Inversion and the means of its translation
Characteristic of inversion in the English from the point of view of its translation into Russian. The opportunity to transmit the meaning of the inversion in Russian. Subject-auxiliary, subject-verb. Local, negative, heavy inversion. inversion "there".
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- Chapter I. General characteristic of inversion
- 1.1 Subject-auxiliary inversion
- 1.2 Subject-verb inversion
- Chapter II. Inversion and the means of its translation
- 2.1 Local inversion
- 2.2 Negative inversion
- 2.3 Heavy inversion
- 2.4 Inversion "there”
The sentence is the smallest communicative unit of the language which expresses more or less complete thought. Moreover, it is a language unit which has the most complicated form and semantics and which experiences the greatest influence of a pragmatical factor.
Any sentence is connected with author's intentions and therefore from the point of view of translation can have an uncertain set of interpretations. One of the means of expression of the thinnest shades of a sense is the word order which carries out various functions. From the communicative point of view the word order identifies theme and rheme of the statement. Stylistic value of a word order is that with their shift are created additional semantic shades, the semantic loading strengthens or weakens.
If in Russian the word order differs with its flexibility, in English it is rather fixed. We can conclude that inversion bears some communicative, expressive or other loading, which in the process of translation isn't fully reported to the Russian sentence or is exposed to incorrect changes.
The theme of the work sounds as follows: "Inversion and the means of its translation".
The subject is inversion in the English language from the point of view of its translation into Russian.
The aim of my paper is the analysis of the translation and the opportunity to transmit the meaning of the inversion in Russian.
We compare translations of inverted sentences from two books ("Alice in Wonderland" and "Lady Chatterley's Lover") done by different translators and analyze the efficiency of different methods of translation applied by them. We also discuss the adequacy of each translation analyzing the degree of retaining the original pragmatics of each inverted sentence. As a result, we give recommendations concerning the translation of different kinds of inversion.
inversion translation english russian
The practical value of our investigation is defined by the possibility of using the results of our work in further researches.
The theoretical value of this paper is defined by specifying the means of translation of inversion.
My course paper consists on introduction, the two chapters and the conclusion. In Introduction we name the theme, object, subject, aim, the practical and theoretical value of our investigation. In the first chapter we deal with the problem of general characteristic of inversion, investigate all peculiarities of this phenomenon, in the second chapter we define the means of it's translation. In Conclusion the results of our investigation are summed up.
Chapter I. General characteristic of inversion
The term "inversion" has been used as an umbrella term for a large variety of syntactically quite distinct constructions. Green, for example, claims that "there exist on the order of 20 to 40 types of inverted sentences in English" [Green 1985: 117]. Accordingly, some definitions are fairly broad, for example, thereby including subject-auxiliary inversion and even existential there-construction [Green 1982: 120]. Birner offers a more restrictive definition: an inversion is a sentence in which the logical subject appears in post-verbal position while some other, canonically post-verbal, constituent appears in clause-initial position [Birner 1996: 12].
In a similar way, Dorgeloh states: full inversion denotes all those constructions in which the subject follows all of its verb-phrase, i. e. a full (lexical) verb or copular be [Dorgeloh 1997: 23].
Inversion is any of several grammatical constructions where two expressions switch their canonical order of appearance, that is, they invert. The most frequent type of inversion in English is subject-auxiliary inversion, where an auxiliary verb changes places with its subject; this often occurs in questions, where the subject you is switched with the auxiliary. In many other languages - especially those with freer word order than English - inversion can take place with a variety of verbs (not just auxiliaries) and with other syntactic categories as well [Кухаренко1971 - 64]
When a layered constituency-based analysis of sentence structure is used, inversion often results in the discontinuity of a constituent, although this would not be the case with a flatter dependency-based analysis. In this regard inversion has consequences similar to those of shifting.
In broad terms, one can distinguish between two major types of inversion in English that involve verbs: subject-auxiliary inversion and subject-verb inversion. The difference between these two types resides with the nature of the verb involved, i. e. whether it is an auxiliary verb or a full verb.
