Translation of poetry english-russian

What is poetry. What distinguishes poetry from all other documents submitted in writing. Poetical translation. The verse-translation. Philological translation. The underline translation. Ensuring spiritual contact between the author and the reader.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 27.04.2013
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INTRODUCTION

What is poetry? Usually the answer is something like that: “a shot literature work with personal character, separated on lines.” Does it suit? It is always difficult to give a definition in literature. Everything personal and important always tries to escape from that kind of scientific speech, which helps us to involve all points of view from that subject. Perhaps, we should have said, that poetry is a responsible attempt of putting us into personal understanding of this world by literary composition;

What distinguishes poetry from all other documents submitted in writing? Most of explorers would say “nothing”, all of these are texts: poetry, philosophical treatise or newspaper. But only people, who read thick scientific magazines, are interested in that, because poetry really seems to be something different. Even if we take into account that it can be both poetry and prose, we name them different because they touch our souls. Poetry is that kind of art which gives us world description, expresses, excites emotions and joy. Poetry can be named the art of unspoken and implicit.

What does original poetry texts exist for? Of course for ensuring spiritual contact between the author and the reader, even if they are separated by ages.

What does translated poetry texts exist for? May be for realizing much more difficult communicative process - spiritual contact between the author and readers.

What do Russian poetry translators Hongori and Unamuno do? Do they translate poetry from Spanish into Russian? Or do they reshape spiritual content of some Spanish culture phenomenon by Russian poetry sources, taking into account time, psychology and folk-peculiarity factors, on a par with the factor of difference in linguo-cultural world portrait, which Russian and Spanish native speakers have. I think that the first variant is more suitable than the first one. That's why poetry translating process must be regarded as inter-linguo-cultural phenomenon, and more exactly inter-linguo-folk-psycho-cultural communication.

Though quasiterms like “spiritual communication” and “cultural language” are too polysemantic. So let's return to real poetry world. From the beginning of the second part of the last age it became popular and nowadays it is even leading to use the method of keeping artistic contact and form unity, to express it like alive and holistic poetry organism, not as dead photocopy or scheme, even if it is very faithful translation. Other words, poetry translation must become alive twin of original one, and act actively in new language literary process.

It means that the interpreter needs to sacrifice qualitative translation of secondary poetry details. Of course, first of all he needs to be sociable poet and keen psychologist. Little by little typical system of translating methods, based on communicative-functional foundation, formed. The various types of translating can be in this system, but every type has its own function. Let's discuss it in detail.

By choosing this theme for my course paper I decided to try myself in something more perfect and spiritual then just text translating. I think I can put my soul into translation of English poetry into Russian language and show my own variant.

The main aims of my work are:

1. To find out what is poetry and how can we work with it.

2. To find methods to use when we try to translate English original poetry into Russian language

POETIC TRANSLATION

Before having cleared how to translate poetry, let's find out what is verse - it's structure and spiritually.

The verse form is consisted of the interconnected and interactive elements complex, such as rhythm, melody architectonics, stylistics, semantic, figure, emotional word substance and their combinations. The formal structure of the verse is the base for its rhythm creation, which is considered as the most underlying and powerful poetry fundament.

The verse rhythm is based on correct stressed and unstressed syllables interchange in verse line. In the base of classical verse system we have conception of meter - canonically designated system of foot correlation. Meter clavicles verse speech into clear limited breaks and equal sections - lines and verses. Rhythm is coordinated with the poetry content and its information and construction - all these elements create the metrical verse organization style.

That means, first of all, the interpreter has to express the coordination between information and rhythm only then - the meter with its units. Sometimes the original verse meter and translation verse one are the same. In this cause performing of formal methods appeared as important means, allowing to rich the most esthetical equivalence with its origin.

Now let's find out the informational verse structure.

Poetry translation, as all variations of translation, is an act of interlingual and intercultural communication. Poetry translation performs expression of poetical information by means of especially and only completed text, every separated part of this text has the true meaning exactly and only in content of this integral text, and never has its own integral meaning. In this case the acting poetical speech theory in whole and poetical translation particularly, can be the communicational and textual theory, if it is needed.

At last, verbal-artistic communication, expressed by means of poetic texts, is poetic communication. The meaning part of the text in all sides of view we will call the information of present text. This only definition can be used for understanding the literary communication theory.

The poetic text information is divided into two different parts: semantic and esthetic. Semantic information is also divided into two parts: factual and conceptual ones. Factual information performs about some facts and causes, which took , take or only will take part in real or fantastic world. This kind of information is contained in every, even non-literature text. For example; «Я помню, как ты неожиданно вошла в мою комнату, и я подумал: это не женщина, а чудо!» But every literary text contains not only superficial factual information, which is much more important than just clear facts and causes. It expresses, at last, world conception, that means, author's world understanding conclusion about what this world is like and what it should be like. This information is always implicit by it's nature and, we can say, it doesn't have any verbal bearers - it performs by non-verbal form, but by means of factual content.

