), and have different grammar structures.
Chapter III Establishing pragmatic value of publicistic headlines and difficulties of their translation from English into Russian
3.1 Pragmatic functions of publicistic headlines
This research paper is based on studying 100 headlines, 50 of publicistic headlines analyzing in pragmatic functions and 50 headlines difficulties of their translation from English into Russian.
The selected headlines have been divided according to pragmatic functions. Here is given the analysis of Russian and English headlines on the syntactical levels.
Metaphor. transference of names based on the associated likeness between two objects, on the similarity of one feature common to two different entities, on possessing one common characteristic, on linguistic semantic nearness, on a common component in their semantic structures.
Ј УCOSMIC DANCEФ
(Daily Nation, 01.02.10, p.12)
The metaphor УCosmic DanceФ implies unusual dances. The redactor compares УcosmicФ and УdanceФ, because in УLime clubФ the dances were unusual, like a cosmic movement.
Ј УBLANKET OF DARKNESS FROM VOLCANOФ
(Daily Nation, 05.04.10, p.25)
Blanket of DarknessФ is a genuine metaphor, quite unexpected and rather effective. УBlanket of DarknessФ implies a present from volcano or volcano eruption in Iceland.
Ј УTHE STORM CLOUDS THICKENED OVER UKRAINEФ
( ќћћ≈–—јЌ“Џ, 09.08.09, p.15)
The storm clouds thickenedФ implies tense struggle between elections. In order to demonstrate the hot atmosphere in Ukraine, the redactor uses the metaphor The storm clouds thickened
Ј УA BRIDGE TO THE PASTФ
(Daily Nation, 14.01.10, p.5)
A bridge to the pastФ is a symbol of connection between present and the past time. The redactor uses УA bridge to the pastФ, to show that the old fashion from the past comes back in the present.
Ј УA TURBULENT PAST LEONARDOФ
(Daily Nation, 08.02.10, p.43)
УA turbulent pastФ implies active life in the past. Leonardo de Capri tells in interview about his УturbulentФ life at teenage age.
Metonymy. transference of names based on nearness, on axtralinguistic, actually existing relations between the objects, denoted by the words, on common grounds of existence in reality but different semantic. It is based on a different type of relation between the dictionary and contextual meanings, a relation based not on identification, but on some kind of association connecting the two concepts which these meanings represent.
Ј УSPORT IN NASA MISSION CONTROLФ
Ј (Daily Nation, 23.03.10, p.32)
УNASA Mission controlФ is a metonymy and it symbolizes Texas, for which the call sign is "Houston". The author implies that the spot was in Houston, largest city in the state of Texas.
Ј УTHE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH BEGIN TALKS ON NEW LAWSФ (Daily Nation, 12.03.10, p.21)
УThe Roman Catholic ChurchФ is metonymy which author uses. He implies the pope and Catholic bishops, which met in Nakuru to discuss the draft constitution, among other things.
Ј УNEW FILM IN AMERICAN FILM & TELEVISION INDUSTRYФ
(Daily Nation, 12.03.10, p.45)
The American film and television industryФ is metonymy which symbolizes a section of Los Angeles. It is Hollywood which makes a new film.
Ј УGENEVA EIGHT RED CROSS STAFF KIDNAPPED IN DRCФ
(Daily Nation, 13.03.10, p.26)
УEight red cross staffФ is eight person, who symbolizes the doctors from Switzerland. They were kidnapped in DRC. УDRCФ is Democratic Republic of Congo, which is also abbreviation.
Ј "The White House said: `Yes' FOCUS ON CONSTITUTION "
(Daily Nation, 13.03.10, p.9)
"The White House said" is a metonym for the president and his staff, because the White House is not part of the president or his staff but is closely associated with them.
Irony. - is a stylistic device in which the contextual evaluative meaning of a word is directly opposite to its dictionary meaning - is the contradiction between the said and implied. It must not be confused with humour.
Hard Times Cafe' close down
(Daily Nation, 16.03.10, p.08)
"Hard Times Cafe" is irony and implies something bad and sad. The restaurant called "Hard Times Cafe" has closed down because of the recession productions.
3.2 Difficulties in translation of publicistic headlines
Usually headings share on three categories:
1) headlines in Present simple. They say that someone has made any action.
Ј УUnemployed Man Wins ? 1MФ - Ѕезработный выиграл миллион фунтов.
(Daily Nation, 14.03.10, p.16)
The tendency to laconic and brevity in headlines has led to that unnecessary, insignificant words from them simply throw out. In particular, it concerns definite and indefinite articles, in headlines very seldom can to meet such words, as УaФ, УanФ and УtheФ. Also the auxiliary verbs fall out from headlines. The usual sentence is - unemployed man has won a million pounds.
Ј УForgotten Brother AppearsФ - «абытый брат вернулс€
(Daily Nation, 14.03.10, p.19)
As the usual offer: A forgotten brother has appeared. In headline we have not the article УaФ and
the auxiliary verb УhasФ.
Ј УViolent protests in Jakarta over Islamic tombФ - —ильные протесты в ƒжакарте на »сламские могилы
(Daily Nation, 15.03.10, p.26)
As the usual offer: The violent has protested in Jakarta over Islamic tomb. In headline we have not the article УtheФ and the auxiliary verb УhasФ.
Ј УWoman locks up utility worker over unpaid billФ - ∆енщина запирает сервисного рабочего по неоплаченному счету.
(Daily Nation, 15.03.10, p.31)
As the usual offer: A women has locked up the utility worker over of the unpaid bill.
