Translation of political literature

Primary aim of translation. Difficulties in of political literature. Grammatical, lexical and stylistic difficulties of translation. The difficulty of translation of set phrases and idioms. The practice in the translation agency "Translators group".

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
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Язык английский
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"Translation of political literature "


  • Introduction
  • I. Theoretical part
  • 1. Translation and its aim
  • 1.1 Translation of Political literature
  • 2. Difficulties in translation of political literature
  • 2.1 Grammatical difficulties of translation
  • 2.2 Lexical difficulties of transformation
  • 2.3 Stylistic difficulties of translation
  • 2.4 The difficulty of translation of set phrases and idioms
  • II. Practical part. Translation of political literature
  • Conclusion
  • References


Politics plays very important role in a state`s development. It also defines the strategy in relations between countries. Our state is committed to get to the international level that`s why keeping contacts with other countries become more and more important. To understand and represent political interests properly, it`s necessary to have knowledge about translation of political literature, documents, speeches, and etc. That is the topicality of this work.

In my course work I've set forth to study the translation methods and ways using for translation of Political literature at a deeper level and to consider the function of political literature in our everyday life.

The aim of this work is to find out the peculiarities of translation of political literature. The following tasks should be completed:

- to review all the sources of Political literature

- to reveal the methods of translation of Political literature

- to investigate grammatical, lexical, stylistic and phraseological difficulties of translation of political literature.

The object of this course work can be considered as one that gives the detailed review of the ways political literature can be translated into Russian language. It also helps to improve one's understanding of the principal rules of translation.

The subject of the course work is principally translation of political letters, political articles and political writings created by famous political leaders.

While working on my course work I used the following methods of investigation:

- Comparative analysis - I discovered various sources of information about political literature and its translation and then compared it to identify the main aspects.

translation political literature difficulty

- Classification - I classified political literature into several parts such as political letters, political articles and political writings. It was necessary to find out the information about each of them and then combined the received information.

I passed my professional practice in a translation agency where I principally worked with political texts and documents. To translate them I read special literature such as "Translation difficulties” by T. R. Levitskaya. Above all I had to use newspapers and magazines to find out the information about politics. The base of investigation consists of these materials.

The hypothesis I should mention that this research work represents a great theoretical value for those willing to take up their future carrier in the field of translations as invaluable reference to the methods and the ways of translation of Political literature.

And the practical value of this work involves the idea that translation represents a field aimed at training future translators or interpreters to translate verbal and written materials on Political subjects basing on the study of International politics, to differentiate the language features of English, Russian and other languages as well as political lexicology, phraseology, syntax and style.

The given course work contains introduction, two chapters, conclusion and bibliography list.

The first chapter gives a detailed review of the study of the general theory of translation and also reveals the role of political literature in everyday life of the humanity which is believed to be interesting to future translator/interpreters. It also discussed the methods of translation of political literature with purpose to make it easier for translator to achieve adequate translation in the target language.

The second chapter deals with the detailed study of grammatical, lexical, stylistic difficulties involved in translation of political literature.

In conclusion I have summed up the results of my laborious investigation translation of political literature.

At the end of the research work I have attached the bibliography list to enable the future translator to use information sources used in this work.

I. Theoretical part

1. Translation and its aim

Almost every aspect of life in general and of the interaction between speech communities in particular can be considered relevant to translation, a discipline which has to concern itself with how meaning is generated within and between various groups of people in various cultural settings. This is clearly too big area to investigate in one go. Translators will need something other than the current mixture of intuition and practice to enable them to reflect on what they do and how they do it. They will need, above all, to acquire a sound knowledge of the raw material with which they work: to understand what language is and how it comes to function for its users.

Translation is a process of rendering a text by means of other languages. The difference of translation from retelling or other kinds of transfer of a given text is that that translation is a process of creating an original unity in contexts and forms of original.

The translation quality is defined by its completeness and value. "The completeness and value of translation means definite rendering of the contextual sense of the original piece and a high-grade functional-stylistic conformity. "

No matter how a translator (interpreter) is talented he should remember two most important conditions of the process of translation: the first is that the aim of translation is to get the reader as closely as possible acquainted with the context of a given text and then second - to translate - means to precisely and completely express by means of one language the things that had been expressed earlier by the means of another language.

To translate one should first of all understand, to perceive the meaning and the sense of the material.

