Translation of political literature

Primary aim of translation. Difficulties in of political literature. Grammatical, lexical and stylistic difficulties of translation. The difficulty of translation of set phrases and idioms. The practice in the translation agency "Translators group".

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
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Язык английский
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We are told that television this autumn will give a massive coverage to the General Election.

Сообщают, что нынешней осенью передачи по телевидению будут широко освещать парламентские выборы.

The word massive along with the meaning массивный, has other meanings like массовый, грандиозный, огромный, широкий and so on.

Lexical transformations are also caused by necessity to concretize a word while translating. It is characteristic to English language the availability of words with wide spread meaning.

Translation of these words depends on the context, which helps to identify their concrete meaning. Usually they are translated by various Russian words that have concrete meaning. Practically it refers to verbs - to verbs of speech and verbs of movement. Concrete lexical meaning, this or that the lexical-semantic variant of a verb depends on structure and lexical meaning of words that distribute them.

At the by-election victory went to the Labor candidate.

На дополнительных выборах победа досталась лейбористам (победу одержал кандидат от лейбористской партии).

Among nouns of wide meaning a special group comprises abstract nouns that frequently demand concrete definitions in translation. So, for example, despite the presence of a word президентство in Russian - English word presidency usually refers to the words a пост президента or президентская всласть.

An ageing Speaker cannot take on the burdens of the presidency.

Престарелый спикер не может взять на себя бремя президентской власти (в случае смерти президента).

The last feature of lexical transformation to be discussed is traditional word usage for every language and which causes frequent lexical transformations. This traditional usage is to some extent related to another approach to the phenomena of reality. For example:

The military base is built on terraces rising from the lake.

For Russian the traditional use will be:

Военная база построена на террасах, спускающихся к озеру.

In this case preposition is omitted in translation because as the originality of the English word usage required complete transformation. To the traditional word usage can also be referred the so-called clichйs - order, and the clichйs in wider sense.

Hands up! - Руки вверх!

The assault of the castle was followed by continuous bombing. Loss of life was uncountable.

За штурмом крепости последовала длительная бомбардировка. Жертвы были бесчисленны.

2.3 Stylistic difficulties of translation

Practically, stylistic devices in almost all languages are similar still though their functions in speech vary. Identical stylistic devices are used differently in languages; they perform different functions and have different value in stylistic system of their language what actually explains their necessity when transformations in translation occur. The stylistic changes are as necessary as grammatical or lexical ones. While applying some grammatical or lexical transformation in translation the translator is guided by principle of rendering grammatical of lexical meaning. When rendering stylistic meaning of the source text a translator should be guided by the same principle - to recreate in translation the same impression that might be left by the original text.

A translator should not try to preserve the stylistic device given in the sentence, but reproduce its function in the target language.

We should not forget that almost all stylistic devices are multi functional. It is like when polysemantic words in English and Russian languages do not coincide in their lexical-semantic variants and the same is when differ in the function of identical stylistic device.

To illustration it we can compare alliteration in the English and Russian languages. The use of alliteration is a convincing acknowledgement that various functions of stylistic devices in different languages do not always coincide in usage.

Functional translation of stylistic devices has been already discussed. But it is extremely important to distinguish in the translated text original and imagined alliterations so that to avoid unnecessary emphasizing and to keep stylistic equivalence which presents necessary component of adequate translation. There is a constant danger to smooth and de-color the original text or, on the contrary, to make translation brighter and stylistically colored. But sometimes a translator consciously applies some " "smoothing" or neutralization in other words.

Repetition as you know is a more widespread stylistic device in the English language, than in Russian.

The repetition is widely used with stylistic purposes in newspaper publicity. In these cases the translator is compelled to apply stylistic changes, make substitution or omission.

A policy of see no stagnation, hear no stagnation, speak no stagnation has had too long a run for our money.

Слишком долго мы расплачиваемся за политику полного игнорирования и замалчивания застоя в нашей экономике.

