Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation

General characteristics of the gerund. Predicative constructions with the gerund. The use of the gerund and the function of the gerund in the sentence. The gerund and the other verbals. Comparison of the English gerund and its equivalents in Russian.

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Министерство Образования и Науки Украины

Таврический Экологический Институт

Факультет иностранной филологии


Специальность 7.030502-«Язык и литература»

Курсовая работа

Тема: Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation

Исполнитель: студентка 5 курса

Старцева Марина Александровна

Научный руководитель:

доцент Цвет Л.Я.

Симферополь, 2003



Section I. General characteristics of the gerund

1.1 The double nature of the gerund

1.2 The tense distinctions of the gerund

1.3 The voice distinctions of the gerund

1.4 Predicative constructions with the gerund

Section II The use of the gerund

2.1 The use of the gerund

2.2 The function of the gerund in the sentence

Section III. The gerund and the other verbals

3.1 The gerund and the infinitive

3.2 The gerund and the participle

3.3 The gerund and the verbal noun

Section IV. Comparison of the English gerund and its equivalents in Russian

The conclusion

List of literature


The aim of my paper is the analysis of the translation and the opportunity to transmit the meaning of the gerund in Russian. I have set this aim because of a superficial translation the reader cannot see what is written between the lines. The translator doesn't always know grammar and grammar are left behind the limits of the translation.

When one compares an original text with the translation, one can see that some difficult places are omitted or changed. For example, if the noun expresses the subject, the translator can translate this noun with an adverb, because of it sounds better than if it were translated without an adverb (6, 31).

The theme of the course paper is analysis of Russian equivalents of the gerund. The main problem of this paper is to show how one can translate gerund in all situations, how to render a gerund by other means of the language, how gerundial constructions are used. In a complex clause one can omit the translation of a gerund because of it's difficult to express the idea in the Russian language.

There aren't any gerunds in the Russian language. There is only a verbal noun. The English gerund cannot be translated as a verbal noun. I'll try to show this difficulty of translation in Russian.

I've chosen this theme, because rendering gerund in Russian is ambiguous and difficult for a student. I want to do my own contribution in the analysis of this problem.

My course paper consists of the introduction, the two chapters and the conclusion.

Section I. General characteristics of the gerund

Origin and Development. The gerund was originally a verbal noun in -ing (until about 1250 also with the form -ung).thus it differed from the present participle in meaning, which was originally an adjective and until about the fourteenth century had a different ending, namely, ende (or inde, ynde, ande), so that the two suffixes were farther apart in form and meaning than they are today. They have both in course of time acquired more verbal force, but the gerund is still a noun and the present participle is still an adjective. [22-101]

. In the combination possessive + gerund, as in I do not like his coming here so often-мне не нравится, что он часто приходит сюда. The oblique case may be substituted for the possessive, so that the gerund becomes a present participle: I do not like him coming here so often. The difference -- if any -- appears to be that in the former construction the logical emphasis is on the possessive, in the latter on the verb. But there seems also to be a tendency to give up the latter construction altogether, as if it were a mere variation of I do not like him possessives: “in honors of its being Christmas day I …”-в честь Рождества я … “when metal came into use, men were able to make their knives much longer, without their being afraid of their breaking”-с появлением металла появилась возможность изготовлять более длинные ножи, не боясь, что они поломаются. In the last sentence they could be omitted but not changed into them.

So also the genitive in who told you of your wife's being there? May be made into the common case-- of your wife being there. In such constructions as I cannot accept the notion of school-life affecting the poet-я не могу принять понятие о школьной жизни, которая влияет на поэта, to this extent the common case is preferred to the genitive(24-92).

"Ing" is used here as a comprehensive technical term for those English forms which from a syntactical point of view must be considered as two different things, a gerund and a participle ("first participle", generally called "present participle"). [23-129]

In order to understand the definition “gerund” we should know all its meanings and word-combinations.

The gerund developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized, preserving at the same time its nominal character.

The gerund is formed by adding the inflection -ing to the stem of the verb and coincides in form with Participle I (15 - 170).

1.1 The double nature of the gerund

As a natural result of its origin and development the gerund has nominal and verbal properties. The nominal characteristics of the gerund are as follows:

1. The gerund can perform the function of the subject, an object and a predicative.

They say smoking leads to meditation. - К медитации они посоветовали использовать дымящий свинец.*

I like making people happy. - Я люблю осчастливливать людей.

He went away without saying a word. - Он ушел не сказав ни слова (1 - 222).

2. The gerund can be preceded by a proposition.

I'm very, very tired of rowing - Я очень, очень устала грести.

He's fond of skating. - Он увлекается коньками.

You can't make an omelette without breaking eggs. - Ты не можешь сделать омлет без яиц.

I'm tired f hearing about that. - Я устала это слушать (5 - 137).

3. Like a noun the gerund can be modified by a noun in the Possessive Case or by a possessive pronoun.

“I wonder at Jolyon's allowing this cugagement”, he said to aunt Ann. - «Меня удивляет, что Джолиoн допустил эту помолвку», сказал он тетушке Энн.