Furthermore, to translate one should find and select the sufficient means of expression in the language the material is translated into (words, phrases, grammatical forms).

There are three, most identified types of translation: literary, special and sociopolitical.

The ways of achieving the adequacy and completeness in those three types of translation will never completely coincide with each other because of their diverse character and tasks set to translator (interpreter).

The object of literary translation is the literature itself. And its distinctive feature is a figurative-emotional impact on the reader, which is attained through a great usage of different linguistic means, beginning from epithet and metaphor up to rhythmical-syntactic construction of phrases.

The objects of special translation are materials that belong to different fields of human activities, science and technology. The distinctive feature of this type of translation is an exact expression of the sense of translating material, which is attained through wide usage of special terms. And finally, the objects of social-politic translations are the materials of propaganda and agitation character, and therefore a bright emotional sense abundant with special terms.

Concerning the achievement of adequacy this type of translation possesses the features of literary and special types of translation as well.

1.1 Translation of Political literature

Political literature like any other scientific kind of literature has language items and characteristic to them that requires the translator to be precise and sharp. Most books on general politics are characterized by the passion of expression, polemic style and the specific feature is in blending the elements of scientific speech on the one hand and with different emotionally colored means of expression on the other hand.

The translation of political literature can be considered in two ways: as a field of linguistic activity and as a separate field in science.

As a field of linguistic activity translation of political literature represents one of the types of special translation possessing as objects of its activity different materials of political character.

The political translation comes out into a special field of study due to its specific features of written and verbal speech on political topics, which is specified by its essential character and the knowledge of this science. Sometimes these features are so diverse that in order to understand them one should have a special knowledge without which it would be very hard to clearly perceive the inner sense on politics or a translated piece.

Therefore, the study of specific features of written and verbal speech acquires great importance to translators (interpreters). To the features mention above belong the following:

1. maximal filling the political literature with special political terms, and in verbal speech (among the politicians) - filling it with words of political jargon - slang.

2. presence of special idiomatic expressions and phraseological units in verbal and written speech that are rarely used in colloquial speech and general literature.

As an example, I should bring the following idioms: blitzkrieg - молниеносная война, Comprehensive Program of Disarmament - Всеобъемлющая программа разоружения, principal powers - крупные державы, status quo - статус кво and many others. I have to mark - if the quantity of political idioms is limited, then the amount of "politically" related phraseological idioms is vast in English and Russian languages.

3. the presence of some stylistic deflection from general literary norms is sometimes very great.

a) Wide usage of elliptic constructions, especially in periodically publishing materials, propaganda and other kinds of politically important printing media.

b) Preciseness and beauty of self-expression which is achieved by the usage of elliptic constructions along with wide usage of passive constructions and an often substitution of subordinate clauses by absolute constructions and verbal participle phrases.

c) the presence of official writing style, mostly in documents of official provisions that cover administrative and political questions.

d) strictly regulated use of verbal forms and word phrases in special chapters of political literature and political documents.

As was told before, while translating a political character, like doing any other special translation a great importance is given to translation of special terms.

In our philological literature exist lots of definitions to the concept of term, but the essence of majority comes to the following:

Term - is a word or a combination of words, which define a notion (subject, a phenomenon, property, relation or a process) that is characteristic for the given field of science, technology, art or a sphere of social life.

Terms differ from the words of general usage by definite semantic limitations and specific meanings they define. Its very hard to overestimate the general and scientific meaning of terms since the concrete knowledge demands definite expression and a term does not only fix the concept by its notion (name) but specifies it diverging it from adjacent components.

For better functioning, terms must express systematization of notions, express their essence or at least be semantically neutral and at the same time be unambiguous and precise.

The phenomenon of a separate field of science and the terms that fix them should be systemized that offers gender availability around which group notions are formed. Thus an English term representative which presents a group notion and forms a group of notions that belong to this group: representative forum (представительный форум), business world representative (представитель делового мира), representative to the talks (представитель на переговорах), representative to the public (представитель общественности), representative of political circles (представитель политических кругов), representative to NATO (представитель НАТО), representative of various strata or the population (представитель различных слоёв населения).

The capability of a term to express a systematic state of notions and easily merge with new phrases that represent new group notions that consequently appear along with the development of a definite field of science or knowledge maybe called its systematic capability.

The systematic capability of notions helps us to clarify the relation of notions, raise their semantic definiteness and ease their understanding and remembering.