For example: «Я и поныне помню, как ты внезапно появилась предо мной, - и подумалось мне, что это лишь мимолетный мираж, запечатлевший в облике своем божественную красоту». That is literary text - it has the same factual information as in former, but it is filled by special conceptual means - literal hero worship for female beauty. But in true - literal text are many other informational “units”, which are expressed except the means. This informational non-means complex can be named as esthetical information. In poetry, especially in lyrical one, esthetical information usually is more important then factual and conceptual ones.

So we can see that, former examples of literal prosaic texts, which have special conceptual information, are less informed then their poetic version, wrote by A. S. Pushkin

Я помню чудное мгновенье:

передо мной явилась ты,

как мимолетное виденье,

как гений чистой красоты.

Esthetical information also is very complicated informational complex, consisted of esthetical information (evaluation and experience of the recipient that the content format), catorical information (not harmony, but intense conflict between different levels of literal text structure), hedonistic (the pleasure, that the recipient gets from connecting to the mysterious poetic code, from virtuoso author skills, who perfectly wields lingual and poetry techniques), acseological information.

But if verse words means don't coincide with their true means, if in poetic texts “white” can be “black”, can we even find routine means understanding and means-agreement between original and translated poetry text?

Could such a closeness be the true indication of catastrophically original difference? It is clear for us that: first of all, poetic communication exists only if the author created some kind of poetical text, characterizing all it's units by interconnection and intersematics, belonged to special language system; secondary especially these interconnection and intersematics, connecting all linguistic units - from phoneme till statement - make the expression of informational complex in text absolutely impossible, which takes please in the original text.

So we can say that every time the interpreter has to make a choice, what and why he should make a sacrifice. There are four different methods to translate one poetic text. It depends on how much true information the interpreter wants to get from the origin into another language, (also it depends on communicative function which the interpreter chooses for his art-work).

1. Poetical translation

Poetry - is one of the most difficult literary genres, requiring very sensitive responsive, intelligent, deep action understanding. The Poet transforms the world into lyrics, “retracting it by prism of artistic image. That is the main problem of poetic text!

This interpreter has the clear artistic aim: to understand this image. To appear in it, to feel… just for expressing all its beauty, emotional experience. That's why the poetic translation is the most independent literary work of art. And of course no one can understand the poet, but another poet. The poetry translation is the interpretation of already existing integral work of art, and its literary level depends only on interpreters skills. Any poetic text is versal but not in the opposite. The verse text is only a text minimum, devoted into verse-lines.

The interpreter has to create new poetical text, equivalenting for the origin by its conceptual and aesthetical information. And what about factual one? It is expressed only if it doesn't hurt the conceptual and aesthetical expression.

The poetic translation contains taking the translated text into alive literal process, into cultural tradition and literal memory of that language it exists in. Here is the example of poetic translation done by me.

S.T. T.T.

Every night in my dreams

I see you, I feel you,

That is how I know you go on

Far across the distance

And spaces between us

You have come to show you go on

Near, far, wherever you are

I believe that the heart does go on

Once more you open the door

And you're here in my heart

And my heart will go on and on

Каждый раз во сне и в мечтах - ты со мною!

Близость ощущаю твою…..

Через расстоянья, пространство покоя…

Я в твоих объятьях стою!

Там… Здесь…Ты рядом со мной,

И сердца наши будут стучать бесконечно!

Жди… Верь… В открытую дверь

Ты войдёшь… И сердца наши вместе стучать будут вечно!

2. The verse-translation

The verse-translation is such a method of poetry translation, when factual information of the origin is expressed only by verse-construction, but not by poetic speech. This kind of translation is very close to the origin by means of words, word-constructions and in style. The masters of verse-translation of the former age we such a brilliant poets as Katenin, Fet, Vasemsky, Block, Hasparov. This kind of translation is very useful and suitable in special causes: paradigmatic poetry quotation, in specific philological works, for academic editions of literal memorials.As this kind of translation is not suitable for aesthetic information expression, it, of course, never takes part in literal process. Here is the same origin but translated with this method.

S.T. T.T.

Every night in my dreams

I see you, I feel you,

That is how I know you go on

Far across the distance

And spaces between us

You have come to show you go on

Near, far, wherever you are

I believe that the heart does go on

Once more you open the door

And you're here in my heart

And my heart will go on and on

Каждой ночью во снах.

Я вижу тебя лишь.

Ты как прежде любишь меня.

Через расстоянья,

Преграды, страданья

Ты пришел обнять чтоб меня.

Там, здесь, я знаю - ты есть.

Знаю я, что навечно любовь.

Теперь, открыв эту дверь,

В моём сердце ты вновь,

И вновь в сердце жива любовь.

3. Philological translation

Philological translation of poetry text is written in prose and specializes on full, almost verbal expression of factual information. Its open subsidiary way of translation, as the rule, is accompanied by original text or wide commentaries.

Of course, this kind of translation can't be compared with poetic communication function, but it accurately, clearly performs every facto-logical detail of the origin and can be important and useful help in exploring work.

S.T. T.T.