Is there any objection to my seeing her? - Кто-нибудь возражает против того, чтобы я повидался с ней? (7 - 259).

The verbal characteristics of the gerund are the same as those of the participle:

The gerund of transitive verbs can take a direct object.

I had now made a good progress in understanding and speaking their language. - Сейчас я сделал хорошее продвижение в понимании и говорении их языка.

The gerund can be modified by an adverb.

She burst out crying bitterly. - Она горько расплакалась.

The gerund has tense distinctions; the gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. The forms of the gerund in modern English are as follows (2 - 624).





being written


having written

having been written

There is no gerund in the Russian language and the English gerund is rendered in Russian in different ways:

by a noun.

Dancing had not begun yet. - Танцы еще не начались (10 - 232).

by an infinitive.

He had tea with Cipriano before leaving. - Перед тем, как уйти, она выпила чай с Kиприано.

It is no good hiding our heads under our wings. - Бесполезно прятать голову под крыло. * (Here and there the translation is mine)

by деепричастие.

And without waiting for her answer he turned and left us. - И не дожидаясь ее, он повернулся и вышел.

On seeing Bella he stopped, beckoned her to him, and drew her arm through his. - Увидев Беллу, он остановился, подозвал ее к себе и взял под руку (16 - 19).

by a subordinate clause.

He regretted now having come. - Теперь он сожалел, что пришел.

It should be observed that though the active forms of the gerund may be rendered in different ways, the passive forms are nearly always rendered by a clause.

As she contemplated the wide windows and imposing signs, she became conscious of being gazed upon. - Когда она рассматривала широкие витрины и внушительные вывески, она почувствовала, что на нее смотрят.

After having been informed of the conference in my lady's room,… he immediately decided on waiting to hear the news from Frizinghall. - После того как ему сообщили о совещании в комнате миледи,… он сразу решил подождать, чтобы узнать новости из Фризингхолла (15, 171).

1.2 The tense distinctions of the gerund

The tense destinations of the gerund, like those of the participle, are not absolute but relative.

The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb it may refer to the present, past, or future.

He can swim for any number of hours without tiring. - Он может плыть много часов подряд, не уставая.

She walked on without turning her head. - Она шла, не поворачивая головы.

Gwendolen will not rest without having the world at her feet. - Гвендолен не успокоится, пока весь мир не будет у ее ног.

No one could pass in or out without being seen. - Никто не мог ни войти так, чтобы его не видели (12 - 105).

However, a prior action is not always expressed by a perfect Gerund; in some cases we find an Indefinite Gerund. This occurs after the verbs to remember, to excuse, to forgive, to thank and after the prepositions on (upon), after and without.

I don't remember hearing the legend before. - Я не помню, что бы я раньше слышала о легенде.

Thank you for restraining me just now. - Благодарю тебя, что сдержал меня сейчас.

On leaving the house we directed our steps to the nearest shade. - Покинув дом, мы осматривались к ближайшей тени.

After walking about ten yards, he found the hat among the leaves. - Пройдя около десяти ярдов, он обнаружил шляпу среди листьев.

She passes through and disappears in the village without noticing the young lady. - Она проходит мимо и исчезает в деревне не замечая юную леди (14 - 210).

The Perfect Gerund may also be used after the above mentioned verbs and prepositions.

He did not remember having been in that room. - Он не помнил, чтобы когда-ни будь был в этой комнате.

After having denied herself to everybody, Miss Rachel, to our astonishment, walked into the midst of us of her own accord. - После того как мисс Рэчел отказалась видеть кого бы то ни было, она к нашему удивлению, вышла к нам по своему собственному желанию.

They parted at Cohen's door without having spoken to each other again. - Они расстались у двери дома Коэна, не сказав друг другу ни слова (15, 173).

1.3 The voice distinctions of the gerund

The gerund of transitive verbs has special forms for the active and the passive voice.

He liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to. - Он не любил ни читать вслух, ни слушать чтение.

It's to observed that after the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require and the adjective worth the gerund is used in the active form, though it is passive in meaning.

“The slums want attending to, no doubt”, he said. - «Без сомнения трущобами надо заняться», - сказал он.

He realized that his room needed painting. - Он понял, что его комнату надо покрасить.

The child deserves praising. - Ребенок заслуживает того, чтобы его похвалили.

They were not worth saving. - Их не стоило спасать (4 - 66).

1.4 Predicative constructions with the gerund

Like all the verbals the gerund can form predicative constructions, i.e. constructions in which the verbal element expressed by the gerund is in predicate relation to the nominal element expressed by a noun or pronoun.