In terms, formed on the base of mother tongue we may differ direct meaning and terminological meaning.

The direct meaning of a term is formed through the elements of the language used for their formation; the terminological meaning defines the concept of notion expressed by the term.

The terms, direct and terminological meaning of which correspond to each other, correctly orientate and underline the so-called their interrelation. These terms are able to express the essence of notions.

The terms, whose direct and terminological meaning does not correspond to each other belong to semantically neutral group of terms.

And at last, the terms whose direct and terminological meaning contradict each other, should be admitted as completely unsatisfactory because they distort the genuine relations among the notions, disorientate the hearer and do not possess any semantic definiteness.

Unambiguousness of a term also influences its clear semantic features but since we do not have any researches in this field this concept cannot always be applied. Therefore, up to 10% of English and American political terms do not possess even a relative semantic definiteness, i. e. definiteness in some political concerns. This situation may be explained by the fact that the terms according to their nature are firstly simple words, and consequently, they develop according to general laws of linguistics. The result of this is the appearance terminological homonyms that hinder the normal functioning of political terms in a language.

The definiteness of a term requires preciseness of an expressed idea. It also raises the semantic definiteness of the term averting its misusage according to it form.

Not all the terms, of course, possess the above-mentioned qualities, but the translator/interpreter of political material should take them into consideration while forming new terms and solving the question of preference to one of the available term-synonyms.

The correct translation of political literature is a laborious work despite the terms' considerable possession of definite semantic clearness and independence in usage.

While speaking of difficulties of translation, I imply as a matter of the first importance, the translation general political literature, which either do not yet have any equivalents in the translating language or have several similar notion for the term in question or at least have one equivalent but of doubtful adequacy. There are lots of word phrases and idiom and terms of this kind and their number is growing with development of technology and interrelation of people and especially with the development of Political sciences.

To achieve a correct translation I can recommend to group the political literature and the used in them according to their field of application and some principles of translation of each group. All the political terms and idioms existing in politics can be divided into three groups:

1. terms - defining the notions of a foreign reality but identical to the reality of the Russian language march - марш

2. terms - defining the notions of a foreign reality absent in the Russian one but possessing generally accepted term-equivalents National Guard - Национальная Гвардия, Territorial Army - Территориальная Армия.

3. terms - defining the notions of a foreign reality that are not available in the Russian language and not having generally accepted term-equivalents: alert hanger - ангар вылета по тревоге.

The adequacy of translation of the first group is achieved by the use of terms implementing corresponding notions in Russian language.

At the same time, it is very important for the notion expressed by the notion of another language to correspond in meaning rendered in Russian language only by its main, essential attributes.

The translation of an English term poll into Russian опросы населения (голосование) is possible only for the correspondence of their principal meaning though the organization and methods of polling are quite different in both countries.

An adequate translation of the second group is comprised in the selection of generally accepted Russian terminological equivalents.

Even terms, not fully meeting the above mentioned requirements due to the terminological meaning fixed for it through the linguistic activity will adequately fit into these rules.

An adequate translation of the words of the third group may be achieved by means of creation of a new terms, which will have to completely merge into the existing system of political terms underlying the systematization of available notions, reflect the essence of the notion it expresses or at least not to contradict it and possess an unambiguousness within its field of application.

Thus, I have considered all the general principals in achieving and adequate translation including translation of political literature and the essential features of translation of political terms.

2. Difficulties in translation of political literature

2.1 Grammatical difficulties of translation

The translation process of political literature from one language into another is inevitable without necessary grammatical transformations. It gets great importance while making translation to add or omit some words since the structures of languages are quite different. Grammatical transformations are characterized by various principles - grammatical, and lexical as well, though the principal role is given to grammatical ones. Very often these grammatical changes are mixed so that they have lexical-grammatical character.

English has an analytical character and therefore the relation between words is mostly expressed by word-order, that's by syntactic means, and morphological means play the secondary role.

The syntactic structure of a language imposes restrictions on the way messages may be organized in that language. The order in which functional elements such as subject, predicator, and object may occur is more fixed in some languages than in others. Languages vary in the extent to which they rely on word order to signal the relationship between elements in the clause. Word order in English is relatively fixed. The meaning of a sentence in English often depends entirely on the order in which the elements are placed.

The structural features of English language require structural completeness of the sentence. One can not omit a word without supplying another one instead. This criterion is governed by stylistic preference of the language to prevent word and make the sentence more emphatic.

