Foreign language classroom

Culture in the Foreign language classroom. Cross-cultural communication. The importance of teaching culture in the foreign language classroom. The role of interactive methods in teaching foreign intercultural communication: passive, active, interactive.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 02.07.2014
Размер файла 83,2 K

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· Give the teacher feedback on which learners understand, and who needs help

· Develop thinking skills such as analysis problem solving, and evaluation

· Help learners to use their learning in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance

· Give the teacher a bit of a rest

Good students may create meaning from passive methods, but weak students do not. Both types of student improve their learning enormously when they are required to use it.

Teachers use a variety of methods to teach English as a second language. Each student is unique and will respond well to a particular method. A good teacher makes use of the items that he or she has and the learning styles of the students. Adapting your style to your class can be an effective teaching method.

Our society today needs young people who are ?exible, creative, and proactive - young people who can solve problems, make decisions, think critically, communicate ideas effectively and work ef?ciently within teams and groups. The `knowing of knowledge' is no longer enough to succeed in the increasingly complex, ?uid, and rapidly evolving world in which we live. In order to optimise life-long learning and potential success it is now widely accepted that young people need to have opportunities to develop personal capabilities and effective thinking skills as part of their well-rounded education.

The key feature is learning One on One - Face to Face: This method enables students to have more time to interact with native teachers than ever before, break through communication barriers, develop language skills, especially Listening & Speaking, and practice received pronunciation (British or American English) with native experts. The concept of «shyness» or «hesitation» in expressing ideas is almost non-existent as from the second session. In addition to correcting all grammatical and writing errors, teachers also emphasize the on-the-spot memorization and practice, bringing the fastest and clearest take-aways from each session.

Active Learning model also provides students with personalized experience and learning initiative. This is an important determinant ofstudents' performance by creating an exciting and relaxing atmosphere that prevents them from feeling tired in class. The schedule is quite flexible. Students can study anytime during a day and any day during a week and take full control of their study and work plans. For young students from 6-17 years old, this teaching method puts emphasis on the practice of self-conscious and proactive learning habits, and helps students shorten their exam preparation duration in case they can't attend class regularly and need to focus on international exams or official curriculum at school.

Active Learning can optimize the takeaways from each session. This is one of the most effective methodologies of foreign language learning that we have studied and applied successfully so far. The model has been recognized by many reputable educational institutions and universities in the world.

Many scholars consider the active and the interactive methods equal, however, having much in common, they still have distinctions. The interactive methods can be considered as the most modern form of the active methods.

Interactive method

Interactive («inter» is mutual, - to work with «act») - means to interact, be in a mode of conversation, dialogue with someone.

Language came into life as a mean of communication. It exists and is alive only through speech. When we speak about teaching a foreign language, we first of all have in mind teaching it as a mean of communication. In teaching speech the teacher has to cope with two tasks. They are: to teach his pupils to understand the foreign language and to teach them to speak the language. So, speech is a bilateral process. It includes hearing, on the one hand, and speaking, on the other. When we say «hearing» we mean auding or listening and comprehension. Speaking exists in two forms: dialogue and monologue.

My purpose here is to explore the interactive methods of teaching English that have attracted the attention of the teachers in recent years, to show reason for interest in them, in what they are exploring, in what they accomplish, the principles and ideas that guide them.

I shall make a lesson plan and during the lesson I shall experience the interactive methods of teaching which give the foreign language teacher the possibility to master some new techniques of communicative methods of foreign language training. Teacher has to organize different forms of activity at the foreign language classes that is individual, pair, group and team.
I shall present the most well known form of pair and group work the following kinds should be mentioned: inside (outside) circles, brainstorm, line-ups, jigsaw reading, think-pair-share, debate, and soon.

Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching. Audio-visual methods in teaching can improve classroom instruction and student understanding. Hearing students are more focused on spoken than written. The recordings of lectures and films are useful for students to auditory and nuances of the language, like the timbre and tone of the gathering.

Brainstorming method. Brainstorming with a group of people is a powerful technique. Brainstorming creates new ideas, solves problems, motivates

Many scholars consider the active and the interactive methods equal, however, having much in common, they still have distinctions. The interactive methods can be considered as the most modern form of the active methods.