Like a verb, a gerund may have a subject, but, like earlier verbal nouns, its subject is in the genitive, here, however, only the old subjective genitive in -s, or instead of the genitive the person implied in a possessive adjective, my, his, etc., which were originally genitives of the personal pronouns and are still often used as such ; 'I am provoked at John's talking so rudely' (or 'at his talking so rudely').-Я против того,чтобы Джон так со мной грубо разговаривал. Many common substantive limiting adjectives, as this, these, those, any, several, all, two, three, etc., have no s-genitive. Here, of course, as the genitive is impossible, we have to use the accusative: 'Was it thou who didst tell the boy this foolishness of these being our arms?-Был ли это именно ты, кто сказал мальчику эту глупость, что он в наших руках'. 'Some families may possibly have moved away on account of the repeated failure of crops, but I do not know of any having done so.-Некоторые семьи возможно уехали бы из-за постоянных неурожаев, но я никого не знаю, кто бы так поступил. ' There are also nouns that have no genitive form. Here we must have recourse to the accusative: 'I am not surprised at young or old falling in love with her.' There is no hope of good coming from it.' 'There is no expectation of the French withdrawing their demands.'-Больше нет сил ждать, когда Франция предоставит свои требования (22-102).

I don't like your going off without any money. - Мне не нравится, что вы уходите без денег.

Here the gerund going off is in predicate relation to the pronoun your, which denotes the doer of the action expressed by the gerund (14, 173).

The nominal element of the construction can be expressed in different ways.

If it denotes a living being it may be expressed:

by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun.

His further consideration of the point was prevented by Richard's coming back to us in an excited state. - Его дальнейшие размышления были прерваны тем, что вернулся Ричард в чрезвычайно возбужденном состоянии.

Do you mind my smoking? - Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы я курил?

by a noun in the common case.

I have a distinct recollection of Lady Chiltern always getting the good conduct prize! - Я отлично помню, что леди Гильтерн всегда получала награды за примерное поведение.

NOTE. - Thus in modern English there are two parallel constructions or the type: Fancy David's courting Emily! and Fancy David courting Emily! These two constrictions may be used in differently, but sometimes there is a slight difference in meaning in the first example the action (the verbal element of the construction) is emphasized, whereas in the second the does of the action (the nominal element of the construction) is emphasized (9, 89).

Occasionally examples are found where the nominal element of the construction is expressed by a pronoun is the objective case.

I hope you will forgive me disturbing you. - Надеюсь, что вы простите меня за то, что я вас побеспокоил.

There are cases when the nominal element of the construction, though denoting a living, cannot be expressed by a noun in the possessive case, but only by a noun in the common case, namely when it consists of two or more nouns or when it is a noun modified by an attribute in past-position.

I object to Marry and Jane going out on such a windy day. - Я против, чтобы Мэри и Джейн вышли на улицу в такой холод.

He felt no uneasiness now in the thought of the brother and sister being alone together. - Его теперь не смущала мысль о том, что брат и сестра остались вдвоем.

Did you ever hear of a man of sense rejecting such an offer? - Слышали ли вы когда-нибудь, чтобы разумный человек отказался от такого предложения? (15, 174).

If the nominal element of the construction denotes a lifeless thing, it is expressed by a noun in the common case (such nouns, as a rule, are not used in the genitive case) or by a possessive pronoun.

I said something about my clock being slow. - Я сказал, что мои часы отстают.

…Piggott spoke of… my room, and of its being ready for me. - …Пеготт говорила… о моей комнате и о том, что она уже приготовлена для меня (3 - 475).

The nominal element of the construction can also be expressed by a pronoun which has no case distinctions, such as all, this, that, both, each, something.

I insist on both of them coming in time. - Я требую, чтобы они оба пришли вовремя.

Again Michael … was conscious of something deep and private stirring within himself. - Михаил опять почувствовал, что в его душе шевельнулось что-то глубокое и затаенное.

NOTE. - Some grammarians recognize the existence of two separate constructions: the gerundial construction (a construction whose nominal element is expressed by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun) and a construction with a half gerund (a construction whose nominal element is expressed by a noun in the common case, a pronoun in the objective case, or a pronoun which has no case distinctions) (15, 175).

A general construction is nearly always rendered in Russian by a subordinate clause, generally introduced by то, что; тем, что; как, etc.

He being a foreigner, an ex-enemy was bad enough. - То, что он был иностранцем, бывший неприятель, было уже плохо.

The door opening gently interrupted her thoughts at last. - Ее мысли были наконец прерваны тем, что дверь тихонько открылась.

I began to picture to myself… my being found dead in a day or two, under some hedge. - Я начал представлять себе, как через день или два меня найдут мертвым под каким ни будь забором (13, 56).

Section II The use of the gerund

2.1 The use of the gerund

In modern English the gerund is widely used and often competes with the infinitive.

In the following case only the gerund is used.

With the verbs and verbal phrases: to avoid, to burst out, to deny, to enjoy, to excuse, to fancy (in imperative sentences as an exclamation of surprise), to finish, to forgive, to give up, to go on, to keep on, to leave off, to mind (in negative and interrogative sentences), to postpone, to put off, cannot help and some others (6, 256).

He avoided looking at Sabina. - Он избегал смотреть на Савину.

… She burst out crying. - … она расплакалась.

She denied having been at the station that evening. - Она отрицала, что была в тот вечер на станции.