Every night in my dreams

I see you, I feel you,

That is how I know you go on

Far across the distance

And spaces between us

You have come to show you go on

Near, far, wherever you are

I believe that the heart does go on

Once more you open the door

And you're here in my heart

And my heart will go on and on

Юная девушка и молодой мужчина полюбили друг друга, вопреки мнению и интересам окружающих

Жизнь их постоянно разлучает, кажется, что вся вселенная против их любви, но они верят, что пройдут все испытания, которые им посылает судьба, и их любовь будет жить вечно.

4. The underline translation

The underline translation form was found long ago. The interpreter who hasn't “poetic skills” is limited in activity. The main aim for him is to find the equivalent of the source text and express it to the recipient. Such a method is good if you just want to give an opportunity of feeling the author's style to the reader. But usually the accurate the underline translation loses its verse form, because of rhyme, rhythm, meter, style and speech intonation absence.

S.T. T.T.

Every night in my dreams

I see you, I feel you,

That is how I know you go on

Far across the distance

And spaces between us

You have come to show you go on

Near, far, wherever you are

I believe that the heart does go on

Once more you open the door

And you're here in my heart

And my heart will go on and on

Каждую ночь во сне

Я вижу и чувствую тебя.

Так я знаю, что ты по-прежнему любишь меня. Преодолев расстояние

И преграды между нами,

Ты пришёл, чтобы доказать, что по-прежнему любишь меня. Близко или далеко, где бы ты ни был, Я верю, что любовь вечна. Ты снова открываешь дверь, И ты здесь, в моём сердце, И я буду любить тебя вечно.

Many types of translation exist, but I prefer accurate or clear one, which identify the source text more, keeps the author's style, rhyme, rhythm, meter, speech varieties, which are easy to understand and keep in mind. It is necessary to have both intuition and talent, but also the clear view on materials, you are translating.So we can say that the real aim for the interpreter is to express not the main and full form but to express content and mood of poetical unit. There are several ways or “steps” to translate the origin. Usually it is done in this way - first of all the interpreter should make the word by word underline translation with help of dictionary (if it is necessary)

At this part of my course paper I'll try to use everything written before, try to translate a number of songs or verses and compare translations of, for example, one original poetry unit, translated by several different methods, which I examined before.

poetry philological translation

Poetical translation

Poetical translation.

First of all I'd like to analyze the poetical translation. I have chosen it as the first, because it is the most difficult to use. In most times, when an interpreter translates a poetry unit using this method of poetry translation he needs to keep the meaning, idea, style and rhyme, he can express these all by absolutely another words and not to translate word by word in the poetry unit he works with - the most important task -is to keep the reader, who is reading your translation, in the emotional atmosphere the author created in origin and it's no matter which words are you using. The most bright examples of poetry translation I have ever faced are kept in one of the most favorite books of mine - The Lord Of The Rings by R. R. Tolkien- a great deal of songs are kept there, they express atmosphere of that time, energy and mystery. Well, hereinafter the dwarf's song is presented, it is translated from English into Russian by poetical method, as we can see, and there are a lot of words replaced, omitted and added. But! The idea and atmosphere are perfectly kept!

S.T. T.T.

Clip the glasses and crack the plates!

Blunt the knives and bend the forks!

That's what Bilbo hates -

Smash the bottles and burn the corks!

Cut the cloth and tread on the fat!

Pour the milk on the pantry floor!

Leave the bones on the bedroom mat!

Splash the wine on every door!

Dump the crocks in a boiling bowl;

Pound them up with a thumping pole;

And when you've finished, if any are whole,

Send them down the hall to roll!

That's what Bilbo Baggins hates!

So, carefully! carefully! with the plates!

Бейте тарелки, бейте розетки!

Вилки тупите, гните ножи!

Об пол бутылки! В печку салфетки!

Будет порядок - только скажи!

Рвите на части скатерти, гости!

Лейте на стулья жир от котлет!

Корки и кости под ноги бросьте!

Мажьте горчицей ценный паркет!

Чашки и рюмки - в чан с кипятком!

Ломом железным поворошите,

Выньте, откиньте и обсушите -

И на помойку все целиком!

Кто там без дела? Стыд и позор!

Эй, осторожно, хрупкий фарфор!

Here are presented the same song with different translation - it is the second variant. But it doesn't mean that it is worse than the first one. They are very different, but both are perfectly translated. This one expresses more fun and frolic.

S.T. T.T.

Clip the glasses and crack the plates!

Blunt the knives and bend the forks!

That's what Bilbo hates -

Smash the bottles and burn the corks!

Cut the cloth and tread on the fat

Pour the milk on the pantry floor!

Leave the bones on the bedroom mat!

Splash the wine on every door!

Dump the crocks in a boiling bowl;

Pound them up with a thumping pole;

And when you've finished, if any are whole,

Send them down the hall to roll!

That's what Bilbo Baggins hates!

So, carefully! carefully! with the plates!

Всё перевернем вверх дном!

Всю посуду разобьем!

Бей тарелки! Бей стаканы!

Все ковры залей вином!

Бильбо Бэггинс будет зол -

Вылей молоко на стол,

Урони большую люстру

И натри сметаной пол!