In other words, unlike the active methods, the interactive are focused on the broader interaction of pupils not only with the teacher, but also with each other and pointed to the domination of pupils' activity in the course of training. The teacher's role at the interactive lessons is reduced to pupils' activity directed to the achievement of the goals of a lesson. The teacher still prepares the plan of the lesson (usually, they are the interactive exercises and tasks, during which the pupil studies a material).

Therefore, the main components of the interactive lessons are interactive exercises and tasks which are carried out by the pupils. The important difference of the interactive exercises and tasks from usual ones, that carrying them out, pupils do not only study and revise the material, but study essentially something new.

The escalating flow of information demands introduction of new methods of training which allow to transfer the bigger volume of knowledge for rather short term, to provide high level of mastering being trained a studied material and its fixing in practice. It can be reached on the basis of introduction in educational process of interactive technologies of training and creation of psychologically comfortable environment. The tendency to transition was outlined in a technique of teaching of foreign languages from traditional communicative approach to the interactive. One authors identify it with communicative approach, considering that the interactive model of mastering by language assumes that training happens in time and in the course of participation in language acts. After all the English word «interact» means to be in interaction, to work at each other; training through participation, interaction as a part of changing groups. Others define interactive approach as the modified direct method including some other methods. Despite of noted differences, interactive training assumes interaction being trained and the teacher, i.e. collective with - training (training in cooperation). Being indissoluble subjects of educational process, the part of the organizer of process of training, the leader of group, the founder of conditions for an initiative of the being trained is assigned to the teacher.

Thus the interactive technique is turned to experience being trained, to ability of communication with each other taking into account mutual respect, but under the general management from the teacher when carrying out occupation.

According to the experts in modern conditions only for 10% being trained are acceptable the methods used at traditional school, and other 90% of pupils are capable to study, but not with the book in hands. For the last interactive training the most progressive method. About its efficiency tell results of research of the National training center (the USA, the State of Maryland): interactive methods provide the greatest percent of assimilation of a material in comparison with traditional methods of training.

The purpose of an interactive technique is not simple information transfer, and instilling of skills of independent finding of answers and training through interaction. As a result it is possible to study more intensively and more consciously to acquire a material. But thus the main emphasis has to be laid on interaction being trained among themselves. For this purpose there is a set of receptions which interaction organizations in group promote: similarities/distinctions; ranging; search of compliances; rating; classification; generalization; truly/incorrectly; correctly or demands changes; advantages and shortcomings; identification of consequences; how you think?; role-playing game; brain storm; debate.

Process of interactive interaction between subjects of educational process on the basis of multilateral communication is possible, on the one hand, on condition of mastering by them skills of interpersonal communication: ability to listen to itself and others, to reproduce told, to explain, not to be afraid to ask questions and to make mistakes, on the other hand - when using the principles of competition and partnership in educational process. Changes in activity on the occupation, caused by use of methods of interactive training, demand from being trained «entry into uncertainty»: in its life experience aren't presented neither new rules of activity, nor algorithms of actions, the new status isn't defined it. However it is necessary to seek for versatile activity of each being trained.

Communication at the level of equally partnership promotes interchange by knowledge, skills at the independent solution of the elementary communicative and informative tasks. That communication being trained in group and groups is among themselves carried out as far as possible in a foreign, at a preparatory stage it is necessary not only to acquaint being trained with work stages in small groups of cooperation and its specifics, but also to prepare pupils actually for interaction in a foreign language, to acquaint with features of speech communication.

At the same time use of interactive methods of training in the course of teaching of foreign languages, at all their importance and efficiency doesn't mean refusal of traditional methods of training well checked in practice. For training all types of methods taking into account specifics of group, teaching skill and training conditions are important.

3. Use of the technical aids for the intensification of the educational process

Among the problems, theoretically and experimentally solved by the foreign languages teaching is the communicative competence and the ways of its achievements. The modern interpretations of communicative competence in the area of teachings the foreign languages comes from the D. Haimz's definition, the American scientist, according to which, «communicative competence is the thing that is necessary to know to any speaking person to communicate under the circumstances». To acquire the communicative competence in English, having not been in the country of the studied language, is quite difficult. Therefore the teacher's most important task is the creation of real and imaginary situations on the lessons of foreign language, using for it various methods and different kinds of activities (role plays, discussions, creative projects etc.). No less important task for the schoolchildren is to get acquainted with the cultural values of the people-native speakers. The acquaintance with the life of the English-speaking countries takes place mainly through the various texts and illustration to them.