Excuse my leaving you in the dark a moment. - Извините, что я на минуточку оставила вас в темноте.

Fancy finding you here at such an hour! - Я даже представить себе не мог, что застану вас здесь в такое время!

Forgive my speaking plainly. - Простите, что я говорю так прямо.

When Committee had finished deciding on its politics, he had gone home. - Когда комитет кончил разрабатывать свой план действий, он пошел домой.

They went on talking. - Они продолжали разговаривать.

The doctor keeps coming and having a look at me. - Доктор продолжает навещать меня и осматривать.

It was quite rough, but I kept on rowing. - Озеро было неспокойно, но я продолжал грести.

I have left off shooting. - Я перестал охотиться.

Do you mind me asking you one or two more questions? - Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы я задал вам еще один-два вопроса?

With the following verbs and verbal phrases used with a preposition: to accuse of, to agree to, to approve of, to complain of, to depend on, to feel like, to insist on, to look like, to object to, to persist in, to prevent from, to rely on, to speak of, to succeed in, to suspect of, to thank for, to think of, to give up, the idea of, to look forward to, not to like the idea of, to miss or the opportunity of and some others.

He was surprised at having been asked about it. - Он был удивлен, когда его спросили об этом.

He is proud of having won the first place in the chess tournament. - Он гордится, что занял первое место в турнире по шахматам.

We insisted on being informed by cable of the arrival of the ship. - Мы настаивали, чтобы нас проинформировали по кабелю о прибытии корабля.

He objects to having to come here every day. - Он против, чтобы принудительно приходить сюда каждый день (6, 28).

They accuse me of having dealt with the Germans. - Меня обвиняют в том, что я имел дело с немцами.

It was clear now … that Abraham never had agreed to their being married today. - Теперь было ясно, что Авраам никогда не соглашался на то, чтобы они поженились сегодня.

You did not approve of my playing at roulette. - Вы не одобряли того, что я играла в рулетку.

All the happiness of my life depends on you loving me. - Все счастье моей жизни зависит от того, полюбите ли вы меня.

I don't feel like going out. - Мне не хочется выходить.

I don't want to bore you with all this, but I feel like talking. - Я не хочу надоедать вам всем этим, но мне хочется поговорить.

I insist on being treated with a certain consideration. - Я настаиваю на том, чтобы ко мне относились внимательнее.

It looks like raining. - Похоже, что будет дождь.

I object to his having any acquaintance at all with me sister. - Я против того, чтобы он был знаком с моей сестрой.

I rushed out to prevent her from seeing this dreadful sight. - Я выбежал, чтобы не дать ей увидеть это ужасное зрелище.

… you may rely on my setting matters right. - … вы можете рассчитывать на то, что я все улажу.

My medical adviser succeeded in saving my life… - Моему врачу удалось спасти мне жизнь…

You suspect me of stealing your diamond. - Вы подозреваете меня в тои, что я украл ваш брильянт.

I resolved not to think of going abroad any more. - Я решил больше не думать о путешествиях.

I really thank you heartily for talking all this trouble. - Я сердечно благодарен вам зато, что вы взяли на себя все эти заботы.

So he returned his straitened means to his pocket, and gave up the idea of trying to buy the boys. - Он снова избрал свое жалкое состояние в карман и отказался от намерения постараться подкупить мальчиков (15, 177).

With the following predicative word-groups (with or without a preposition): to be aware of, to be busy in, to be capable of, to be fond of, to be guilty of, to be indignant at, to be pleased (displeased) at, to be proud of, to be sure of, to be surprised (astonished) at, to be worth (while) and others.

Sir Pitt Crawly was not aware of Becky's having married Radon. - Сэр Пиит Кровли не знал, что Беки вышла замуж за Радона.

I felt physically incapable of remaining still in any one place and morally incapable of speaking to any one human being. - Я чувствовал, что физически не в состоянии оставаться на одном месте и морально не в состоянии говорить с кем бы то ни было.

I am very fond of being looked at. - Я очень люблю, когда на меня смотрят.

You are really guilty of having connived with a German officer to help his escape. - Вы действительно виновны в том, что способствовали побегу немецкого офицера.

Mr. Osborne was indignant at his son's having disobeyed him. - Мистер Осборн был в негодовании от того, что сын его ослушался.

… She was not pleased at my coming. - …она была недовольна, что я пришел.

Miss Crawly was greatly displeased at Radon's having married Becky. - Мисс Кровли была очень недовольна, что Радон женился на Беки.

… Nobody knows better than I do that she… is proud of being so pretty. - … уж я то знаю: она… гордится тем, что она такая хорошенькая.

Are you quite sure of those words referring to my mother? - Вы совершенно уверены, что эти слова относятся к моей матери?

The bridal party was worth seeing. - Свадьбу стоило посмотреть (15, 178 - 179).

2.2 The function of the gerund in the sentence

The gerund may be used in various syntactic functions. A single gerund occurs but seldom; in most cases we find a gerundial phrase or a gerundial construction.