Это что? Фарфор? Фаянс?

Ну-ка, тростью, раз - и в таз!

Что не сразу разобьется,

Мы на том устроим пляс.

Но его сердить нельзя:

Осторожнее, друзья!

This song is very jolly in origin and the interpreter expresses the jolliness in his translation, he also keeps the interjections, used in origin, and transformed them into “russian” ones. The meter and rhyme are different.

S.T. T.T.

O! What are you doing,

And where are you going?

Your ponies need shoeing!

The river is flowing!

O! tra-la-la-lally

here down in the valley!

O! What are you seeking,

And where are you making?

The faggots are reeking,

The bannocks are baking!

O! tril-lil-lil-lolly,

the valley is jolly,

ha! ha!

O! Where are you going

With beards all a-wagging?

No knowing, no knowing

What brings Mister Baggins,

And Balin and Dwalin

down into the valley

in June

ha! ha!

O! Will you be staying,

Or will you be flying?

Your ponies are straying!

The daylight is dying!

To fly would be folly,

To stay would be jolly

And listen and hark

Till the end of the dark

to our tune

ha! ha!

Да что вы, да что вы,

Куда вы, куда вы?

Сносились подковы,

Тут всюду канавы,

Манит вас опушка,

Журчит здесь речушка,

Ха-ха!

Останьтесь-ка лучше,

По нашему зову.

Костер лижет сучья,

Лепешки готовы.

Тра-та, тра-та-та-та,

В долину, ребята,

Ха-ха!

Куда ж вы, бедняги?

В лесу что-то рыщут,

Трепещут, как флаги,

У них бородищи.

И Фили, и Кили

На пони вскочили

В лесу,

Ха-ха!

У нас бы остались,

Чем мчаться в тревоге,

Ведь пони устали

И сбились с дороги.

День клонится к ночи,

Останься, кто хочет,

И песенке этой

Внимай до рассвета,

Ха-ха!

Hereinafter is presented my favorite pilgrims' lyric song. Emotions, which are expressed in the origin are successfully kept in the translation. The meter and rhyme coincides.

S.T. T.T.

Upon the hearth the fire is red,

Beneath the roof there is a bed;

But not yet weary are our feet,

Still round the corner we may meet

A sudden tree or standing stone

That none have seen but we alone.

Tree and flower and leaf and grass,

Let them pass! Let them pass!

Hill and water under sky,

Pass them by! Pass them by!

Still round the corner there may wait

A new road or a secret gate,

And though we pass them by today,

Tomorrow we may come this way

And take the hidden paths that run

Towards the Moon or to the Sun.

Apple, thorn, and nut and sloe,

Let them go! Let them go!

Sand and stone and pool and dell,

Fare you well! Fare you well!

Home is behind the world ahead,

And there are many paths to tread

Through shadows to the edge of night,

Until the stars are all alight.

Then world behind and home ahead,

We'll wander back to home and bed.

Mist and twilight, cloud and shade,

Away shall fade! Away shall fade!

Fire and lamp, and meat and bread,

And then to bed! And then to bed!

Еще не выстыл сонный дом,

Еще камин пылает в нем,

А мы торопимся уйти

И, может, встретим на пути

Невиданные никогда

Селенья, горы, города.

Пусть травы дремлют до утра -

Нам на рассвете в путь пора!

Зовут на отдых вечера -

Не зазовут: не та пора!

Поляна, холм, усадьба, сад

Безмолвно ускользнут назад:

Нам только б на часок прилечь,

И дальше в путь, до новых встреч!

Быть может, нас в походе ждет

Подземный путь, волшебный взлет -

Сегодня мимо мы пройдем,

Но завтра снова их найдем,

Чтоб облететь весь мир земной

Вдогон за солнцем и луной!

Наш дом уснул, но мир не ждет -

Зовет дорога нас вперед:

Пока не выцвела луна,

Нам тьма ночная не страшна!

Но мир уснул, и ждет нас дом,

Вернемся и камин зажжем:

Туман и мгла, и мрак, и ночь

Уходят прочь, уходят прочь!..

Светло, и ужин на столе -

Заслуженный уют в тепле.

Here we can see a very interesting object! The meter and the rhyme, style and the step almost coincide! Here are used such methods as omitting and replacement.

S.T. T.T.

The King beneath the mountains,

The King of carven stone,

The lord of silver fountains

Shall come into his own!

His crown shall be upholden,

His harp shall be restrung,

His halls shall echo golden

To songs of yore re-sung.

The woods shall wave on mountains

And grass beneath the sun;

His wealth shall flow in fountains

And the rivers golden run.

The streams shall run in gladness,

The lakes shall shine and burn,

All sorrow fail and sadness

At the Mountain-king's return!

Король всех гор окрестных,

Пещер, ручьев и скал,

Вернулся наконец-то

И править нами стал.

Опять в его короне

Сапфиры заблестят,

Куплеты старых песен

Повсюду зазвучат.

Зашелестят деревья,

И травы запоют,

И золотые реки

В долины побегут.

Сверкнут в траве озера,

И зацветет земля,

И кончатся раздоры

С приходом короля.