1.1 Subject-auxiliary inversion
Subject-auxiliary inversion (also called subject-operator inversion) is a frequently occurring type of inversion in English, whereby a finite auxiliary verb - taken here to include finite forms of the copula be - appears to "invert" (change places) with the subject. The word order is therefore Aux-S (auxiliary-subject), which is the opposite of the canonical SV (subject-verb) order of declarative clauses in English. The most frequent use of subject-auxiliary inversion in English is in the formation of questions, although it also has other uses, including the formation of condition clauses and in the syntax of sentences beginning with negative expressions (negative inversion).
In certain types of English sentences, inversion is also possible with verbs other than auxiliaries; these are described in the article on subject-verb inversion.
Subject-auxiliary inversion involves placing the subject after a finite auxiliary verb, rather than before it as is the case in typical declarative sentences (the canonical word order of English being subject-verb-object). The auxiliary verbs which may participate in such inversion (e. g. is, can, have, will, etc.) are described at English auxiliaries and contractions. Note that forms of the verb be are included regardless of whether or not they function as auxiliaries in the sense of governing another verb form. (For exceptions to this restriction, see Inversion with other types of verb below.)
A typical example of subject-auxiliary inversion is given below.
a. Sam has read the paper. - Statement
b. Has Sam read the paper? - Yes-no question formed using inversion
Here the subject is Sam, and the verb has is an auxiliary. In the question, these two elements change places (invert). If the sentence does not have an auxiliary verb, this type of simple inversion is not possible. Instead, an auxiliary must be introduced into the sentence in order to allow inversion:
a. Sam enjoys the paper. - Statement with the non-auxiliary verb enjoys
b. Enjoys Sam the paper? - This is incorrect; simple inversion not possiblewith this type of verb
c. Does Sam enjoy the paper? - The sentence formulated with the auxiliary does now allows inversion
It is also possible for the subject to invert with a negative contraction (can't, isn't, etc.). For example:
a. He isn't nice.
b. Isn't he nice? - The subject he inverts with the negated auxiliary contraction isn't
1.2 Subject-verb inversion
Subject-verb inversion in English is a type of inversion where the subject and verb (or chain of verbs, verb catena) switch their canonical order of appearance, so that the subject follows the verb (s), e. g. A lamp stood beside the bed > Beside the bed stood a lamp. Subject-verb inversion is distinct from subject-auxiliary inversion because the verb involved is not an auxiliary verb.
The following sentences illustrate subject-verb inversion. They compare canonical order with the non-standard inversion order, and they also point to the fact that subject-verb inversion is impossible if the subject is a weak (non-stressed) definite pronoun:
a. Jim sat under the tree.
b. Under the tree sat Jim. - Subject-verb inversion
c. *Under the tree sat he. - Subject-verb inversion impossible with weak definite subject pronoun
a. The dog came down the stairs.
b. Down the stairs came the dog. - Subject-verb inversion
c. Down the stairs came it. - Subject-verb inversion impossible with weak definite subject pronoun
a. Flowers are a good gift.
b. A good gift is flowers. - Subject-verb inversion with the copula
c. A good gift is they. - Subject-verb inversion impossible with weak definite subject pronoun
a. Bill said "I am hungry".
b. "I am hungry", said Bill. - Subject-verb inversion
c. "I am hungry", said he. - Subject-verb inversion impossible with weak definite subject pronoun
Subject-verb inversion has occurred in the b-sentences to emphasize the post-verb subject. The emphasis may occur, for instance, to establish a contrast of the subject with another entity in the discourse context.
A number of types of subject-verb inversion can be acknowledged based upon the nature of phrase that precedes the verb and the nature of the verb (s) involved. The following subsections enumerate four distinct types of subject-verb inversion: locative inversion, directive inversion, copular inversion, and quotativeinversion.
Locative inversion also occurs in many languages, including Brazilian Portuguese, Mandarin Chinese, Otjiherero, Chichewa, and a number of Germanic and Bantu languages. An adjunct phrase is switched from its default postverbal position to a position preceding the verb, which causes the subject and the finite verb to invert. For example:
a. A lamp lay in the corner.
b. In the corner lay a lamp. - Locative inversion
c. In the corner lay it. - Locative inversion impossible with a weak pronoun subject
a. Only Larry sleeps under that tree.
b. Under that tree sleeps only Larry. - Locative inversion
c. Under that tree sleeps he. - Locative inversion impossible with a weak pronoun subject
The fronted expression that evokes locative inversion is an adjunct of location. Locative inversion in modern English is a vestige of the V2 order associated with earlier stages of the language.