The gerund as a subject.

Talking mends no holes. - Разговоры не помогают в беде.

Waiting for the professor was a lame excuse for doing nothing. - То, что мы ждали профессора, было слабым оправданием тому, что мы ничего не делали.

My answering in the affirmative gave him great satisfaction. - То, что я ответил утвердительно, было ему очень приятно (1, 106).

The gerund used as a subject may follow the predicate; in these cases the sentence opens with the introductory it (which serves as an introductory subject) or with the construction there is.

It's no use talking like that to me. - Бесполезно говорить со мной в таком тоне.

There was no mistaking the expression on her face. - Выражение ее лица нельзя было не понять.

NOTE. - There is another view according to which it is the subject and the rest of the sentence is the predicate.

The as a predicative.

The only remedy for such a headache as mine is going to bed. - Единственное средство от такой головной боли, как у меня, - это лечь спать.

The gerund as part of a compound verbal predicate.

- With verbs and verbal phrases denoting modality the gerund forms part of a compound verbal modal predicate.

We intend going to Switzerland and climbing Mount Blanc. - Мы хотим поехать в Швейцарию и подняться на Монблан.

Joseph could not help admiring the man. - Джозеф не мог не восхищаться этим человеком.

- With verbs denoting the beginning, the duration or the end of an action, the gerund forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.

She began sobbing and weeping. - Она начала рыдать и ныть.

The manager has finished dictating a letter to the secretary. - Менеджер закончил диктовать письмо секретарю.

I avoid speaking to him on this matter. - Я избегаю разговаривать с ним в такой манере.

In the night it started raining. - Ночью начался дождь (7 - 257).

The gerund as an object.

The gerund may be used as a direct object and as a prepositional indirect object.

I simply love riding. - Я просто обожаю кататься верхом.

She enjoyed singing and playing to him. - Ей доставляло удовольствие петь и играть для него.

The times were good for building… - Время для постройки дома было самое подходящее.

Charlie did not succeed in talking things easily. - Чарли не удавалось смотреть легко на вещи.

Predicative constructions with the gerund form a complex object as they consist of two distinct elements, nominal and verbal.

Perhaps you would't mind Richard's coming in? - Может быть, вы не будете возражать против того, чтобы вошел Ричард?

Aunt Augusta won't quite approve of your being here. - Тетя Августа будет не очень довольна тем, что вы здесь (15, 181 - 182).

The gerund as an attribute.

In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition.

There are different ways of solving this problem. - Существуют разные способы решения этой проблемы.

We discussed different methods of teaching foreign languages. - Мы обсуждали разные методы изучения иностранных языков.

He has no objection to being sent there. - У него нет возможностей, что его туда послали (7, 254).

The gerund as an adverbial modifier.

In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition. It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time, manner, attendant circumstances, cause, condition, purpose and concession; the most common functions are those of adverbial modifiers of time, manner and attendant circumstances.

- As an adverbial modifier of time the gerund is preceded by the prepositions after, before, on, upon, in, or at.

After leaving her umbrella in the hall, she entered the living room. - Оставив зонтик в передней, она вошла в гостиную.

He was to have three days at home before going back to farm. - Он должен был пробыть три дня дома, прежде чем возвратиться на ферму.

Clare turned at hearing her footsteps… - Услышав ее шаги, Клер оглянулся.

NOTE. - In the function of an adverbial modifier of time gerund sometimes competes with the participle.

George, on hearing the story, grinned. - Джордж, услышав эту историю, усмехнулся.

The four girls, hearing him speak in the hall, rushed out of the library. - Все четыре девочки, услышав, что он говорит в передней, выбежали из библиотеки.

After reaching the second landing… I heard a sound of quiet, and regular breathing on my left-hand side. - Дойдя до второй площади лестницы, … я услышал с левой стороны спокойное и ровное дыхание.

Reaching the door of the room occupied by Cowperwood and Aileen, she tapped lightly. - Дойдя до двери комнаты, которую занимали Каупер Вуд и Эллин, она тихонько послушала.

- As an adverbial modifier of manner the gerund is used with the preposition by or in.

She startled her father by bursting into tears. - Она напугала своего отца тем, что расплакалась.

The day was spent in packing. - День прошел за упаковкой вещей.

- As an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances the gerund is preceded by the preposition without.

She was not brilliant, not active, but rather peaceful and statuesque without knowing it. - Это была женщина не блестящая, не энергичная, но очень спокойная и величественная, сама того не зная.

- As an adverbial modifier of purpose, the gerund is chiefly used with the preposition for.

… one side of the gallery was used for dancing. - … одна сторона галереи использовалась для танцев.

- As an adverbial modifier of condition the gerund is preceded by the preposition without.

He has no right to come bothering you and papa without being invited. - Он не имеет права приходить и беспокоить вас и отца, если его не приглашают.

- As an adverbial modifier of clause the gerund is used with the preposition for, for fear of, owing to.

I feel the better myself for having spent a good deal of time abroad. - Я чувствую себя лучше от того, что долго прожил за границей.