For the schoolchildren it is important to receive a vivid picture of life, traditions, and language realies of the English-speaking countries. And for this purpose the educational video films could be served, the usage of which promotes the realization of the most important requirement of the communicative technique «…to imagine the process of knowing the language as the comprehension of another language reality…» Moreover, the use of videotapes during the lessons promotes training and development of motivation of speech activity of the learners. Using of the video films on the lessons of foreign language brings two types of motivation: self motivation, when the film is interesting in itself, and the main motivation which gives the pupil belief that he can understand the language which he studies. It brings the great satisfaction and gives some certainty to his forces and the serious intention for the further perfection.

It is necessary for the pupils to receive satisfaction or to enjoy the film exactly through the understanding of the language, and not just through the interesting plot. One more advantage of the video film is the force of impression and emotional influence on the learners. For that reason, the main attention should be directed to formation of the personal attitude to the film they have seen. One can achieve successfully such purposes just, when, video films are used systematically, and second, when the demonstration is organized methodically correct. It is should be noted that appliance of the video film during the lesson is not used only as one more source of the information. Is also promotes the development of various mental activities of the schoolchildren, and most of all, their attention and memory.

The atmosphere of joint cognitive activity appears in the class during the demonstration of the video films. So, even the most inattentive pupil becomes more interested. It is necessary to make determined efforts to understand the content of the film. So, the impulsive attention changes to logical. And the result of this the attention has influence to the process of keeping material. Use of various channels of receipt of the information (acoustical, visual, motor perception) positively strengthens the influences of getting the regional geographic and language material. In such a manner, psychological features of impact of educational video films to learners (ability to control attention of each learners and group audience, to influence volume of long-term memory and increase of strength of storing, to render emotional influence on of learners and to increase training motivation) promote the intensification of educational process and create favourable conditions for the formation of the communicative (language and cultural) competence of the schoolchildren.

The individualization of the foreign language teaching consists in creation of the optimum operating mode and granting the aid to each pupil.

The last becomes extremely necessary at work with video soundtracks what is caused by complexity of such forms of work, as well as that what exactly here is begun to be displayed the most clearly by individually-psychological features of learners, which directly influence that quality of perception and understanding of speech.

To the base of the system the English language practice many linguist teachers take the modified model of teaching, which makes possible the individualization of process of learning the foreign languages.

There are three main sub cycles during the use of the video soundtracks:

І - pre-laboratory, during which the pupils should think actively and acquire the language material;

ІІ - laboratory, purpose of which is to produce speech skills;

ІІІ - after-laboratory, when the language material they have studied could be used in conditions, close to the real situation.

The widely use of the video soundtrack is usually held in classroom during the lessons and involve all the sub cycles, but the purpose of them changes. Approach to training to foreign language realia to step by step formation of his components.

One can point out three main stages of formation of speech activity on the basis of video films:

1) presentation of the language units;

2) automatisation of using the speech material;

3) use of the speech material in the dialogues, in conditions, close to real life.

The phases of formation of language skills on the basis of video films and soundtracks associate with the sub cycles of training: pre-laboratory sub cycle lies in the formation of primary skills; laboratory sub cycle lies in the formation of speech skills and habits; after-laboratory sub cycle lies in the formation of speech knowledge.

Now we will consider more detailed the way of such differentiation in the framework of each sub cycle.

Pre-laboratory sub cycle aims the formation of primary skills. Pupils should understand and acquire the material which is studied. During the first lessons the teacher conducts just face-to-face forms of work based on video soundtrack.

The main aim of it is not revealing of separate words at this stage, but the demonstration of dynamism. These kinds of lessons are characterized by: looking through the fragments; repetition of speech units during the pauses while seeing the second fragment; some sentences that possess the new lexical or grammatical material; answers to the alternate questions; answers to the special questions.

So, at this stage the teacher should have the imitative exercises. At the end of the lesson the teacher gives the test, with the help of it, would be possible to define the general level of understanding.