Directive inversion is closely related to locative inversion insofar as the pre-verb expression denotes a location, the only difference being that the verb is now a verb of movement. Typical verbs that allow directive inversion in English are come, go, run, etc.
a. Two students came into the room.
b. Into the room came two students. - Directive inversion
c. Into the room came they. - Directive inversion impossible with a weak pronoun subject
a. The squirrel fell out of the tree.
b. Out of the tree fell the squirrel. - Directive inversion
c. Out of the tree fell it. - Directive inversion impossible with a weak pronoun subject
The fronted expression that evokes inversion is a directive expression; it helps express movement toward a destination. The following sentence may also be an instance of directive inversion, although the fronted expression expresses time rather than direction:
a. The toasts came after the speeches.
b. After the speeches came the toasts. - Inversion after a time expression
Like locative inversion, directive inversion is undoubtedly a vestige of the V2 word order associated with earlier stages of the language.
Copular inversion occurs when a predicative nominal switches positions with the subject in a clause where the copula be is the finite verb. The result of this inversion is known as an inverse copular construction, e. g:
a. Bill is our representative.
b. Our representative is Bill. - Copular inversion
c. Our representative is he. - Copular inversion impossible with weak pronoun subject
a. The objection was a concern.
b. A concern was the objection. - Copular inversion
c. A concern was it. - Copular inversion impossible with weak pronoun subject
This type of inversion occurs with a finite form of the copula be. Since English predominantly has SV order, it will tend to view as the subject whichever noun phrase immediately precedes the finite verb. Thus in the second b-sentence, A concern is taken as the subject, and the objection as the predicate. But if one acknowledges that copular inversion has occurred, one can argue that the objection is the subject, and A concern the predicate. This confusion has led to focused study of these types of copular clauses. Where there is a difference in number, the verb tends to agree with the noun phrase that precedes it:
a. Jack and Jill are the problem.
b. The problem is Jack and Jill. - On an inversion analysis, the verb agrees with the apparent predicate.
There is also quotative inversion. In literature, subject-verb inversion occurs with verbs of speaking. The speech being reported is produced in its direct form, usually with quotation marks:
a. "We are going to win", Bill said.
b. "We are going to win", said Bill. - Quotative inversion
c. "We are going to win", said he. - Quotative inversion less likely with weak subject pronoun
a. "What was the problem?", Larry asked.
b. "What was the problem?", asked Larry. - Quotative inversion
c. "What was the problem?", asked he. - Quotative inversion less likely with weak subject pronoun
This sort of inversion is absent from everyday speech. It occurs almost exclusively in literary contexts.
The most intriguing cases of subject-verb inversion are those that involve more than one verb. The subject follows all of the verbs, the finite as well as non-finite ones, e. g.
a. Remnants of marijuana consumption have been found under her bed twice.
b. Under her bed have been found remnants of marijuana consumption twice.
c. Under her bed have been found twice remnants of marijuana consumption.
Sentence b and sentence c, where the subject follows all the verbs, stand in stark contrast to what occurs in cases of subject-auxiliary inversion, which have the subject appearing between the finite auxiliary verb and the non-finite verb (s), e. g.
d. Has anything been found under her bed?
Further, the flexibility across sentence b and sentence c demonstrates that there is some freedom of word order in the post-verb domain. This freedom is consistent with an analysis in terms of shifting, where heavier constituents tend to follow lighter ones.
Like most types of inversion, subject-verb inversion is a phenomenon that challenges theories of sentence structure. In particular, the traditional subject-predicate division of the clause (S > NP VP) is difficult to maintain in light of instances of subject-verb inversion such as Into the room will come a unicorn. Such sentences are more consistent with a theory that takes sentence structure to be relatively flat, lacking a finite verb phrase constituent, i. e. lacking the VP of S > NP VP.
In order to maintain the traditional subject-predicate division, one has has to assume movement (or copying) on a massive scale. The basic difficulty is suggested by the following trees representing the phrase structures of the sentences:
The convention is used here where the words themselves appear as the labels on the nodes in the trees. The tree on the left shows the canonical analysis of the clause, whereby the sentence is divided into two immediate constituents, the subject Bill and the finite VP crouched in the bush. To maintain the integrity of the finite VP constituent crouched in the bush, one can assume a rearranging of the constituents in the second sentence on the right, whereby both crouched and in the bush move out of the VP and up the structure. The account suggested with the second tree is the sort of analysis that one is likely to find in Government and Binding Theory or the Minimalist Program. It is a phrase structure account that relies on unseen movement/copying mechanisms below the surface.