Ј УVillagers build on glory of school they burnt 57 years agoФ - —ельские жители основываютс€ на славе школы, которую они сожгли 57 лет назад
(Daily Nation, 14.03.10, p.33)
As the usual offer: The villagers have built on the glory of school, which they burnt 57 years ago.
Ј УRevenue triples after return of displaced familiesФ - ƒоход утраиваетс€ после возвращени€ перемещенных семей
(Daily Nation, 14.03.10, p.48)
As the usual offer: The revenue has tripled after return of the displaced families.
Ј УAdebayor says bye-bye to international soccerФ - јдебайор говорит пока международному футболу.
(Daily Nation, 14.03.10, p.51)
As the usual offer: Adebayor has said bye-bye to the international soccer.
Ј УChampion seeks to set new record in LondonФ - „эмпайон стремитс€ установить новый рекорд в Ћондоне
(Daily Nation, 16.03.10, p.9)
As the usual offer: The champion has sought to set a new record in London.
Ј УAmend new laws first, say eldersФ - »справьте новые законы сначала, говор€т старшие
(Daily Nation, 02.03.10, p.10)
As the usual offer: Amend the new laws, have said the elders.
Ј УLarge team of runners battle for qualificationФ - Ѕольша€ команда бегунов борютс€ за квалификацию
(Daily Nation, 16.03.10, p.16)
As the usual offer: Large team of the runners have battled for the qualification.
Ј УNuclear Weapons Obama presses for Iran actionФ - ядерное оружие ќбамы требует действи€ »рана
(Daily Nation, 07.03.10, p.34)
As the usual offer: The Nuclear Weapons Obama has pressed for Iran action
Ј УChelsea closer to Premier League crownФ - „елси приближаетс€ к √лавной короне Ћиги
(Daily Nation, 01.03.10, p.11)
As the usual offer: Chelsea has closered to the Premier League.
Ј УKaunya leaves for GermanyФ - Kониа уезжает в √ерманию
(Daily Nation, 07.03.10, p.22)
As the usual offer: Kaunya has left for Germany.
Ј УFord Kenya launches pro-draft campaignФ - ‘орд иниа начинает кампанию проекта
(Daily Nation, 05.03.10, p.8)
As the usual offer: Ford Kenya has launched the pro-draft campaign.
Ј УCouncillors vow to block proposed lawsФ - „лены совета кл€нутс€ заблокировать предложенные законы
(Daily Nation, 14.02.10, p.21)
As the usual offer: The councilors have vowed to block the proposed laws.
Ј УUhuru pushes for consensus ahead of vote to avert chaosФ - ”хюру стремитс€ к согласи€м перед голосованием, чтобы предотвратить хаос
(Daily Nation, 14.02.10, p.24)
As the usual offer: Uhuru has pushed for consensus ahead of the vote, that to avert chaos.
Ј УCBK sue over seized papersФ - CBK предъ€вл€ют иск по конфискованным бумагам
(Daily Nation, 18.02.10, p.55)
As the usual offer: CBK have sued over seized papers.
2) headlines with use of a participle of last time. TheФy say that something has been made in passive voice.
Ј УSix killed in rail accidentФ - ¬ железнодорожной аварии погибло шестеро
(Daily Nation, 22.01.10, p.15)
As the usual offer: Six people have been killed in a rail accident. In headline we have not Уhave beenФ the auxiliary verb, which indicates in the participle of last time and the article УaФ.
Ј УNew Shakespeare play discoveredФ- Ќайдена нова€ пьеса Ўекспира
(Daily Nation, 14.12.08, p.77)
As the usual offer would sound so: A new Shakespeare play has been discovered. Also in it we have not articles and auxiliary verbs. In the same way the ordinary offer УThe White House has been damaged by a bombФ turns to laconic headline:
Ј УWhite House damaged by bombФ- «дание правительства пострадало от взрыва бомбы.
(Daily Nation, 22.11.08, p.55)
Ј УFour die in crashes on highwayФ - ¬ аварии на шоссе четверо погибло
(Daily Nation, 24.11.08, p.17)
As the usual offer: Four people have been dead in the crashes on highway.
Ј УHawker held after killing of traderФ - ”личного торговца задержали после убийства торговца
(Daily Nation, 14.09.09, p.67)
As the usual offer: The hawker has been held after killing of trader.
Ј УStadium handed over to Zimbabwe after repairsФ - —тадион передали «имбабве после ремонта
(Daily Nation, 01.10.09, p.41)
As the usual offer: The stadium has been handed over to Zimbabwe after the repairs.
Ј УHundreds evacuated as volcano erupts in IcelandФ - —отни людей эвакуированы так как вулкан извергс€ в »сландии
(Daily Nation, 23.08.09, p.19)
As the usual offer: Hundreds people have been evacuated as the volcano erupts in Iceland.
Ј УDraft Church has made mistakes in pastФ - ÷ерковный проект сделал ошибки в прошлом
(Daily Nation, 17.02.10, p.67)
As the usual offer: The Draft of Church has been made mistakes in the past.
Ј УPeacekeepers in Darfur kidnappedФ - ѕохищены силы по поддержанию мира в ƒарфуре
(Daily Nation, 15.02.10, p.90)
As the usual offer: The peacekeepers in Darfur have been kidnapped.
Ј УFifteen killed in bomb attacks in PhilippinesФ - ѕ€тнадцать убитых в нападени€х с применением взрывных устройств в ‘илиппинах
(Daily Nation, 24.01.10, p.86)
As the usual offer: Fifteen peoples have been killed in the bomb attacks in Philippines.
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