I dared not attend the funeral for fear of making a fool of myself. - Я не смел, присутствовать на похоронах, так как боялся поставить себя в глупое положение.

- As an adverbial modifier of concession the gerund is preceded by the preposition in spite of.

In spite of being busy, he did all he could to help her. - Несмотря на занятость, он сделал все, чтобы помочь ей.

The above examples show that the gerund preceded by one and the some preposition may be used in different functions: with the preposition without, it may be perform the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances and of condition; with the preposition in, it may be perform the function of an adverbial modifier of time and of manner; with the preposition for, it may perform the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose or of cause.

NOTE. - The Russian не + деепричастие may correspond to the English without + Gerund or not + Participle. It usually corresponds to not + Participle if it's used in the function of an adverbial modifier of cause.

Не зная адреса мисс Бетти, Давид не мог ей написать. - Not knowing Miss Betsey's address, David could not write to her (CAUSE).

If нет + деепричастие is used in the function of adverbial modifiers of attendant circumstances and of condition, it generally corresponds to without + Gerund.

Давид уехал из Лондона, никому ничего не сказав. - David left London without telling anybody about it (ATTENDANT CIRCUMSTANCES) (15, 183 - 184).

Section III. The gerund and other verbals

3.1 The gerund and the infinitive

With a number of verbs and word-groups both the gerund and the infinitive may be used. The most important of them are: to be afraid, to begin, to cease, to continue, can (cannot) afford, to dread, to fear, to forget, to hate, to intend, to like (to dislike), to neglect, to prefer, to propose, to remember, to recollect, to start, to stop.

The young man began turning aver the pages of a book. - Молодой человек начал переворачивать страницы книги.

At length she began to speak softly. - Наконец она начала говорить мягко.

She continued standing near the piano. - Она продолжала стоять у пианино.

She continued to look at him… - Она продолжала смотреть на него…

It is sometimes possible to find a reason for the use of a given form. With some verbs and word-groups, such as to be afraid, to forget, to hate, to like, to prefer the infinitive is mostly used with reference to a special occasion, the gerund being more appropriate to a general statement.

The child was afraid of remaining alone, but he was afraid of to remain along or such a stormy night. - Ребенок не боялся остаться один в такую бурную ночь.

Don't forget shutting the windows when you leave home. - Не забывай закрывать окна, уходя из дому.

I don't like interrupting people. - Я не люблю отрывать людей от дела.

I don't like to interrupt him, he seems very busy. - Мне не хочется мешать ему, он, кажется, очень занят.

I was always afraid losing his goodwill. - Я всегда боялся потерять его расположение.

Gwen olden answered rather pettishly, and her mamma was afraid to say more. - Гвендолен ответила несколько раздраженно, и ее мыть побоялась продолжать разговор (15, 179).

With the verb to remember the infinitive usually refers to the future, and the gerund to the past.

I shall always remember meeting you for the first time (= remember what one has done, or what has happened). - Я всегда буду помнить, как мы встретились впервые.

Remember to go to the post office, won't you? (= Remember what you have to do). - Не забудь зайти на почту.

To forget.

I shall never forget seeing the Queen. - Я никогда не забуду, как я видел королеву.

She is always forgetting to give me my letters. - Она всегда забывает отдавать мне мои письма.

To stop.

I really must stop smoking (= stop what one is doing, or does). - Мне действительно нужно прекратить курить.

Every half hour I stop work to smoke a cigarette (= make a break or pause in order o do something). - Каждые полчаса я прерываю работу, чтобы покурить.

To go on + Ving.

How long do to intend to go on playing those records? - Как долго ты намереваешься слушать эти пластинки?

to go on + Inf.

He welcomed the new students and then went on to explain the college regulations. - Он поприветствовал новых студентов и приступил к объявлению правил колледжа.

To regret + Ving.

I don't regret telling her what I thought, even if it upset her. - Я не сожалею, что сказал ей том, что думаю, даже если это огорчило ее.

To regret + Inf.

I regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you employment. - Я сожалею, но должен сообщить вам, что мы не можем принять вас на работу (5, 160).

3.2 The gerund and the participle

In most cases the differentiation between the gerund and the participle does not present any difficulty.

Unlike the participle the gerund may be preceded by a preposition, it may be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun; it can be used in the function of a subject, object and predicative. In the function of an attribute and of an adverbial modifier both the gerund and the participle may be used, but the gerund in these functions always proceeded by a preposition.

There are cases, however, when the differentiation between the gerund and the participle presents some difficulty; for instance, it is not always easy to distinguish between a gerund as part of a compound noun and a participle as an attribute to a noun. One should bear in mind that if we have a gerund as part of a compound noun, the person or thing denoted by the noun does not perform the action expressed by the ing-form: e.g. a dancing-hall (a hall for dancing), a cooking stove (a stove for cooking), walking shoes, a writing-table etc.

If we have participle used as an attribute the person denoted by the noun performs the action expressed by the ing-form: e.g. a dancing girl (a girl who dances), a singing child etc.