The unseen mechanisms must perform an even greater job for the marijuana-example above. That sentence (sentence c in the previous section) would necessitate at least five instances of movement/copying in order to maintain the presence of an underlying finite VP constituent.
An alternative analysis of subject-verb inversion rejects the existence of the finite VP constituent. Due to the absence of this constituent, the structure is flatter, which simplifies matters considerably. The sentences with inverted order will often not result in a discontinuity, which means the basic hierarchy of constituents (the vertical order) does not change across the canonical and inverted variants. The following trees illustrate this alternative account. The first two trees illustrate the analysis in an unorthodox phrase structure grammar that rejects the presence of the finite VP constituent, and the second two trees illustrate the analysis in a dependency grammar. Dependency grammar rejects the presence of a finite VP constituent [Fowler 1908: 12].
Because there is no finite VP constituent in these trees, the basic hierarchy of constituents remains consistent. What changes is just the linear order of the constituents. The following trees illustrates the "flat" dependency-based analysis of the marijuana-example.
Due to the lack of a finite VP constituent, the basic hierarchy of constituents is not altered by inversion.
Uses of subject-auxiliary inversion
The main uses of subject-auxiliary inversion in English are described in the following sections, although other types can occasionally be found. It should be noted that most of these uses of inversion are restricted to main clauses; they are not found in subordinate clauses. However other types (such as inversion in condition clauses) are specific to subordinate clauses.
The most common use of subject-auxiliary inversion in English is in question formation. It appears in yes-no questions:
a. Sam has read the paper. - Statement
b. Has Sam read the paper? - Question and also in questions introduced by other interrogative words (wh-questions):
a. Sam is reading the paper. - Statement
b. What is Sam reading? - Question introduced by interrogative what
Inversion does not occur, however, when the interrogative word is the subject or is contained in the subject. In this case the subject remains before the verb (it can be said that wh-fronting takes precedence over subject-auxiliary inversion) [Wilson 1993: 13]:
a. Somebody has read the paper. - Statement
b. Who has read the paper? - The subject is the interrogative who; no inversion
c. Which fool has read the paper? - The subject contains the interrogative which; no inversion
Inversion also does not normally occur in indirect questions. For example:
a. "What did Sam eat?", Cathy wonders. - Inversion in a direct question
b. *Cathy wonders what did Sam eat. - Incorrect; inversion should not be used in an indirect question
c. Cathy wonders what Sam ate. - Correct; indirect question formed without inversion
a. We asked whether Tom had left. - Correct; indirect question without inversion
b. We asked whether had Tom left. - Incorrect
Another use of subject-auxiliary inversion is in sentences which begin with certain types of expressions which contain a negation or have negative force. For example
a. Jessica will say that at no time.
b. At no time will Jessica say that. - Subject-auxiliary inversion with a fronted negative expression.
This is described in detail at negative inversion.
Inversion in condition clauses
Subject-auxiliary inversion can be used in certain types of subordinate clause expressing a condition:
a. If the general had not ordered the advance,.
b. Had the general not ordered the advance,. - Subject-auxiliary inversion of a counterfactual conditional clause
Note that when the condition is expressed using inversion, the conjunction if is omitted. More possibilities are given at English conditional sentences: Inversion in condition clauses, and variations are described at English subjunctive: Inversion.
Subject-auxiliary inversion is used after the anaphoric particle so, mainly in elliptical sentences. The same frequently occurs in elliptical clauses beginning with as.
a. Fred fell asleep, and Jim fell asleep too.
b. Fred fell asleep, and so did Jim.
c. Fred fell asleep, as did Jim.
Inversion also occurs following an expression beginning with so or such, as in:
a. We felt so tired (such tiredness) that we fell asleep.
b. So tired (Such tiredness) did we feel that we fell asleep.