When comparing the grammatical categories and forms of English and Russian languages we identify the following differences: a) the absence of the categories in one of the comparing languages, b) partial correspondence, c) complete correspondence. The necessity of grammatical transformations arises only on two first cases. When comparing the English with Russian I should mention that Russian does not have the notions like article and gerund and absolute nominative constructions as well. Partial conformity and unconformity in meaning and usage of corresponding forms and constructions also demands grammatical transformations. I can refer to this case the partial unconformity of the category of number, partial unconformity in the forms of passive constructions, partial unconformity of the form of infinitive and gerund and some other differences in expressing the modality of the clause and so on.

First of all I should consider the article both definite and indefinite which despite its abstract meaning very frequently demands semantic expression in translation. As we know both these articles originated from pronouns; the definite one originated from index pronoun and the indefinite one from indefinite pronoun, which refers to number one. These primary meanings are sometimes obvious in their modern usage. In this cases their lexical meaning should be rendered in translation otherwise the Russian sentence would be incomplete and ambiguous for denotative meaning of articles is an inseparable part of the whole context meaning of a given sentence.

As has been pointed before the most difficult are cases when classifying meanings of indefinite articles demand semantic transfer in translation.

I need a Government which believes in planning ahead for jobs and which will use available labor to build homes for the British people.

Нам нужно такое правительство, которое было бы убеждено в целесообразности планирования занятости и использовало бы наличную рабочую силу в строительстве домов для населения.

Pretty often the definite article demands translation in cases when it comes before numerals.

The two sides also signed a Treaty in the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Tests.

Обе стороны подписали договор об ограничении подземных испытаний атомного оружия.

From the mentioned above cases I can judge that missing article translation may lead to misinterpretation or incorrect and incomplete translation of a sentence.

The role of verb complexes in English is quite evident therefore I will consider only some peculiar cases of verb transformations during translation.

First of all let me consider the verb construction with the preposition for:

…American military bases on foreign territories which are intended for launching missiles possessed by United States' armed forces.

американские военные базы на территориях других государств, которые предназначены для запуска ракет американскими ВВС.

In this case the infinitive construction is translated like adverbial modifier of purpose.

The construction with secondary predicate is widely used in newspaper style due to its preciseness and because it help to avoid the responsibility for the given information.

The United States Congress is aimed to control all the financial expenses of the Government.

Целью конгресса Соединённых Штатов является контроль всех расходов правительства.

It is natural that transformation is required while translating sentences with participles of absolute nominative construction.

But often enough grammatical transformations are necessary while rendering conforming forms and constructions for some divergence in their meaning and usage. Such differences of opinions are observed in cases of usage of the category of number. This refers to both countable and uncountable nouns. Countable nouns have single and plural forms in both languages that usually coincide still we observe cases when their usage is different, ex.:

War Atrocity on Peace Conference Eve (news head).

Зверства (интервентов) накануне мирной конференции

Concerning uncountable nouns, especially those expressing abstract notions we may have much more difficulties because most of them are paradigmatic. For example: ink - чернила, money - деньги.

The Nile Valley appears to have been unfit for human habitation during the Stone Ages.

Долина Нила, по-видимому, была не пригодна для жизни человека на протяжении всего каменного века (во все периоды каменного века).

In Russian the Stone Age expression is of a historical nature and is never used in plural.

In cases when plural form is to be preserved for it carries some inherent sense one has to apply countable nouns, ex.:

Strikes broke out in many British industries.

В ряде отраслей промышленности Англии вспыхнули забастовки.

Sometimes, owing to some reasons some of constructions has wider usage in one languages comparing with other languages. The best example of this is the passive form - widely used in English mostly due to disappearance of word flexion. As a result, both indirect and predicative object maybe transformed into the objects of passive construction.

I should notice that the passive-active transformation can not give sufficient result for in passive construction the stress is being made on the object of action and in the active construction the stress is being made on the agent of action. Since the structure and word order of simple sentence is subject + predicate + object the importance of stylistics is bigger then to distinguish the object one chooses the passive construction.

Divergence are found in some other cases of infinitive usage - infinitive in substantivized constructions (like post-positive attribute) and infinitive expressing following actions, for example:

The president warned of drastic steps to be taken against racialists in the Zambian copper belt.

Президент предупредил, что будут предприняты решительные меры против белых расистов в Медном поясе Замбии.