The meter and the rhyme, style and the step don't coincide at the translation of the song presented below, mood is also changed - the origin is more ceremonial and jolly than the translation, but the aesthetic and conceptual “informations” of the both songs coincide, so I can perform this translation as poetically translated unit.

S.T. T.T.

Under the Mountain dark and tall

The King has come unto his hall!

His foe is dead, the Worm of Dread,

And ever so his foes shall fall.

The sword is sharp, the spear is long,

The arrow swift, the Gate is strong;

The heart is bold that looks on gold;

The dwarves no more shall suffer wrong.

The dwarves of yore made mighty spells,

While hammers fell like ringing bells

In places deep, where dark things sleep,

In hollow halls beneath the fells.

On silver necklaces they strung

The light of stars, on crowns they hung

The dragon-fire, from twisted wire

The melody of harps they wrung.

The mountain throne once more is freed!

O! wandering folk, the summons heed!

Come haste! Come haste! across the waste!

The king of friend and kin has need.

Король законный занял трон,

В суровой битве пал дракон,

И всякий враг погибнет так -

Об этом заявляет он.

Ковали чаши мастера

Из золота и серебра,

Граня алмаз, рубин, топаз,

Они трудились до утра.

Былого мастерства секрет:

В корону врезать самоцвет,

Всадить в эфес звезду с небес

И в ожерелье - лунный свет.

Свободны здешние края,

Еды здесь много и питья.

Вперед, вперед, Лесной Народ,

Ведь королю нужны друзья.

Во все края наш зов таков:

В пещеры прежние, домой!

Лесной Народ, король вас ждет,

Воздаст вам щедрою рукой.

Король законный занял трон,

В суровой битве пал дракон,

И всякий враг погибнет так -

Об этом заявляет он.

At the translation, presented below, the mood and structure are kept, here are used such method as replacement: “Rivendell” is replaced by “Раздол” this replacement, as I think, doesn't suit… It spoils the step and the meter, presented in origin. Also the conjunction “Ур-р-ра!” is added in order to express the jolly mood more brightly.

S.T. T.T.

Farewell we call to hearth and hall!

Though wind may blow and rain may fall,

We must away ere break of day

Far over wood and mountain tall.

To Rivendell, where Elves yet dwell

In glades beneath the misty fell,

Through moor and waste we ride in haste,

And wither then we cannot tell.

With foes ahead, behind us dread,

Beneath the sky shall be our bed,

Until at last our toil be passed,

Our journey done, our errand sped.

We must away! We must away!

We ride before the break of day!

Ур-р-ра! Споем, друзья, втроем,

Прощай, очаг, и отчий дом!

Сквозь ветер злой, дожди и зной

Мы до Раздола добредем!

Туда, где эльфы с давних пор

Живут в тени туманных гор,

Мы побредем, покинув дом,

Лихим врагам наперекор!

А что потом - решим потом,

Когда в Раздоле отдохнем, -

Нелегок долг, и путь далек,

Но мы вернемся в отчий дом!

Близка рассветная пора!

Нам в путь пора! Нам в путь пора!

This verse has its own specialty - the verse ends like a prose. The translation keeps this specialty and the meaning of the ending, that's why I can name this unit poetically translated.

S.T. T.T.

O! Wanderers in the shadowed land

despair not! For though dark they stand,

all woods there be must end at last,

and see the open sun go past:

the setting sun, the rising sun,

the day's end, or the day begun.

For east or west all woods must fail...

Смело идите по затененной земле,

Верьте, не вечно клубиться мгле,

Вам суждено одолеть леса,

И солнце должно осветить небеса:

На рассвете дня, на закате дня

Разгорится заря, ветерком звеня,

И он разгонит промозглую мглу,

Сгинут навек...

Verse-translation

The second one, I'd like to present, is verse translation. The only difference between verse and poetical translation is unnecessarily in keeping the aesthetical and conceptual information in the TT. Rhyme and the step is more important. verse translation is used to express the facts, kept in ST, and to keep the rhyme. A number of poetical units are presented below.

In every song, presented in this part, is the same information - there in no poetical speech - just rhyme and facts. I don't really interested in this type of translation, but it is very useful for a person who isn't seeking for the “poetical satisfaction”, he is interested only in facts for analyzing.

S.T. T.T.

Far over the misty mountains cold

To dungeons deep and caverns old

We must away ere break of day,

To seek the pale enchanted gold.

The dwarves of yore made mighty spells,

While hammers fell like ringing bells

In places deep, where dark things sleep,

In hollow halls beneath the fells.

For ancient king and elvish lord

There many a gleaming golden hoard

They shaped and wrought, and light they caught

To hide in gems on hilt of sword.

On silver necklaces they strung

The flowering stars, on crowns they hung

The dragon- fire, in twisted wire

They meshed the light of moon and sun.

Far over the misty mountains cold

To dungeons deep and caverns old

We must away ere break of day,

To claim our long-forgotten gold.

Goblets they carved there for themselves

And harps of gold; where no man delves

There lay they long, and many a song

Was sung unheard by men or elves.