The triple repetition of no stagnation has been omitted in translation, though is partially compensated by the use of synonymic pair at a word (stagnation), but neutralization is evident in translation. The neutralization happened when translating the phraseological unit to have (too long) a run for our money.

Metaphor is used in all emotionally - colored styles of speech. However in style of fiction the metaphor always carries original character, whereas in political literature the original metaphor is used rather seldom and basically - copied metaphors. Nevertheless in advanced clauses of the English and American political literature, the purpose of which is to assure, to make people believe and to impress the reader, that is to force him to agree with the point of view given in the article, one can often see rather bright and colorful metaphors.

Sometimes the difficulty of translation of metaphor consists in translating some word combination or a phraseological unit, which does not have figurative equivalent in Russian.

Let`s consider the problem of extended metaphor. The extended metaphor represents a chain of the logically connected figurative components. Sometimes such components of the extended metaphors pass through the whole clause.

The latest official explanation of the President's Indochina policy is that "he is backing out of the saloon with both guns firing", but there is a catch to this.

He insists that the guys in the white hats keep control of the saloon before he leaves town. He wants a non-communist bartender, and a non-communist sheriff, and a secure non-communist town before he rides away into the sunset of November, 1972.

In the final paragraph of the article the elements of one metaphor are partially repeated: but all this is a little more complicated than "backing out of the saloon".

The images of this extended metaphor are taken from so-called "western" - of film about cowboys in "wild" west. In this case all elements of the developed (unwrapped) metaphor, perhaps, can be kept in translation.

Согласно последнему официальному объяснению политики президента в отношении Индокитая, "он хочет выбраться из бара, пятясь к двери и отстреливаясь из двух пистолетов". Но за этим кроется что-то еще.

Он хочет, чтобы парни в белых шапках следили за порядком в баре до тех пор, пока он не уедет из города. Он хочет, чтобы бармен не был коммунистом и чтобы шериф не был коммунистом и чтобы город заведомо не был в руках коммунистов. И только тогда он поскачет навстречу ноябрьским сумеркам 1972 года.

And at the end of clause - "но все это несколько сложнее, чем пятясь к двери, выбраться из бара".

Being purely linguistic and stylistic device - metonymy is used more and more in political literature, perhaps, even more than metaphor. Metonymy translation presents one of numerous problems for the use of metonymy significantly differs in English and Russian languages. Due to this fact the translator is often forced to go back to the primary meaning of a word, that is to the meaning that was firstly created by metonymy.

It is a widespread case of metonymy usage - substitution of concrete notion by an abstract one, which can not always be preserved.

"It (the flood) has hurl us a great deal," the Pakistan Prime Minister told correspondents last week as he toured the destruction in the flooded provinces. ("Newsweek")

"Наводнение нанесло нам огромный ущерб", - сказал корреспондентам премьер-министр Пакистана, на прошлой неделе во время поездки по пострадавшим от наводнения районам.

Concerning the translation of comparison as a stylistic device, the difficulties arise only if the words of English and Russian languages are various in the semantic structure. I have already considered in the chapter of lexical transformations the question of translation of such terms and now I would like to give the example of stylistic comparison.

I discussed the importance of articles in translation and now I should mention once again that they can serve in stylistic purposes.

An expressiveness gets the definite article, before a indefinite pronoun one.

this is the one way I can achieve success in elections.

…это единственный способ достигнуть победы на выборах.

The given synonyms compensate render the stress contained the original text.

There is another kind of stylistic transformation - actualization - which involves transition of something simple into something unusual, strange. It reveals potential expressiveness put in the lexical morphologic and syntactic means of a language.

Actualization of the passive form often occurs while translating political literature but it is not as colored as in the translations of fiction.

The General Assembly was gaveled to order by its outgoing President.

Уходящий со своего поста председатель Генеральной Ассамблее навел порядок в зале, энергично стуча молотком.

The expressiveness and emphasis created by the passive form of the verb that had been formed as a result of conversion are compensated by lexical means. The compressed nature of sentence was lost for the verb to gavel has two semantic components one of action and an instrument that were to be rendered in translation.