However, there are cases which admit of two interpretations; for example a sewing machine, may be understood in two ways: a machine for sewing and a machine which sews; a hunting dog may be a dog for hunting and a dog that hunts(34 - 35).

3.3 The gerund and the verbal noun

The gerund should not be confused with the verbal noun, which has the same suffix -ing. The main points of difference between the gerund and the verbal noun are as follows.

Like all the verbals the gerund has a double character - nominal and verbal. - The verbal noun has only a nominal character.

The gerund is not used with an article. - The verbal noun may be used with an article.

The making of a new humanity cannot be the privilege of a handful of bureaucrats. - Совершение нового человечества не может быть привилегией пригоршни бюрократов.

I want you to give my hair a good brushing. - Я хочу, чтобы ты хорошо причесала мои волосы.

The gerund has no plural form. - The verbal noun may be used in the plural.

Our likings are regulated by our circumstances. - Наши совпадения во вкусах зависят от обстоятельств.

The gerund of a transitive verb takes a direct object.

He received more and more letters, so many that he had given up reading them. - Он поучал все больше и больше писем, так много, что он бросил их читать. - A verbal noun cannot take a direct object; it takes a prepositional object with the preposition of. Meanwhile Gwendolyn was rallying her nerves to the reading of the paper. - А тем временем Гвендолен действовала ей на нервы читая бумагу.

The gerund may be modified by an adverb.

Drinking, even temperately, was a sin. - Даже выпивка по праздникам считается грехом. - The verbal noun may be modified by an adjective. Tom took a good scolding about scolding Sid. - Тома хорошо поругали за то, что он побил камнями Сида.

Not having the verbal meanings, the verbal noun doesn't have the form of tenses and doesn't express any voice. After the verbal noun the direct object can't exist.

They started the loading of the ship. - Они приступили к погрузке судна.

NOTE. - One should notice that the noun is formed not from all verbs due to suffix -ing. The noun can be formed by other methods:

To manufacture - производить;

Manufacture - производство;

To produce - производить;

Production - производство;

To sell - продавать;

Sale - продажа;

To ship - отгружать;

Shipment - отгрузка (9, 262).

Section 4 Comparison of the English gerund and its equivalents in Russian

I've analyzed the gerund in Russian translations of the book by C.S. Lewis “The Silver Chair” (19), and “The Lion, the Which and the Wardrobe” (20).

I've found the translation of these books by Shaposhnikova and Ostrovskaya. These books are under the edition of N.Trauberg (19; 20). One can see that the authors of the translation used a free technique of translation without paying any attention to the grammar and Russian equivalents. At first I'd like to consider the translation of the gerund, which is rendered by other Russian parts of speech (21; 22). There are:

Without speaking - молчание,

for looking while - победил,

for not liking - не любит,

she couldn't help thinking - ей казалось.

Let nothing turn your mind from following the sights! - Не забывай о знаках!

like being in an airplane - напоминал самолет.

The sound of waves breaking on the store was growing louder - Звуки прибоя становились громче.

telling - узнать,

No one suggested doing anything. - Никто не говорил, что делать дальше.

she began groping with their feet - стояла изо всех сил,

buzzing - шепчут.

It's worse than coming back and finding him dead. - Лучше бы мне знать, что он умер.

opening - отверстие,

saying - послышалось,

trying - учить,

without delivery - не успела,

knowing - запоминание,

looking - отправились,

talking of going to a party - речь шла о гостях,

on saying - заметил,

after changing - другим,

resting on - положил,

sleeping - лечь,

stop beating - не остановилась,

talking of archers - о стрелах,

for being able to shoot - научился стрелять,

walking - поехали,

there is no denying - спору нет,

there was no mistaking - были уверены,

saying - спросил,

without thinking -припомнить,

for not knowing - не помнить,

without knocking - не удариться,

climbing down - по ступеням,

began making tour - стали бежать

he had to keep on pretending-с трудом удержался

looking at-вытаращила глаза

without meaning-не трогать

talking again-вспоминать



of finding-выходить

stepping out-оказываться

trying on sound-словно

by jeering-смеяться


of getting-попадать


of being smooth-не ровняй


for keeping-позволять

there was nothing stirring-кругом ни движения

wondering-задал вопрос

before leaving-убежал


bringing-в руках



on using-тереть

(19, 4 - 121; 20, 5 - 20; 22, 4 - 65; 21, 4 - 35).

One can see a big difference between the gerund and Russian equivalents. The thing is that the translator cannot find a direct way to render what C.S.Lewis meant by these gerunds. The translator should see the meaning of words between lines. There is no gerund in Russian and, maybe, it was case for the translator to say like that. But if the translator followed the grammar, the awkward translation would be.