Subject-auxiliary inversion may optionally be used in elliptical clauses introduced by the particle of comparison than:
a. Sally knows more languages than her father does.
b. Sally knows more languages than does her father. - Optional inversion, with no change in meaning
Inversion with other types of verb
There are certain sentence patterns in English in which subject-verb inversion takes place where the verb is not restricted to an auxiliary verb. Here the subject may invert with certain main verbs, e. g. After the pleasure comes the pain, or with a chain of verbs, e. g. In the box will be a bottle. These are described in the article on subject-verb inversion. Further, inversion was not limited to auxiliaries in older forms of English. Examples of non-auxiliary verbs being used in typical subject-auxiliary inversion patterns may be found in older texts or in English written in an archaic style:
Know you what it is to be a child? (Francis Thompson)
The verb have, when used to denote broadly defined possession (and hence not as an auxiliary), is still sometimes used in this way in modern standard English:
Have you any idea what this would cost?
Inversion as a remnant of V2 word order
In some cases of subject-auxiliary inversion, such as negative inversion, the effect is to put the finite auxiliary verb into second position in the sentence. In these cases, inversion in English results in word order that is like the V2 word order of other Germanic languages (Danish, Dutch, Frisian, Icelandic, German, Norwegian, Swedish, Yiddish, etc.). These instances of inversion are remnants of the V2 pattern that formerly existed in English as it still does in its related languages. Old English followed a consistent V2 word order.
The structural analysis of subject-auxiliary inversion, and of inversion in general, challenges many theories of sentence structure, in particular, those theories based on phrase structure. The challenge stems from the fact that these theories posit the existence of a finite verb phrase constituent. The standard declarative sentence is divided into two immediate constituents, a subject NP and a predicate VP. When subject-auxiliary inversion occurs, it appears to violate the integrity of the predicate. The canonical predicate is underlined in the following sentences:
a. Larry has started working. - Traditional VP predicate is a continuous combination of words.
b. Has Larry started working? - Traditional VP predicate is no longer continuous.
a. Susan will listen to the music. - Traditional VP predicate is a continuous combination of words.
b. Will Susan listen to the music? - Traditional VP predicate is no longer continuous.
The finite VP predicate is a continuous sequence of words in the a-sentences. In the b-sentences in contrast, subject-auxiliary inversion breaks up the predicate. What this means is that in one sense or another, a discontinuity is present in the structure.
One widespread means of addressing this difficulty is to posit movement. The underlying word order of the b-sentences is deemed to be that shown in the a-sentences. To arrive at the inversion word order in the b-sentences, movement is assumed. The finite verb moves out of its base position after the subject into a derived position in front of the subject.
By moving out of its base position and into the derived position at the front of the clause, the integrity of the predicate VP constituent can be maintained, since it is present at an underlying level of sentence structure.
An alternative analysis does not acknowledge the binary division of the clause into subject NP and predicate VP, but rather it places the finite verb as the root of the entire sentence and views the subject as switching to the other side of the finite verb. No discontinuity is perceived. Dependency grammars are likely to pursue this sort of analysis. The following dependency trees illustrate how this alternative account can be understood:
These trees show the finite verb as the root of all sentence structure. The hierarchy of words remains the same across the a - and b-trees. If movement occurs at all, it occurs rightward (not leftward); the subject moves rightward to appear as a post-dependent of its head, which is the finite auxiliary verb.
Chapter II. Inversion and the means of its translation
We will show some examples of inadequate translations of inversion from the point of view of its pragmatic.
2.1 Local inversion
Downhill, in the wake, came Constance in her grey dress, watching the chair jolt downwards (D. H. Lawrence. "Lady Chatterley's Lover", chapter XIII).
Конни в сером домашнем платье двигалась в кильватере, не спукая глаз с подпрыгивающего на спуске кресла (И. Багрова, М. Литвинова).
За Клиффордом, глядя вслед покачивающемуся креслу, спускалась по склону Конни. На ней было серое платье (В. Чухно, Ю. Жукова, М. Кан и др.).
Вниз в кильватере спускалась Констанс в своем сером платье, наблюдая, как трясется по склону кресло (И. Гуль).
The first translation is pragmatically inadequate as shift of components of the sentence is made and broken the initial subject - rheme structure and caused incorrect statement of a phrase accent on "in a wake".
Inversion doesn't take place and "downhill” is omitted. Subject of the sentence "Конни" converts into a theme of the statements at the same time in the English sentence it is not a theme.