Now from everything that has been discussed above I can infer that the usage of some of stylistic devices in English is peculiar - and bears specific national character, therefore their direct translation in many instances is impossible. I should warn that it is not important to classify the device itself but the point is to be able to realize their ongoing effect and to identify the purpose of their application in the translation they are working on.

2.4 The difficulty of translation of set phrases and idioms

As far as idioms and phraseological units are concerned in translation, the first difficulty that a translator comes across is being able to recognize that s/he is dealing with an idiomatic expression. This is not always so obvious. There are various types of idioms, some more easily recognizable than others. Those which are easily recognizable include expressions which violate truth conditions, such as It's raining cats and dogs, throw caution to the winds, storm in a tea cup, jump down someone's throat, and food for thought. They also include expressions which seem ill-formed because they do not follow the grammatical rules of the language, for example trip the light fantastic, blow someone to kingdom come, put paid to, the powers that be, by and large, and the world and his friend. Expressions which start with like (simile-like structures) also tend to suggest that they should not be interpreted literally. These include idioms such as like a bat out of hell and like water off a duck's back. Generally speaking, the more difficult an expression is to understand and the less sense it makes in a given context, the more likely a translator will recognize it as an idiom. Because they do not make sense if interpreted literally, the highlighted expressions in the following text are easy to recognize as idioms (assuming one is not already familiar with them):

This can only be done, I believe, by a full and frank airing of the issues. I urge you all to speak your minds and not to pull any punches.

Provided a translator has access to good reference works and monolingual dictionaries of idioms, or, better still, is able to consult native speakers of the language, opaque idioms which do not make sense for one reason or another can actually be a blessing in disguise. The very fact that s/he cannot make sense of an expression in a particular context will alert the translator to the presence of an idiom of some sort.

There are two cases in which an idiom can be easily misinterpreted if one is not already familiar with it:

(a) Some idioms are 'misleading'; they seem transparent because they offer a reasonable literal interpretation and their idiomatic meanings are not necessarily signaled in the surrounding text. A large number of idioms in English, and probably all languages, have both a literal and an idiomatic meaning, for example go out with ('have a romanticrelationship with someone') and take someone for a ride ('deceive or cheat someone in some way'). Such idioms lend themselves easily to manipulation by speakers and writers who will sometimes play on both their literal and idiomatic meanings. In this case, a translator who is not familiar with the idiom in question may easily accept the literal interpretation and miss the play on idiom.

(b) An idiom in the source language may have a very close counter part in the target language which looks similar on the surface but has a totally or partially different meaning. For example, the idiomatic question Has the cat had/got your tongue? is used in English to urge someone to answer a question or contribute to a conversation, particularly when their failure to do so becomes annoying.

Apart from being alert to the way speakers and writers manipulate certain features of idioms and to the possible confusion which could arise from similarities in form between source and target expressions, a translator must also consider the collocational environment which surrounds any expression whose meaning is not readily accessible. Idiomatic and fixed expressions have individual collocational patterns. They form collocations with other items in the text as single units and enter into lexical sets which are different from those of their individual words. Take, for instance, the idiom to have cold feet. Cold as a separate item may collocate with words like weather, winter, feel, or country. Feet on its own will perhaps collocate with socks, chilblain, smelly, etc. However, having cold feet, in its idiomatic use, has nothing necessarily to do with winter, feet, or chilblains and will therefore generally be used with a different set of collocates.

The ability to distinguish senses by collocation is an invaluable asset to a translator working from a foreign language. It is often subsumed under the general umbrella of 'relying on the context to disambiguate meanings', which, among other things, means using our knowledge of collocational patterns to decode the meaning of a word or a stretch of language. Using our knowledge of collocational patterns may not always tell us what an idiom means but it could easily help us in many cases to recognize an idiom, particularly one which has a literal as well as a non-literal meaning.