During the second, the laboratory sub cycle the pupils should fix the speech samples in the memory, their phonetic, grammatical and lexical components, to acquire the automated skills of quick and correct usage of them in dialogue. The wide use of video films and soundtracks let the pupils to proceed from the perception to formation of phenomena and concepts. Video films and soundtracks give the pupils the special psychological task, and stimulates the pupils to the express their thoughts. All pupils of the group begin their work with the use of the imitation exercises. The pupils with the high understanding, with high level of language preparation and the good knowledge of the language go to the doing the differentiation exercises.

There can be the examples of substitution exercises: replacement of separate components of the sentences and the utterances in the dialogues; finishing the sentences in coincidence with the whole text.

All subgroups of learners should execute exercises of four types, but the amount of exercises of each type and their complexity can vary.

The following sub cycle is the after laboratory sub cycle that aims in the proper use of the studied material in conditions, close to the real dialogue situations, and coincide with level of forming of the language abilities. Working with video films and soundtracks, pupils perform the exercises of such types: questions to the friends or to the teacher on materials of the episode, or fragment; critical analysis of the content and the expression of their attitude; making the sound of silent variant of the film and so on.

The major principle of the coherent work of the teachers and the students is to help the less prepared pupils in performing the exercises and studying properly the language material. But doing this kind of work, it is necessary to pay attention to that pupils with the high level of development of language skills; they should receive tasks that correspond the level of their preparation, interests and tendencies.

When used in different combinations, teaching aids can offer valuable help to the teacher of a foreign language in making the learning of this subject in schools more effective for pupils.

By teaching materials we mean the materials which the teacher can use to help pupils learn a foreign language through visual or.audio perception. They must be capable of contributing to the achievement of the practical, cultural, and educational aims of learning a foreign language. Since pupils learn a foreign language for several years, it is necessary for the teacher to have a wide variety of materials which make it possible to progress with an increasing sophistication to match the pupils' continually growing command of the foreign language. Good teaching materials will help greatly to reinforce the pupils' initial desire to learn the language and to sustain their enthusiasm throughout the course.

The widely use of the video soundtrack is usually held in classroom during the lessons and involve all the sub cycles, but the purpose of them changes. Approach to training to foreign language relies to step by step formation of his components.

One can point out three main stages of formation of speech activity on the basis of video films:

1) presentation of the language units;

2) automatisation of using the speech material;

3) use of the speech material in productive dialogues.

The phases of formation of language skills on the basis of video films and soundtracks associate with the sub cycles of training: pre-laboratory sub cycle lies in the formation of primary skills; laboratory sub cycle lies in the formation of speech skills and habits; after-laboratory sub cycle lies in the formation of speech knowledge.

Now we will consider more detailed the way of such differentiation in the framework of each sub cycle.

Pre-laboratory sub cycle aims the formation of primary skills. Pupils should understand and acquire the material which is studied. During the first lessons the teacher conducts just face-to-face forms of work based on video soundtrack.

The main aim of it is not revealing of separate words at this stage, but the demonstration of dynamism. These kinds of lessons are characterized by: looking through the fragments; repetition of speech units during the pauses while seeing the second fragment; some sentences that possess the new lexical or grammatical material; answers to the alternate questions; answers to the special questions.

So, at this stage the teacher should have the imitative exercises. At the end of the lesson the teacher gives the test, with the help of it, would be possible to define the general level of understanding.

During the second, the laboratory sub cycle the pupils should fix the speech samples in the memory, their phonetic, grammatical and lexical components, to acquire the automated skills of quick and correct usage of them in dialogue. The wide use of video films and soundtracks let the pupils to proceed from the perception to formation of phenomena and concepts. Video films and soundtracks gives the pupils the special psychological task, and stimulates the pupils to the express their thoughts. All pupils of the group begin their work with use of the imitation exercises. The pupils with the high understanding and with high level of language preparation go to the differentiation exercises.

There can be the examples of substitution exercises: replacement of separate components of the sentences and the utterances in the dialogues; finishing the sentences in coincidence with the whole text.

All subgroups of learners should execute exercises of four types, but the amount of exercises of each type and their complexity can vary.

The following sub cycle is the after laboratory sub cycle that aims in the proper use of the studied material in conditions, close to the real dialogue situations, and coincide with level of forming of the language abilities.