The infinitive functioning as attribute is translated into object clause with the verb in the Future tense.

The Continuative Infinitive is often mistaken for the infinitive of purpose, but in this function it expresses the action following the after the action expressed by predicate and represents the logical development of things.

The Soviet Union decided to sign the Treaty with Germany and only did to discover that Germany itself violated it two years later.

Советский Союз решил заключить договор с Германией. Но два года спустя Германия сама нарушила его.

The Continuative infinitive very often is used with the adverb only which stresses it. This emphatic function can be rendered in many ways.

Thus, all the considered cases - absence of conforming form, partial correspondence, differences in character and use - urge translators to make necessary grammatical transformations while translating some piece. Those grammatical transformations maybe divided into following types:





Substitution is one of the grammatical relations among the parts of the sentences. In substitution, an item (or items) is replaced by another item (or items), ex:

I like politics. And I do.

In this example, do is a substitute for like politics. Items commonly used in substitution in English include do, one, and the same, as in the following examples:

You think US will start the war against Iraq? - No one does.

I made use of substitution while translating the sentence because of several reasons: absence of similar construction in Russian language, unconformity in usage of corresponding forms and constructions and some lexical reasons, which include different word usage and different norms of combinability in English and Russian and the absence of the part of speech with corresponding meaning.

An attempted overthrow in Peru.

Попытка совершить переворот в Перу.

In Russian we do not have the conforming participle II of the verb пытаться. And this made me change the part of speech; the participle attempted was translated into Russian by the noun попытка. The expression попытка переворота does not conform to the norms of Russian language that's why I have to apply additional word совершить.

The transformation of `active' into `passive' is also when a translator uses substitution.

More light was shed yesterday on the effect of C. S. gas, which was claimed by Pentagon to be virtually harmless to health.

Вчера поступили дополнительные сведения о вредном действии газа C. S., который, по утверждению Пентагона, якобы не опасен для здоровья.

The phraseological unit more light was shed was translated by means of lexical transformation and the passive construction was replaced by an active one. The passive construction in the object clause also undergone lexical transformation - verbal construction was substituted by substantive one: по утверждению.

This example can illustrate the fact that lexical and grammatical transformations are closely related with each other.

Transposition, that's, change of structure of the sentence may be caused by several reasons. But the main of them, as it has been mentioned before is the difference in the structure of the English and Russian languages. The fixed order of words in English bears hierarchic character, first come the primary parts of the sentence; noun, predicate followed by secondary parts. In Russian the word order is not fixed but one can observe the tendency to locate the main information at the end of sentences expressing it be the noun. The word order in Russian sentences follows the model: adverbial modifier, predicate and then the noun - that's the order absolutely opposite to English.

Вчера в Вашингтоне состоялась пресс-конференция.

A Press Conference was held in Washington yesterday.

In English, according to fixed word order, the noun of the sentence stands at the beginning of clause.

Transposition is required when the English sentence contains a large group of nouns with indefinite article and then it is natural that they, being the center of informative message are placed at the end of the sentence. Besides, a short, compared with the noun predicate can not bear the emphatic sense of a large group of nouns.

It is very frequent when grammatical and lexical transformations demand supplementation or omission of some words or elements. Therefore omission and supplementation are frequently combined with other types of grammatical transformations and more frequently with substitution of parts of speech.

Supplementation of parts of speech is characterized by several factors: difference in structures of the sentences and that short English sentences demand spread translation in the Russian language. Absence of some corresponding word or lexical-semantic variant in both languages is also one of the reasons of applying additional words in translation.

The American troops were thought to be heading toward Saigon, but no one seemed to be aware of fierce resistance of the nation.

Полагали, что американские войска направляется на Сайгон, но казалось, что никто не знал о жестоком сопротивлении местного населения.

The construction Nominative + Infinitive with two omitted elements was given in object clause plus introductory sentences… который, как полагали раньше, движется Thus, the difference in the structure of sentences demanded supplementation in the given translation.

The actions of Congress and of North Carolina and Tennessee statesmen, aided by gifts of wise conservationists, have set this land aside as Great Smoky National Park.

Эта местность на берегу реки Смоки-Хилл была превращена в Национальный парк благодаря усилиям Конгресса и государственных деятелей штатов Северная Каролина и Теннеси, а также благодаря пожертвованиям любителей природы, понимающих всю важность её сохранения.