Once an idiom or fixed expression has been recognized and interpreted correctly, the next step is to decide how to translate it into the target language. The difficulties involved in translating an idiom are totally different from those involved in interpreting it. Here, the question is not whether a given idiom is transparent, opaque, or misleading. An opaque expression may be easier to translate than a transparent one. The main difficulties involved in translating idioms and fixed expressions may be summarized as follows:

(a) An idiom or fixed expression may have no equivalent in the target language. The way a language chooses to express, or not express, various meanings cannot be predicted and only occasionally matches the way another language chooses to express the same meanings. One language may express a given meaning by means of a single word, another may express it by means of a transparent fixed expression, a third may express it by means of an idiom, and so on. It is therefore unrealistic to expect to find equivalent idioms and expressions in the target language as a matter of course.

Like single words, idioms and fixed expressions may be culture-specific. Formulae such as Merry Christmas and say when which relate to specific social or religious occasions provide good examples.

Basnett-McGuire (1980: 21) explains that the expression say when 'is… directly linked to English social behavioral patterns' and suggests that 'the translator putting the phrase into Russian has to contend with the problem of the non-existence of a similar convention in either culture'. Less problematic, but to some extent also culture-specific, are the sort of fixed formulae that are used in formal correspondence, such as Yours faithfully and Yours sincerely in English. These, for instance, have no equivalents in Arabic formal correspondence. The same mismatch occurs in relation to French and several other languages but in Russian we have similar expression Ваш верный!

Idioms and fixed expressions which contain culture-specific items are not necessarily untranslatable. It is not the specific items an expression contains but rather the meaning it conveys and its association with culture-specific contexts which can make it untranslatable or difficult to translate. For example, the English expression to carry coals to Newcastle, though culture-specific in the sense that it contains a reference to Newcastle coal and uses it as a measure of abundance, is nevertheless closely paralleled in Russian by в Тулу со своим самоваром. Both expressions convey the same meaning, namely: to supply something to someone who already has plenty of it.

An idiom may be used in the source text in both its literal and idiomatic senses at the same time. Unless the target-language idiom corresponds to the source-language idiom both in form and in meaning, the play on idiom cannot be successfully reproduced in the target text.

An idiom or fixed expression may have a similar counterpart in the target language, but its context of use may be different; the two expressions may have different connotations, for instance, or they may not be pragmatically transferable. An idiom may be used in the source text in both its literal and idiomatic senses at the same time. Unless the target-language idiom corresponds to the source-language idiom both in form and in meaning, the play on idiom cannot be successfully reproduced in the target text.

Using idioms in English and American politics is very much a matter of style. Languages such as Arabic and Chinese which make a sharp distinction between written and spoken discourse and where the written mode is associated with a high level of formality tend, on the whole, to avoid using idioms in written texts. Fernando and Flavell discuss the difference in rhetorical effect of using idioms in general and of using specific types of idiom in the source and target languages and quite rightly conclude that: 'Translation is an exacting art. Idiom more than any other feature of language demands that the translator be not only accurate but highly sensitive to the rhetorical nuances of the language'.

II. Practical part. Translation of political literature

I passed my professional practice in the translation agency "Translators group”. Here I worked on translation of political topics, articles from magazines and newspapers and political letters.

Practical part of the course work based on the knowledge obtained on practice. It includes the translation of political items and the detailed analysis of completed work.

The translation process of political literature from one language into another is inevitable without necessary grammatical transformations. It gets great importance while making translation to add or omit some words since the structures of languages are quite different. Grammatical transformations are characterized by various principles-grammatical and lexical as well. Though the principal role is given to grammatical ones. Very often these grammatical changes are mixed so that they have lexical-grammatical character.

The public power grows stronger, however, in proportion as class antagonisms within the state become more acute and as adjacent states become larger and more populous.

Общественная власть усиливается по мере того, как обостряются классовые противоречия внутри государства, и по мере того, как соприкасающиеся между собой государства становятся больше и населеннее.

The supersession of the bourgeois state by the proletarian state is impossible without a violent revolution. The abolition of the proletarian state, i. e., of the state in general, is impossible except through the process of "withering away".