The second and the third translation are adequate. In the second translation a complex of methods are used: components of the sentence shifted and this leads not to loss of inversion but placing the adverbial modifier at the beginning of the sentence before predicate. And an attribute is placed in separate sentence with indirect word order, so "серое платье” is put under the stress.
The third version is done on the method of syntactic likeness. Although this version of translation is adequate because of accordance of the author' communicative aim of the original text.
This sentence is heavy from the point of view f it's perceive because the translator tries to reproduce likeness of the English and Russian structure. It is loaded with inversion and attribute.
Considered examples show that when we deal with local inversion we should keep in mind that it is important to put subject in correct place. Especially in the cases when it comes with attributes.
My word, won't it be funny when there's no Tevershall pit working (D. H. Lawrence. "Lady Chatterley's Lover", chapter IX).
Господи, в голове не укладывается, что наша шахта работать перестанет (И. Багрова, М. Литвинова).
Бог ты мой, да слыхано ли такое, чтобы в Тевершелле не работали шахты?! (В. Чухно, Ю. Жукова, М. Кан и др.).
Даю слово, это будет номер, когда Тевершеллский рудник остановится (И. Гуль).
Bagrova and Litvinva deals with the complete transformation in translation which deprives the translation from original sense. That is why we can conclude that this version is not so adequate.
Interrogative inversion in the English sentence highlights the level of reaction on situation of the work of the pit.
The first version of the Russian translation creates impression that not future reaction on events but impression of doom highlights.
In the second translation by Chukhno and Gucova is used the method of complete transformation and inverted word order is saved that highlights emphasis. In the second version aggressive unwillingness to that what can happen is highlighted
The third translation in which Osnachenko uses the method of complete transformation is inadequate pogmatically. It demonstrates stylistic incorrectness and distortion pragmatic sense of the author. It creates impression of ironic and gloating attitude to the future event.
These examples shows, from one hand, that we should use the method of complete transformation when we deal with interrogative inversion, from the other hand, the importance of correct usage of such method in translation.
2.2 Negative inversion
There was nothing so VERY remarkable in that; nor did Alice think it so VERY much out of the way to hear the Rabbit say to itself, "Oh dear! Oh dear! I shall be late!" (Lewis Carroll. "Alice in Wonderland", chapter I).
В этом не было НИЧЕГО особенного. И Алиса не нашла ничего особенного в том, что услышала как Кролик пробормотал себе под нос: "Ай-яй-яй! Я опаздываю" (Н. Старилов).
В этом не было ничего необычного. Самый обыкновенный белый кролик с розовым носом. Не привлекло внимания Алисы и то, что он не прыгал, а бежал на задних лапках ("В конце концов, - подумала она, - Все звери в цирке умеют так ходить"). Не удивилась Алиса и тому, что кролик все время причитал: "Боже мой, я опаздываю, опаздываю!" (А. Кононенко).
Тут, разумеется, еще не было ничего такого необыкновенного; Алиса-то не так уж удивилась, даже когда услыхала, что Кролик сказал (а сказал он: "Ай-ай-ай! Я опаздываю!") (Б. Заходер).
The first translation by Starilova is done on the method of transposition of the components of the sentence (so the inversion is eliminated), division of the sentence in main and subordinate and lexical adding of "ничего" in the phrase "ничего особенного". Although for more adequate translation it is more correct to put "и" before "в том"
In the second translation by Konenko the method of changing of types of sentence is used. The translator uses the complex instead of simple sentence. By the method of compressin "удивилась", by the method of emhatsation "причитал",, by the method of lexical adding "все время" are created.
And the result of this great work is an adequate translation which correctly transfers the authors idea. Conjunction "и" is placed in right position and it links the same notions as in the original text.
The third translation demonstrates joining of the sentences so the sentence with negative inversion joins to the previous one.
There is no inversion in this case. Lexical adding of such elements "не так уж", "даже" simplifies the perception of the sentence by a child, but it transfers the sense of the sentence with negative inversion not accurately. Because "даже когда" and "и" are not complete semantic equivalents.
So we can conclude that when we deal with negative inversion we have to control the semantics and choosing the conjunctions
2.3 Heavy inversion
Anyhow just when I was more than fed up with that other girl, when I was twenty-one, back comes Bertha, with airs and graces and smart clothes and a sort of bloom on her: a sort of sensual bloom that you'd see sometimes on a woman, or on a trolly (D. H. Lawrence. "Lady Chatterley's Lover", chapter XIV).