Working with video films and soundtracks, pupils perform the exercises of such types: questions to the friends or to the teacher on materials of the episode, or fragment; critical analysis of the content and the expression of their attitude; making the sound of silent variant of the film and so on. The major principle of the coherent work of the teachers and the students is to help the less prepared pupils in performing the exercises and studying properly the language material. But doing this kind of work, it is necessary to pay attention to that pupils with the high level of development of language skills; they should receive tasks that correspond the level of their preparation, interests and tendencies.

3.1 Use of the video at the early stage of training

The opportunities of using video for beginners are somehow limited because of their little knowledge of vocabulary and grammar. However the use of the video diversifies the lesson, introduces to it the element of real life, even it's only on the screen, it accustoms the schoolchildren to work with video materials, instead of merely staring to the screen. One of the educational tasks which can be solved with the aid of video, is the revising of the lexicon and expansion of lexicon. For this purpose any fragment from 30 seconds to 1 minute suits, in which subjects, actions or the doer of the actions on the appropriate lexical topic are presented. The video films can be used for the introduction of new lexical units or new lexical topic. Instead of using the translation method or the picture to get acquainted with the new animal, for example, it would be better to show these animals in the Zoo, and this will make much more bright impression and will promote the best remembering results.

The school practice shows that one of the most effective methods of teaching the foreign language at the early stage is the video animation. Its use allows to develop the speech activity of the schoolchildren, as well as to rise of the training activity. The animation enables to penetrate easily to the essence of real things and phenomena and in simple evident form to inform up the learners. Methodically it is important that the interest to the cartoon films does not weaken at during the multiple studies. It assists to support attention to repeatedly presented teaching material and supplies perception efficiency. The evident advantages of the video cartoon films are:

1) authenticness;

2) informative saturation value;

3) concentration of language means;

4) emotional influence on the trained and etc.

The efficiency of the video cartoon films depends on the rational organization of the current lessons. It would be better that fragment be accompanied by the music or English-speaking text. If there is no opportunity to get such videotape, the teacher should record the fragment with the text on native language. Depending on size of the group the teacher can divide it to the groups or subgroups, each of which receives its own task. The tasks should not be different; they can be duplicated for some groups. The schoolchildren watch the fragment, where different animals are presented (trades, colours, people, performing some actions). Then they discuss in groups what they see. They can use the dictionary (if it is necessary) or address to the teacher for the aid.

For example: name in English the first animal you have seen; say what the giraffe is doing; who is the person you saw in the street by his profession; what green subjects you have seen on the screen and so on. Then the schoolchildren answer the questions.

At the same time the teacher warns that they will look up fragment once again and should check it up, to what extent it is right the group carried out their task.

Both then, and for task «describe target image» it is possible to use function «pause» (freeze-frame) so that at students, there be opportunity to make out all details on the screen. By other task which can be solved with the aid of video at this stage, learning target to understanding of speech to rumour is which many teachers by virtue of various reasons do not aim at all.

It is to be noted that use of the video for training to audition has its advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, videotape, as compared with audio-record, has more vital character - you do not only hear, but also see speaking people, their mimicry and gestures, as well as you receive the information of wide context of the environment - scene of action, age of the participants and so forth. From the other - all these factors distract the listener from the speech, and he can be keen on looking at the target image, instead of the concentration on auding. That's why, especially on the initial stage, the pupils should get the clearly pointed tasks, for the fulfilment of which they should concentrate their attention.

In the foreign language teaching, at work with any text there exist three main phases: pre-viewing phase, textual phase (while viewing), after textual phase ((post) after-viewing).

I. pre-viewing phase the purpose of this phase:

1. to motivate learners, to set up them to performance of task, by making them the active participants of process of training;

2. to remove possible difficulties of perception of the text and to prepare tasks to fulfill.

The types of tasks:

1. Various anticipation variants of the content of text based on:

- generalising the earlier received information on this topic;

- features of the headlines;

- pre-examination of part of the film without sound;

- the list of the new words with translation or definitions, given before the text;

- the questions and correct / untrue statements. (true/false)

The teacher can briefly retell the main plot, explaining in such a manner that is in for to see. If the plot of the film is interesting for the learners, then this introduction is called the interest of the pupils, so, the first purpose of this phase. In his speech the teacher can pass the main idea of text by simple and clear words, and can preserve as well a series of expressions difficult for understanding. The main in this instance is the anticipation of possible difficulties of language, voice and social-cultural nature and their removal with the aid of various receptions, including explanation, interpretation, translation, correlation with earlier investigated material etc. it is Evident that for use of such type of task the teacher should have determined level of professional-methodical and professional of communicative competence. With the use of given type task should be remembered that text itself of introduction is not installation to primary examination, therefore it is necessary clearly and clearly to formulate the request for time of examination of text, choosing one of tasks of the second phase, of which speech below will go.