The pines were roaring on the height,

The winds were moaning in the night.

The fire was red, it flaming spread;

The trees like torches blazed with light.

The bells were ringing in the dale

And men looked up with faces pale;

Then dragon's ire more fierce than fire

Laid down their towers and houses frail.

Нас завтра в путь зовет рассвет

За серых, мглистых гор хребет.

Уж сколько лет нас ждет во мгле,

Мерцает злата бледный свет.

В глубинах гор былых времен

Был слышен стук, был слышен звон:

То молот бил, что было сил,

То гном ковал красу корон.

И для себя, и для друзей

Ковали гномы сталь мечей,

И звездный свет, и цвет планет

Вливали в дивный блеск камней.

Они сплетали бег волны

С лучами солнца и луны,

И сто чудес застыли здесь,

На стенки ваз нанесены.

И часто в сумерках ночных

Звучали струны арф златых --

Ах, на земле уж много лет

Никто не слышит голос их...

Нас завтра в путь зовет рассвет

К глубоким шахтам прежних лет.

Хоть стерся след, дороги нет,

Но мы увидим злата свет!

Той страшной ночью грянул гром,

И алым полыхнул огнем

Столетний лес. И вниз с небес

Слетел дракон. Спасайся, гном!

И ночь была. И смерть пришла.

Звонили все колокола.

И Дэйл пылал, от крови ал.

Разрушен город был дотла.

The main idea of the book - the legend- is presented below. Aesthetical and conceptual information is presented here, but do you think that it is much more important for the reader than facts, contained in the legend? Of course not! - only facts, facts, facts and a little of rhyme (only because it is verse). That's why this poetical unit is translated with verse translation method.

S.T. T.T.

Three Rings for the Elven-kings under the sky,

Seven for the Dwarf-lords in their halls of stone,

Nine for Mortal Men doomed to die,

One for the Dark Lord on his dark throne

In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.

One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them,

One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them

In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.

Три Кольца - светлейшим принцам эльфов поднебесных,

Семь - царям подгорных гномов во дворцах чудесных,

Девять - смертным людям, на погибель обреченным,

И Одно - владыке Мрака на престоле черном,

Там, где тени прячутся, в Мордорской стране.

Одному Кольцу дано властвовать над ними,

Отыскать их, привести и объединить их

Там, где тени прячутся, в Мордорской стране.

A number of riddles are presented below, they have the same translation method as the legend, because only facts are important here.

S.T. T.T.

What has roots as nobody sees,

Is taller than trees

Up, up it goes,

And yet never grows?

***

Thirty white horses on a red hill,

First they champ,

Then they stamp,

Then they stand still.

***

Voiceless it cries,

Wingless flutters,

Toothless bites,

Mouthless mutters.

***

An eye in a blue face

Saw an eye in a green face.

'That eye is like to this eye'

Said the first eye,

'But in low place,

Not in high place'.

***

It cannot be seen, cannot be felt,

Cannot be heard, cannot be smelt.

It lies beneath stars and under hills,

And empty holes it fills.

It comes first and follows after,

Ends life, kills laughter.

***

A box without hinges, key or lid.

Yet golden treasure inside is hid,

***

Alive without breath,

As cold as death;

Never thirsty, ever drinking,

All in mail never-clinking.

***

No-legs lay on one-leg,

two-legs sat near on three-legs,

four-legs got some.

***

This thing all things devours:

Birds, beasts, trees, flowers;

Gnaws iron, bites steel;

Grinds hard stones to meal;

Slays king, ruins town,

And beats high mountains down.

Не увидать ее корней,

Вершина выше тополей,

Все вверх и вверх она идет,

Но не растет.

***

На красных холмах

Тридцать белых коней

Друг другу навстречу

Помчатся скорей,

***

Ряды их сойдутся,

Потом разойдутся,

И смирными станут

До новых затей.

***

Огромный глаз сияет

В небесной синеве,

А маленький глазок

Сидит в густой траве.

Большой глядит - и рад:

"Внизу мой младший брат!"

***

Ее не видать. И в руки не взять,

Царит над всем,Не пахнем ничем.

Встает во весь рост

На небе меж звезд.

Все начинает

И все кончает.

***

Без замков, без засовов дом,

слиток золота спрятан в нем.

***

Без воздуха живет она

И, как могила, холодна,

Не пьет, хотя в воде сидит,

В броне, хотя и не звенит.

***

Две ноги - На трех ногах,

А безногая в зубах.

Вдруг четыре прибежали

И с безногой убежали.

***

Уничтожает все кругом:

Цветы, зверей, высокий дом,

Сжует железо, сталь сожрет

И скалы в порошок сотрет,

Мощь городов, власть королей

Его могущества слабей.

S.T. T.T.

Roads go ever, ever on,

Over rock and under tree,

By caves where never sun has shone,

By streams that never find the sea:

Over snow by winter sown,

And through the merry flowers of June,

Over grass and over stone,

And under mountains in the moon.