The gerunds, which the translator couldn't translate:



at believing,



of getting,

from gong,





without warning,




talking in,

from drinking,

being carried,

before going on,

from bringing,

of finding,


for making,


at finding,

of catching,




boo-hoeing ,

for keeping,

on remembering,


for shopping,

of coming,

on getting,

of sitting,


on standing,

coming in,







looking out




talking in

from drinking

being carried

before going on

from bringing

of finding



of feeling


blinking in



jumping out








hanging down

flying up



holding out


of trying

looking at


looking round

for getting

talking about

turning to

talking off

beginning to


trailing round





about having

without noticing




for caring

looking for

on thinking

of going

about being




bounding back

of scrambling










on doing

(19, 4 - 121; 20, 4 -77).

The translator has ignored these gerunds because she couldn't reproduce Lewis' idea and analogues of the English gerund in Russian.

The gerund as Infinitive

Sucking up - подлизываться,

believing - поверить,

interrupting - перебивать,

teaching - учиться,

getting away - убегать,

roaring - рычать,

snoring - фыркать,

getting - добираться,

going away - отходить,

getting to bed - ложиться спать,

ducking - начинать,

waiting - ждать,

gliding away - уползать,

sleeping - спать,

finding - находить,

meeting - встречать,

looking - смотреть,

of having a hot bath - принимать ванну,

repeating - повторять,

reaching - добираться,

getting - налаживать,

opening - открывать,

telling - говорить,

escaping - убегать,

asking - спрашивать,

running - бежать,

slitting - скользить.

do stop grumbling-перестань ворчать


of eating-есть


jumping up-вскакивать

do not go on talking like that-перестань так говорить


of lulling-усыплять

turning very white-побелеть


without speaking-не говорить ни слова

of crunching-скрипеть

panting for-переводить дыхание

on asking-спрашивать


fishing-ловить рыбу




on teasing-подразнивать

hanging up-висеть

on eating- кушать





before coming out-вы лазить











for going back-возвращаться


on boiling-кипеть

of getting-попадать


doing things-действовать

in looking for-искать

of saving-спасаться

talking of-заговорить








from seeing-видеть

about closing-закрываться


The gerund as a finite form of the verb

Talking about - говорила,

shouting out - донеслось,

hoping - надеялись,

tarring - мелькали,

grabbing - вцепился,

singing - пели,

running across - бежали через,

scooping out - зачерпнула,

moving - двигались,

glittering - сверкали,

in blessing - благословлял,

leading - пошла,

beginning - начал,

coughing - покашливал,

ringing - звонил,

ruffling - зашелестели,

speaking - заговорили,

blowing - дух,

sitting - сидел,

fishing - удил,

walking - ходил,

hurtling - пронеслось,

telling - говорила,

loitering down - упали,

throwing - бросал,

no time in turning and leading the way back - не теряя времени

отправились назад,

stumbling - заковылял,

pottering - миновали,

rushing out - бросились,

laughing - смеялись,

looking about - осмотрелась,

coughing - кашлянула,

glancing over - обернулась,


handing up-висело




from trailing-волочился

picking up-подбирал





coming out-вырывался

saying nothing-молчал



kept on saying-снова отвечал

calling out-кричала


listening to-слушал


telling -рассказывала




of comforting-давал приют

holding breaths-затаили дыхание


looking down-раскинулось








sliding down-проваливался


off thinking-размечтался

sliding off-пробирался

his heart stopped beating-его сердце ушло в пятки


about standing-стояли

picking up-подняла







on slipping-скользили


running- бросился

The gerund as a noun or verbal noun

Scrambling up - карабканье,

blowing - дуновение,

crying - плач,

speaking - голос,

standing - стоять,

sobbing - всхлипывание,

watching - просмотр,

growing - утолщение,

coming - прибытие,

coughing - кашель,

hauling - стон,

blubbering - всхлипывание,

staying - визит,

the idea of having a good time - мысль,

as being kissed - поцелуй,

walking - прогулка.




treasure seeking-поиск сокровищ


of cooking-обед


there was nothing stirring-кругом ни движения



Passive Gerund

At being waked again - когда разбудили,

we're safe from being drowned in the river - чем утонем,

without being seen - незаметно.

The gerund as an attribute

Dazzling - развевающиеся.

of being smooth-не ровный

being nice-ласковее

of flowering-цветущий

in thinking-любопытный

The gerund as деепричастие

Jumping - вспрыгнув

looking up-бросив взгляд

pushing away-поставив



The aim of my paper was the analysis and translation of gerunds. As you see it was difficult for the translator of C.S.Lewis' book to present us the gerund as it was used in the book. The translator and we don't know what C.S.Lewis wanted to say using the gerund. Perhaps, he used gerund so because the grammar rules demanded or it was easy to apply the gerund in this or that situation. I would translate the gerund as our translator did because it suited to Russian equivalents, situation, words etc. If the context demands the changes in the translation because it doesn't sound good in Russian, why not apply the translation, which is far from the original. One shouldn't abuse a free translation, because the reader might not understand a general or main point of the book.

As you see C.S.Lewis used himself the gerund frequently after the prepositions.

There are only five Passive gerunds in the whole two books.

If the translator followed the rules, the translation should be awkward and in understandable for reader. You know, there is no rule without exception and the translator often used such exceptions.


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