The cycle of lessons on any topic or problem could be finished by looking through the video materials. The schoolchildren receive their tasks beforehand and that allows them prepare in advance. Preliminary reading of the texts and the discussion of the problems on the same topics (on the native and on the foreign languages), increases the motivation during the video film and reveals the new prospects of the theme vision, seizing the elements of newness and unpredictability.

II. Textual phase

The purpose of the phase: To provide the pupils for the further development of language, speech or social-cultural competence in speaking another language.

The types of tasks:

1. Task for the search of language information.

This type of exercises is oriented for the search, recognition, and transformation of the certain language material: lexicons, grammars, phonetics. The tasks during this phase could be as follows: To look through the video-fragment and…

1. Find the English / German / French / Spanish etc. equivalents to the following Russian words and expressions;

2. Find the Russian equivalent to the following English / German etc. words and word combinations;

3. Fill in the blanks in the sentences by necessary words and expressions;

4. Write down all the adjectives which were used in video-fragment with the noun «road» (all verbs which were used with noun «products» etc.);

5. Write down the verbs from the list, given below in that grammatical form, in which they were used in the text;

6. What intonation was the word «really» in the text pronounced with;

7. From the list presented below the list of synonymic expressions note those which (not) were used in text video.

2. Tasks, directed to the development of the receptive abilities (on the level to point out some interesting and semantic information) At this stage the teacher can use some kind of the traditional exercises directed to:

1) the search of the correct answers to the given questions (questions are given beforehand);

2) the definition of correct/incorrect statements (true/false);

3) the correlation of differently given sentences with semantic parts of text (the plan of text and the headers of each part are offered);

4) forming the parts of the text in logical sequence;

5) establishing of cause-effect relationships and so on.

3. Tasks, directed to the development of speaking skills

The following kinds of activities with video are directed to development of abilities of monological speech:

1) The absence of the picture and presenting the sound. In such cases mostly the descriptive exercises are used in:

the appearance of the main characters and their clothes;

the subjects beside;

the place of the events;

the relationship between the characters

All of these tasks are as a kind of the monologue: description of the people, places and events.

2) Tasks directed to the reproduction of the film in the form of story, message etc.

Series of tasks can be used effectively for the development of skills of dialogical speech, for example: switching off the sound preserving the film with subsequent reproduction of assumed text. Given exercise unlikely can be used for reproduction of texts of the monologue, as then it practically is impossible to anticipate the content of the monologue, if only the person is not able to read on lips. As to dialogue, then if there is such the elements of speech situation as place and the time of events, partners in dialogue, their nonverbal behaviour can make determined assumptions of the content of dialogue, particularly, if situation is enough standard (in the shop, in the theatre, at doctor etc.)

4. Tasks directed to the development of social and cultural abilities.

It often becomes necessary to get the understanding of social and cultural competence in the very narrow meaning that is practically equal to the knowledge of the country study. It is evident, that to reach a required and sufficient level of social and cultural competence, one must possess some knowledge of the countries of the language they study.

It is also important to learn to compare various world cultures, to notice the cultural and specific features and find general cultural tendencies.

The use of video provides the excellent opportunity for this, but without the leading and ruling teacher's role the necessary skills and habits could not be formed.

III. After-textual phase

The purpose of the phase: to use the initial text as the base and visual supports for the development of productive skills in verbal or written speech. Both previous phases are compulsory both in the conditions of use of videotext as the facility of development of complex communicative skills, and as the test facility of receptive skills (auditions). This phase can be omitted, if videotext is used only for development and the control of receptive abilities. Those exercises which can be directed to development of productive abilities in verbal speech, have already been named partially in the previous section. As for now apart from above listed exercises it is possible to use: the design or project work connected with preparation of similar video films points independently (execution of video excursion on city / school etc., visiting of school concert, story of one's family etc.), role plays, to base of which plot or video film situation is prescribed. At the same time they can be modified partially

3.2 Exercises to work with video materials

1. Video dialogues (5-15 minutes) The given exercises except the auding skills include the mastering of reading skills.

А. The teacher chooses fragment from film of length of 1-2 minutes which consists of clearly speaking retorts, simple on form and content. Writes out each retort to separate card, marking, what character she belongs.