Смена буржуазного государства пролетарским невозможна без насильственной революции. Уничтожение пролетарского государства, т.е. уничтожение всякого государства, невозможно иначе, как путем

While translating the structure filling words one has to use words with complete meaning or make use of some other kind of functional filling.

When comparing the grammatical categories and forms of English and Russian languages there are the following differences: a). the absence of the categories in one of the comparing languages, b). partial correspondence, c).complete correspondence. The necessity of grammatical transformations arises only on two first cases. When comparing the English with Russian I should mention that Russian does not have notions like article and gerund and absolute nominative constructions as well. Partial conformity and unconformity in meaning and usage of corresponding forms and constructions also demands grammatical transformations. One can refer to this case the partial unconformity of the category of number, partial unconformity in the forms of passive constructions, partial unconformity of the form of infinitive and gerund and some other differences in expressing the modality of the clause and so on.

First of all one should consider the article for article both definite and indefinite which despite its abstract meaning very frequently demands semantic expression in translation. As we know both these articles originated from pronouns; the definite one originated from index pronoun and the indefinite one from indefinite pronoun, which refers to number one. These primary meanings are sometimes obvious in their modern usage. In this cases their lexical meaning should be rendered in translation otherwise the Russian sentence would be incomplete and ambiguous for denotative meaning of articles is an inseparable of the whole context meaning of a given sentence. There are cases when classifying function of indefinite articles is so obvious that one should render its meaning by some lexical item.

The only sensible solution in the Middle East is a peace which would withdraw Israeli troops.

Единственное разумное решение ближневосточного вопроса - это такой мир, который обеспечил бы вывод израильских войск.

As has been mentioned before the most difficult are cases when classifying meanings of indefinite articles demands semantic transfer in translation.

Не appeals to the great mass of Americans who are middle-of-the-roaders people to reject the far-right policies of a Barry Goldwater.

Он обращается к американцам, придерживающимся умеренных взглядов, которые составляют значительное число, с призывом отвергнуть крайне правую политическую линию деятелей типа Барри Голдуотера.

Yesterday the election officials tabulated the first election returns in that precinct.

Вчера впервые были подсчитаны результаты голосования на этом избирательном участке.

From the mentioned above cases one can judge that missing article translation may lead to misinterpretation or incorrect and incomplete translation of a sentence.

Difference in the semantic structure of a word represents one of the main reason causing lexical difficulties in translation. The semantic structure of a word predefines the possibility of its contextual use, and the translation of contextual meaning presents a hard task to translators. Contextual meaning of a word in many instances depends on the character of semantic context, on the semantics of the words combining with it.

In an atomic war women and children will be the first hostages

Первыми жертвами в атомной войне будут женщины и дети

The word hostage according to different dictionaries has got only one meaning - заложник. But in the given instance the hostage acquired the meaning жертва. Its contextual meaning probably exists in its paradigmatic meaning; any hostage may get killed therefore while translating this example I have to use the word жертва since заложник is not used in the given contextual meaning.

Ellipsis involves the omission of an item. In other words, in ellipsis an item is replaced by nothing. This is a case of leaving something unsaid which is nevertheless understood. It doesn't include every instance when the hearer or reader has to supply missing information, but only those cases where grammatical structure itself points to an item or items that can fill the slot in question. Here are some examples of ellipsis: The agreement signed by the two countries provided just and equitable peace conditions for both sides. Подписанное обеими странами соглашение предусматривает справедливые условия мира для обеих сторон.

The bold and courageous struggle of the working class and its Communist Party carried the day.

Мужественная борьба рабочего класса и его коммунистической партии увенчалась успехом.

Supplementation of parts of speech is characterized by several factors: difference in structures of the sentences and that short English sentences demand spread translation in the Russian language. Absence of some corresponding word or lexical-semantic variant in both languages is also one of the reasons of applying additional words in translation.

The new American Secretary of State has proposed a world conference on food supplies.

Новый государственный секретарь США предложил созвать всемирную конференцию по вопросам продовольственных ресурсов.