Roads go ever, ever on

Under cloud and under star,

Yet feet that wandering have gone

Turn at last to home afar,

Eyes that fire and sword have seen

And horror in the halls of stone

Look at last on meadows green

And trees and hills they long have known.

Дорога вдаль и вдаль ведет,

Через вершины серых скал -

К норе, где солнце не сверкнет,

К ручью, что моря не видал.

По снегу зимних холодов

И по цветам июньских дней,

По шелку травяных ковров

И по суровости камней.

Дорога вдаль и вдаль ведет,

Под солнцем или под луной,

Но голос сердца позовет -

И возвращаешься домой.

Молчишь, глядишь, глядишь кругом,

И на лугу увидишь ты

Знакомый с детства отчий дом,

Холмы, деревья и цветы.

Philological translation

Philological translation is like annotation. It is made in prose - no rhyme is necessary. The interpreter works only with factual information.

S.T. T.T.

Clip the glasses and crack the plates!

Blunt the knives and bend the forks!

That's what Bilbo hates -

Smash the bottles and burn the corks!

Cut the cloth and tread on the fat!

Pour the milk on the pantry floor!

Leave the bones on the bedroom mat!

Splash the wine on every door!

Dump the crocks in a boiling bowl;

Pound them up with a thumping pole;

And when you've finished, if any are whole,

Send them down the hall to roll!

That's what Bilbo Baggins hates!

So, carefully! carefully! with the plates!

Хоббит Бильбо Бэгинс очень гостеприимный хозяин. В доме у него уютно и всегда чисто. Однажды к нему заглянули его друзья гномы. Они не отличаются излишком воспитания, поэтому когда Бильбо вышел из дома, они решили устроить у него «уборку» - разбили все тарелки, испачкали стены, двери, погнули ножи, вилки - в общем повеселились на славу!

S.T. T.T.

Farewell we call to hearth and hall!

Though wind may blow and rain may fall,

We must away ere break of day

Far over wood and mountain tall.

To Rivendell, where Elves yet dwell

In glades beneath the misty fell,

Through moor and waste we ride in haste,

And wither then we cannot tell.

With foes ahead, behind us dread,

Beneath the sky shall be our bed,

Until at last our toil be passed,

Our journey done, our errand sped.

We must away! We must away!

We ride before the break of day!

Друзья собрались в путь-дорогу, покидая родной дом, они полны энтузиазма - им не терпится начать свое путешествие, они уверенны, что ничто не сможет им преградить путь - они побывают в гостях у лесных эльфов, отдохнут в Роздоле, будут спать под открытым небом, продираться сквозь заросли...но когда-нибудь все равно вернуться в родные края.

Underline translation

This type of translation is very easy to apprehend. Aesthetical and conceptual information is sacrificed, but the meaning is perfectly expressed, because this type of translation is like word-by-word one, but it contains rhyme.

Songs are the best source to translate by this method - there is no conceptual information - just rhyme and step.

Three beautiful songs are presented here, all of them are translated by me. The first one is written by Emy Lee.

S.T. T.T.

I'm so tired of being here

Suppressed by all of my childish fears

And if you have to leave

I wish that you would just leave

Your presence still lingers here

And it won't leave me alone

These wounds won't seem to heal

This pain is just too real

There's just too much that time cannot erase

When you cried I'd wipe away all of your tears

When you'd scream I'd fight away all of your fears

And I've held your hand through all of these years

But you still have all of me

You used to captivate me

By your resonating light

But now I'm bound by the life you left behind

Your face it haunts my once pleasant dreams

Your voice it chased away all the sanity in me

I've tried so hard to tell myself that you're gone

And though you're still with me

I've been alone all along

Я больше не хочу быть здесь,

Угнетённая своими детскими страхами.

Если тебе нужно уйти

Я хочу, чтобы ты просто взял и ушёл,

Я всё ещё ощущаю твоё присутствие

И это не даёт мне покоя

Эти раны никак не заживают,

Эта боль слишком реальна.

Время не может стереть слишком многое.

Когда ты плакал, я вытирала твои слёзы.

Когда ты кричал, я прогоняла прочь все твои страхи.

Я держала твою руку все эти годы,

Но и по-прежнему я всецело принадлежу тебе.

Раньше ты очаровывал меня

Своим внутренним светом.

Но теперь я привязана к тебе жизнью, которую ты оставил позади

Твоё лицо преследует меня в моих когда-то прекрасных снах,

А твой голос лишил меня разума

Я пыталась убедить себя в том, что ты ушёл.

И хотя ты всё ещё со мной,

Я всегда одна.

This song is written by Elton John, beautiful song about friendship.

S.T. T.T.

here isn't much I haven't shared

With you along the road

And through it all there'd always be

Tomorrow's episode

Suddenly that isn't true

There's another avenue

Beckoning the great divide

Ask no questions, take no side

Who's to say who's right or wrong

Whose course is braver run

Still we are, have always been

Will ever be, ask one

What is done has been done for the best

Though the mist in my eyes might suggest

Just a little confusion about what I'll lose

But if I started over I know I would choose

The same joy the same sadness each step of the way

That fought me and tought me that friends never say

Never say goodbye

Never say goodbye

I would choose

The same joy the same sadness each step of the way

That fought me and taught me that friends never say Never say goodbye.