In regard to the absence on corresponding word in the Russian language to the English conservationists I have rendered it by two words любителей природы; and taking into consideration the combinability of the attribute wise I have translated it by adverbial modifier applying introductory words like понимающих всю важность её сохранения, the noun сохранения renders all the essence of the given sentence which is contained in conservationists. To make the perception of the sentence easier I have I added the words штатов, на берегу реки.

Ellipsis involves the omission of an item. In other words, in ellipsis an item is replaced by nothing. This is a case of leaving something unsaid which is nevertheless understood. It doesn't include every instance when the hearer or reader has to supply missing information, but only those cases where grammatical structure itself points to an item or items that can fill the slot in question. Here are some examples of ellipsis:

The United States donated two millions dollars and Britain one and a half millions pounds. (omitted item: donated in second clause).

Here are four strategies. Choose any of them. (omitted item strategy)

Use of synonymy pairs is characterized to all styles of written speech of English language. Preserving such synonymy pair is accepted as pleonasm and it is absolutely superfluous even when translating official documents that demand preciseness.

The Treaty was declared null and void.

Договор был объявлен недействительным.

The battle was fierce while it lasted.

Бой был жесток.

Time complex object in this case functions as a clichй and doesn't have corresponding equivalent in Russian.

I should remind that it is not always an English sentence completely corresponds to the Russian one. Very frequently the structure of a Russian sentence absolutely differs from the one English. It has different word order, parts of the sentences and pretty often differs even the order of sentences. Nevertheless, some differences in usage of some specific features make us leave some elements unsaid while translating the whole. And all these cases are explained by grammatical transformations I have just investigated.

2.2 Lexical difficulties of transformation

Every word in a language carries some concrete notion. The semantics of a word reflects different signs of the subject and the relation of its meanings to other objects it denotes. The semantics of a word includes word perception characteristic to the studied language, being more precise to the bearers of the studied language. When studying the reality of some object we can identify that its name reveals its functions which finds the reflection in the semantics of the word.

Both languages sufficiently reflect one and the same perception of reality. Therefore the difficulty stylistic devices represents to a translator is based on word play, if in corresponding words of both languages are featured different signs.

The second reason, causing lexical difficulties to translation of political literature is the difference in the semantic volume of a word. In every language a word exists in a close connection with the lexical-semantic system of a given language. It may have various kinds of lexical meanings variants; it may widen or narrow its meaning and make it more abstract or concrete.

The third reason presenting lexical difficulties in translation the difference in combinability. Words in languages have some definite relation characteristic only to the given language. It should be mentioned that word combinability is possible if words point to similar objects they denote. This difference of word combinability in various languages is very important; therefore some types of combinability are easily accepted in one of language and are completely unacceptable in other languages.

Difference in the semantic structure of a word represents one of the main reason causing lexical difficulties in translation. The semantic structure of a word predefines the possibility of its contextual use, and the translation of contextual meaning presents a hard task to translators. Contextual meaning of a word in many instances depends on the character of semantic context, on the semantics of the words combining with it.

In an atomic war women and children will be the first hostages.

The word hostage according to different dictionaries has got only one meaning - заложник. But in the given instance the hostage acquired the meaning жертва. Its contextual meaning probably exists in its paradigmatic meaning; any hostage may get killed therefore while translating this example I have to use the word жертва since заложник is not used in the given contextual meaning.

Первыми жертвами в атомной войне будут женщины и дети

Contextual meaning of a word is always effective semantically and stylistically owing to its unexpectedness as well. It often used in stylistic purposes and therefore a translator runs into two obstacles: he should avoid and at the same time not to break the norms of translation.

The most difficulty presents the translation of emotional coloring that demands lexical changes. There is a wide range of words in a language that besides their logical meaning have emotional meanings or co-meaning. Emotional meaning of words usually presents in paradigmatic meanings of words. Emotional meaning, based in the word is usually created by association - positive or negative - which a word causes and the associations that exist in it despite the context of perception.

A peculiar group of words demanding transformation in translation are the words that possess different volume of meaning in Russian and English languages. To this group belong international words, some words of human perception, mental activity.

International words are words that are used in a wide range of languages in one or several forms. These words express scientific and social-politic notions. The volume meaning of these words does not usually coincide (except term-words). Though it is well-known that they comprise the false-friends of translators and the mistakes in their translation are frequent. These mistakes are caused not only by difference in their semantic structure but by the difference of their usage as well which demand lexical changes:

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