Class is divided into a few groups and each group is given by complete set of cards containing dialogue. The group should look up fragment not looking to cards, and then to deliver retorts in that order, as they met in record. After that it is necessary to look up fragment repeatedly, verifying order of retorts. If necessary it is necessary to do pauses. Learners in the group practice in reading of dialogue, as well duration of the whole exercise is underlined, including time to examination of video fragment. The teacher includes record without sound, and learners sound dialogue on the screen (on request). As variants it is possible to offer following:

* Learners раскладывают cards in that order which they consider correct, before examination, and then fidelity of its guess is verified.

* Dialogue is given not on cards, but on one sheet, and they should number retorts in order of occurrence.

Б. Teacher chooses fragment from feature film for 1-3 minutes, in which conversation is led from three to five participants. It is preferable that pupils be familiar with characters.

The teacher prepares two lists - the names of characters and their retorts in arbitrary order. At each learners its copy should be. At impossibility to make copies lists are recorded on the panel. The teacher explains to the pupils that fragment will be shown without sound and their task will be arrange retorts in order, as well as to make out, who that says. The teacher shows fragment without sound. Learners work in vapours, restoring sequence of retorts and their authorship. The teacher shows fragment with sound. Learners verify their work. Dialogue is read and is discussed with class.

If it is necessary, before to answer questions, the teacher shows the beginning of fragment. So that learners could predict following retort, the teacher should stay before each retort. It is possible to use following exercise: the teacher tells, of what there will be a fragment, and on the panel records titles of six subjects or the names of people, from which four will emerge in fragment, and two no. Children should predict, what four will emerge. It is a perfect way of introduction of active lexicon.

2. News Program (10th 15 minutes). From television news program the teacher chooses fragment which is read by the announcer and which contains enough material, in order to ask all kinds of special questions. The teacher explains to the class that they now will see present news, in which information for answer to questions is contained:

Who is about?

What is about?

When did it happen?

Where did it happen?

Why did it happen?

How did it happen?

On the panel the teacher records these six questions, warns pupils of that how many exactly news will be in given fragment. Task before the first examination is to listen and to try to understand topics. Task before the second examination is to listen and to do notes opposite to each question. After the second examination learners answer these six questions. Then it is possible to offer to look up news to the third time, following which should be written a small article containing news heard on TV. It is possible to give it as home task. It is possible to transform it to competition: to ask children to state heard on separate leaflets (go to print on the computer), and then to support weight unsigned for evaluation and «to vote by» colour кружочками. Receiving the largest amount of red circles becomes a class «journalist for on the nearest week.

3. Brief news (15-45 minutes) The teacher chooses fragment of the program with a few various news. For each learners prepares copy of such plate (table 1).

Учащимся distributes plates. It is necessary to make sure that all understood what is written in left-hand column. Then pupils offers, looking up news program, to invent for each news the most suitable header and to fill in plate. The teacher shows news. Learners fill in plate (individual work). The teacher shows news once again, does pause after each so that wanting could give their header. Class discusses pertinence of given choice.

4. Present questions (15-20 minutes) The teacher chooses fragment from documentary film or news which is of interest for the learners. News should be informed by the announcer on the screen (not for specialist). I asks questions by learners that they know of the subject which is lighted in news. Records answers on the panel. Offers to ask a few (2-3) questions to this topic. Segregating into group learners account for still minimum three questions to the same topic. Before examination the teacher warns that to some questions in offered fragment, possibly, answers will be. They can be stated directly, indirectly, or them will not be at all. Task of learners - to define, to what questions in fragment answers will be given. Learners look through fragment. The representatives of the groups read questions, to which they received answers.

To remaining questions the teacher offers to find answers as home task or group «project». Variant - the teacher shows the beginning of fragment and is verified that all learners understood topic for discussion.

5. The biographies (20-30 minutes) Teacher chooses fragment for 5-10 minutes, in which characters communicate between themselves. Fragment should give answers either to stimulate guesses for the occasion of the one who are these characters, from where they and so forth In case pupils understand already well a verbal speech, it is possible to show to them a more long fragment or whole фильм.