В пути я с тобою делил

Все, что только мог

Но несмотря ни на что всегда был

В будущем подвох.

Вдруг это неправда наяву,

Меня ждет другое авеню,

Что зовёт так далеко

И без вопросов разлучает нас легко...

Кто скажет, из нас кто прав, кто нет,

Кто из нас храбрей другого?

Вот мы сейчас, всегда были

И дальше будем, спроси любого!

Что ни делается, то к лучшему, должно быть,

Хотя затуманенный взгляд

Говорит о смятении из-за того, что потерял.

Но если бы я начал снова, я знаю, я бы избрал

Тот же путь, те же печали, каждый шаг, как тогда;

Они сражались со мной и говорили, что друзья никогда

Не говорят прощай,

Не говорят прощай,

Тот же путь, те же печали, каждый шаг, как тогда;

Они сражались со мной и говорили, что друзья никогда

Не говорят прощай,

Не говорят прощай.

Conclusion

The translation problem appeared long ago. A number of translators face with it, especially beginners do. The difficulty of translation consists in who and how translates. It can be difficult to express the meaning of a poem because of analogical absence between the origin and foreign languages. It could be hard even for skilled interpreters sometimes. Though only language knowing isn't enough for capture and taking into account all the semantic nuances and the author style. There are some principle factors, which are necessary to use, if you are going to busy yourself with this laborious and noble task:

Every poem translation is some kind of discovery and it makes you to apply much efforts. You need not just to translate it, but to down the original meaning to the reader.

Every poem is individual for its author; every translated poem is special work of art, which was created both by its author and interpreter.

Translation can't be created only by means of algorithm or just expressing the meaning by means of casual language.

Form and meaning must be connected during the poem is being translated and also in finished variant, that means you will always ask yourself what are you writing and what for. The answer is how do you understand the poem.

A number of poets tried to explain the origin of their skills. Their works are very useful for everyone and sometimes they open new opportunities for new ideas, but we should be very cautious with them: talented people are famous for their secretiveness and they don't always show the picture clear. If you want to understand their words you need first of all to feel their work, feel the ideas and then to express their works to other readers.

Poetry is more than just words, it is something untouchable, achieving its realization in things, which you can hardly separate, it is something that has its own form and can't exist without it. If an interpreter is going to translate a poetry text he must realize the responsibility for it because it isn't enough just to translate words, he needs to understand the author, what did he want to say by it and after that the interpreter can translate it into another language.

Poetry is always on a pad wish time. Poetry changes as fast and suddenly as the humankind do. Poetry is the mirror of poet's mind, who writes mostly about the time he lives in. Examining a verse, prose or song (no matter if it is aristocratic or street poetry) we can say much about culture, traditions, specialties or points of view which are topical in that period of time. Poetry won't ever be dead until the humankind is alive. Poetry will always be actual among people - that means that people who can truly translate poetry will always have good job! That's why I have chosen it.

Bibliography.

1. К. Райс, Г. И. Вермеер «Переводоведение - новая ориентация», 1986

2. Цветкова М. В Проблема национальной идентичности, как переводческая проблема, Нижний Новгород, 2001

3. Челышев Е. П Постижение русского национального гения, М., 2002

4. вэбсайт http://www.wikipedia.org

Appendix

This jolly verse is translated by poetical translation method. Conceptual, esthetical information coincides, meter, step and style are also kept.

S.T. T.T.

Still round the corner there may wait

A new road or a secret gate;

And though I oft have passed them by,

A day will come at last when I

Shall take the hidden paths that run

West of the Moon, East of the Sun.

За повоpот! Меня там ждет

Забытый лаз, секpетный ход;

Я миновал его вчеpа -

Но знаю, что пpидет поpа

Найти ту тpопку в глубине,

Что мчится к Солнцу и Луне!

This ceremonial song is also translated by poetical translation method. Conceptual, esthetical information coincides, meter, step and style are also kept.

S.T. T.T.

Sing now, the people of the Tower of Anor,

for the Realm of Sauron is ended for ever,

and the Dark Tower is thrown down.

Sing and rejoice, ye people of the Tower of Guard,

for your watch hath not been in vain,

and the Black Gate is broken,

and your King hath passed through,

and he is victorious.

Sing and be glad, all ye children of the West,

for your King shall come again,

and he shall dwell among you

all the days of your life.

And the Tree that was withered shall be renewed,

and he shall plant it in the high places!

Пойте, пойте, люди Башни Аноpа!

Ибо кончилась власть Сауpона

и Черная Башня пала!

Пойте, pадуйтесь, воины Стоpожевой Башни!

Не напpасна была ваша стpажа,

ибо Чеpные Воpота pазбиты,

и Коpоль ваш пpошел в них с победой!

Пой и pадуйся, славный Запад,

ибо Коpоль опять гpядет воцаpиться -

он будет жить с вами и пpавить вами

до конца дней ваших!

Обновится засохшее Дpево:

он посадит его на высоком месте -

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