Как бы то ни было, как раз в то время, когда я был по уши сыт учительницей, - мне шел тогда двадцать второй год - Берта вернулась из Бирмингема, вся расфуфыренная, жеманная и довольно-таки соблазнительная (И. Багрова, М. Литвинова).
Так или иначе, но примерно в то время, когда связь с учительницей начала меня тяготить - мне был тогда двадцать один год, - из Бирмингема вернулась Берта, вся такая жеманная, важничающая, расфуфыренная, цветущая. Она была красива той пышной, чувственной красотой, которая в женщинах встречается не так уж часто и которую можно, как ни странно, увидеть в некоторых узорах кружев "тролли" (В. Чухно, Ю. Жукова, М. Кан и др.).
Во всяком случае, как раз когда я был уже сыт по горло той другой девушкой, мне исполнился двадцать один год, Берта вернулась домой, поумневшая, элегантная, хорошо одетая и цветущая - к тому же это было своеобразное чувственное цветение, которое иногда можно заметить на женщинах (И. Гуль).
There is no inversion in the first translation by Bagrova and Litvinova. Shifting of the components in the sentence is done. In the translation "Берта" loses the rhematic role that is why we can conclude that this translation is an adequate.
The second translation characterizes with pragmatically adequacy. The translation is done on the method of syntactical likeness. "Берта" doesn't't lose a rhematic role and adequately transfers the authors idea.
The third translation by Gul is similar to the first one. But Gul inserts lexical adding "домой" which doesn't help to transfer the correct sense. Like in the first version "Берта" is not rhema.
In the case of heavy inversion we have pay a lot of attention on a subject as a rhema. We shouldn't highlight secondary elements. In the case of using syntactic likeness we have to control the semantics of the words.
2.4 Inversion "there”
Alice looked up, and there stood the Queen in front of them, with her arms folded, frowning like a thunderstorm (Lewis Carroll. "Alice in Wonderland", chapterIX).
Алиса подняла глаза и увидела перед собой Королеву, стоявшую со сложенными на груди руками и смотревшую мрачнее тучи (Н. Старилов).
Подняв голову, Алиса увидела Королеву. Она стояла, преграждая им путь, скрестив руки на груди и хмуря брови, словно тучи (А. Кононенко).
Прямо перед ними, скрестив руки на груди, стояла Червонная Королева, хмурая и зловещая, как грозовая туча (Б. Заходер).
Аня подняла голову: перед ними стояла Королева и, скрестив руки, насупилась, как грозовая туча (В. Набоков).
Алиса подняла глаза и увидала, что перед ними, скрестив на груди руки и грозно нахмурившись, стоит Королева (Н. Демурова).
Перед ними, скрестив на груди руки, стояла Королева, хмурая, как грозовая туча (Ю. Нестеренко).
The translation by Starilov loses an inverted word order. The translator uses the method of changing of the type of the sentences. He uses composite sentence instead of simple. We can conclude that sentences join and the members of the sentence shift: the subject from original text "Королева" terns to object. Being an independent part of the sentence and being a rheme of the statement "Королева" is perceived as an imposing and sinister figure, when it becomes an object and "subordinated” to the subject of the sentence "Алиса" it loses its original sense. Thus, the translation by Starilov is pragmatically inadequate.
The second translation differs from the former by adding the method of division of sentences. Everything said about Queen in the original text is conveyed in the separate sentence in the translation. Queen is replaced by pronoun. However the translation is inadequate from the point of view of its pragmatics because, emphasis from the rheme of the sentence shifts to Alice and pronoun in this case doesn't help to attract attention to Queen.
From the point of view of pragmatics the third translation is more adequate. We can consider that this translation transfers the author's intention. In this sentence inversion takes its place, the translator adds a lexical addition "прямо", it creates the relevant emotional clash with something unexpected. Thus, such lexical addictions "Червонная", "хмурая и зловещая" highlight this statement.
At the same time the translator shifts the components "перед ними" to the beginning of the sentence that, from one hand, prepares the reader to perceive the information about the Queen and, from the other hand, it helps to emphasize the rheme by putting it at end of the sentence.