George McGovern's 1972 economic program turned into a vote-losing albatross.

Экономическая программа Макговерна обернулась для него неудачей и привела к потере голосов избирателей.

Conclusion

In the given course work I have investigated various translation methods of political literature from English into Russian. I tried to give a detailed study of the features of translation of Political literature for it is one of the types of translation that has not been studied in details in our country up to this time.

Moreover, I've studied the translation methods of Political literature at a deeper level, the types and ways of translation of Political literature; I've also considered the function of political literature in everyday life of the humanity.

The aim of this work was to introduce the translation approach to Political literature so that to make it easy to perceive for those willing to keep up their educational and scientific carrier in the science of translation, it was purposed to broaden their view on translation studies and peculiar features while translating Political literature.

Almost every aspect of life in general and of the interaction between speech communities in particular can be considered relevant to translation, a discipline which has to concern itself with how meaning is generated within and between various groups of people in various cultural settings. Translators will need something other than the current mixture of intuition and practice to enable them to reflect on what they do and how they do it. They will need, above all, to acquire a sound knowledge of the raw material with which they work: to understand what language is and how it comes to function for its users.

While reviewing the grammatical changes I considered the following transformations: substitution, omission, transposition and supplementation.

Substitution is one of the grammatical relations among the parts of the sentences. In substitution, an item (or items) is replaced by another item (or items)

Omission, as you know is when an item is replaced by nothing. This is a case of leaving something unsaid which is nevertheless understood.

Transposition is required when the English sentence contains a large group of nouns with indefinite article and then it is natural that they, being the center of informative message are placed at the end of the sentence. Besides, a short, compared with the noun predicate can not bear the emphatic sense of a large group of nouns.

Supplementation happens to be very frequent when translating texts on International politics because we do not always have corresponding words for some English or American notions.

Thus, I have come to conclusion that the above mentioned changes are necessary while processing a translation of Political literature from English into Russian.

While discussing the lexical problems of translation I considered lexical-semantic features of both languages and investigated such cases as difference in word volume, word combinability, I have also considered contextual meaning of words in the process of translation. In addition I investigated the emotional coloring that plays an important role while processing a translation of Political Literature.

The use of words of abstract meaning strongly differs in various languages. Therefore arises the necessity of concrete definition in translating.

In the study of stylistic transformation during translation I found, that the repetition is widely used with stylistic purposes in newspaper publicity. In these cases the translator is compelled to apply stylistic changes, make substitution or omission.

Therefore a translator, majoring in the translation of Politics should have a good command not only of English itself, but should know the principles of International politics and other Political sciences.

To wind up this discourse, I would like to remind you, that while our country is rapidly integrating into the International community, the need of highly experienced translators of Political literature will be evident to make the International Events easily accessible to general public.

References

1. Fathy A. Osman. Senior interpreter/translator, IMF, Washington, DC

2. In other words - a course book on translation. Mona Baker, London and New York.

3. The Craft of Translation, John Biguenet & Rainer Schulte, The University of Chicago Press.

4. Translation features, Basnett-McGuire, New York Publishing house.

5. A course book on Military Translation, Ministry of Defense of the USSR, Moscow.

6. Translation difficulties, T. R. Levitskaya & A. M. Fitterman, "International Relations" Publishing house, Moscow.

7. Difficulties of translation from English into Russian, Zrajevskaya L. M. & Belyaeva, Moscow Publishing House.

8. Translation and linguistics, SchIitzer A. D.

9. English Grammar, L. S. Barhudarov & D. A. Schteling, Moscow.

10. Exercise book on translation of humanitarian texts, Malchevskaya, Saint Petersburg.

11. America and Russian and the Cold War, Walter LaFeber, 6th Edition, Cornell University.

12. Comparative Politics, Washington State University.

13. International Conflict Cooperation and Management, Slippery Rock University, Pennsylvania.

14. www.worldtranslationservice.com

15. www.translateweb.org

16. www.monabaker. trans.com

17. www.chicagopress.com

18. www.garethjones.org

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