Last the three translations are not as adequate as the third translation by Zakhoder.
When translate inversion with there it is important to distract the reader's attention from secondary subjects but at the same time to use different lexical (lexical additions), stylistic (for instance, emphatisations) and syntactical devises to emphasis the subject in the following sentence after "there”. Conclusion
In our course paper we investigated the problem of inversion in the English language from the point of view of its translation into Russian. We compare translations of inverted sentences from two books ("Alice in Wonderland" and "Lady Chatterley's Lover") done by different translators and analyze the efficiency of different methods of translation applied by them. We also discuss the adequacy of each translation analyzing the degree of retaining the original pragmatics of each inverted sentence. As a result, we give recommendations concerning the translation of different kinds of inversion.
And we came to the following conclusions:
1. When we deal with local inversion we should keep in mind that it is important to put subject in correct place. Especially in the cases when it comes with attributes;
2. We should use the method of complete transformation when we deal with the interrogative inversion, from the other hand, the importance of correct usage of such method in translation plays a very important role;
3. When we translate a negative inversion we have to bear in view the semantics and scrupulously chose an appropriate conjunction;
4. In the case of heavy inversion we have pay a lot of attention on a subject as a rhema. We shouldn't highlight secondary elements. In the case of using syntactic likeness we have to control the semantics of the words.
5. When translate inversion with there it is important to distract the reader's attention from secondary subjects but at the same time to use different lexical, stylistic, and syntactical devises to emphasis the subject in the following sentence after "there”.
1. Ванников Ю.В. О едином комплексе переводческих дисциплин // Вопросы теории и техники перевода / Отв. Ред.А.Г. Назарян. - М., 1970.
2. Вопросы теории перевода в зарубежной лингвистике: Сб ст. / Отв. ред.В.Н. Комиссаров. - М., 1978.
3. Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. Для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. - М.: Высш. шк., 1990. - 253 с.
4. Chung Ch. Mixed Functional Properties in English Stylistic Inversion. Dongseo University, 2002. - http://cslipublications. stanford.edu/ HPSG/2/chung-inv1-pn. pd
5. Fowler H. W. The King's English, 2nd ed. 1908. - http://www.bartleby.com/116/303.html
6. Lawrence D. H. Lady Chatterley's Lover, 2000. - http://www.lib.ru/INPROZ/ CHATER/lady. txt
7. Lewis Carroll. Alice's adventures in Wonderland. - http://www.lib.ru/CARROLL/alice. txt
8. Wilson K. G. The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. Columbia University Press, 1993. Inversion in questions. - http://www.bartleby.com/68/10/3411.html
9. Лоуренс Д.Г. Любовник Леди Чаттерлей, пер.В. Чухно, Ю. Жукова, М. Кани др. М.: ЗАО Издательство ЭКСМО-Пресс, 2000.
10. Лоуренс Д.Г. Любовник Леди Чаттерлей, пер.И. Гуль. Рига: АВИЗЕ, при участии МП ТЕКОН, 1991.
11. Лоуренс Д.Г. Любовник леди Чаттерли, пер.И. Багрова, М. Литвинова. М.: Книжная палата, 1991. - http://www.lib.ru/INPROZ/CHATER/chatterl. txt
12. Льюис Кэрролл. Алиса в Стране Чудес, пер.А. Кононенко, 2000. - http://www.lib.ru/CARROLL/alisa_kononenko. txt
13. Льюис Кэрролл. Алиса в Стране Чудес, пер.Б. Заходер, 2004. - http://www.lib.ru/CARROLL/alisa_zah. txt
14. Льюис Кэрролл. Аня в Стране Чудес, пер.В. Набоков, 1991. - http://www.lib.ru/CARROLL/anya. txt
15. Льюис Кэрролл. Приключения Алисы в стране чудес, пер.Н.М. Демурова, 1991. - http://www.lib.ru/CARROLL/carrol1_1. txt
16. Льюис Кэрролл. Приключения Алисы в Стране Чудес, пер.Н. Старилов, 2000. - http://www.lib.ru/CARROLL/alisa_star. txt
17. Льюис Кэрролл. Приключения Алисы в Стране Чудес, пер.Ю. Нестеренко, 2001. - http://www.lib.ru/CARROLL/alisa_yun. txt
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