На to the panel records questions:

What is the character's full name?

Where was he / she born?

When was he / she born?

What were his / her family like?

Explains, of what there will be a fragment, and pupils choose one of the characters. After examination pupils should write his brief biography, beginning from the answers to questions written on the panel.

Pupils look fragment. Time for biography spelling is given. After that learners in groups discuss in turn «their» biographies.

Pupils look fragment once again, in order to find out that confirms or denies assumptions made by learners.

6. The review of consumers' opinions (30 minutes) The teacher chooses the advertising of the goods or service which can interest pupils. Distributes questionnaire, answering questions of which can be found out, how much time (in day, in week, in month) on the average they watch television set. The teacher does prevention that will show advertising commercial film. On the panel records questions, to which it is necessary to answer:

What is the message?

What target audience is the message aimed at?

Are you part of the target audience?

Do you find the message convincing?

Pupils look through advertising. Learners in groups discuss their answers to questions. Pupils look through commercial film once again so that it was possible to make sure in correctness of answers.

7. Fill in video-blank (10-15 minutes) Teacher selects fragment, in which well subject line is looked through. Records his beginning and the end (of length approximately on minute). Explains to the class what will be shown two fragments. Task of learners is to write the history which would connect these fragments. Pupils look the first fragment. Learners (in groups) discuss situation and characters (and the representative of the group expresses opinion of the group).

Pupils look the second fragment. Order of discussion is same. They compare two fragments - place, event, characters attitude and so forth. Each group composes history connecting these two events.

The representative of each group reads (or tells) his variant. Learners compare persuasiveness and other advantages of the story. Pupils look all fragments completely, and then compare their histories with first copy.

8. Create videoclip (40-50 minutes) The teacher selects a musical videoclip, it is preferrable such, which class did not see. The teacher records song words, does questionnaire from two parts: in the first there are questions on text of the song and her execution, and to the second are on a video series accompanying of her. Distributes words to the pupils. Mood and the content of the song are discussed. Distributes questionnaire. The teacher warns class that at first they will only listen song, therefore it is necessary to answer to the first part of the questionnaire. Song on the tape unit is lost or to video, at the same time display is closed. Learners in groups discuss, what by display they would accompany that or those parts of the song (the second part of the questionnaire). The groups tell what video clip they would make for this song. The teacher shows video.

Class answers questions: Is the video what they expected?

Did anything in the pictures surprise them?

Do the pictures add to their understanding of the song? Which do they prefer - listening only or watching the music video?

Video is demonstrated once again, in order to clarify disputable moments.

9. People in news (15-20 minutes).

The teacher chooses the fragment of news with the well known people. The teacher makes copies for all pupils, gives the tables, and explains the task to the class. The fragment from program of news of the well - known people will be shown. Pupils' task is to define their names. On the panel the teacher records example:

George W. Bush The President Bush

Mr. Bush The President The Commander-in-Chief

Pupils look the fragment one more time. Then tables are filled in. For more advanced pupils or groups - it is offered to write a brief biography of the given personality (as homework or project).

10. Reconstruction (15-20 minutes)

Teacher chooses fragment with clear subject line. For this purpose silent films are often used. Explains to the class that fragment will be shown, in which determined event will take place (for example, robbery). Pupils' task is to memorise as many as possible details and then to state them in chronological order. Learners look through fragment. Learners work in groups, discussing seen and recording in correct order. The representative of each group reads his list. Class decides, what list is the most correct and total. Learners look through fragment again, the teacher does pauses, in order to specify details. It is possible to stop as well display and to ask that learners say that will take place after that.

11. Review. Given exercise makes sense to offer only in case class understands well a verbal speech. The teacher chooses the film which should impress pupils. Accounts for the questions which draw attention of class that it is necessary for review spelling. The teacher decides, what length review should be (for example, from newspaper).

Distributes questions. Explains to the pupils, what sort information is contained usually in the review. Discusses questions with pupils so that all understand accurately that it is required from them. Pupils look through film completely or parts, if it is necessary. Then learners in groups discuss questions and answers on them. As home task pupils write review to film.

12. Debate. the Given exercise also is intended for the groups well knowing language. The teacher chooses a fragment containing any idea which can cause disagreements, for example - «Each old or mortally sick person has the right to fast and painless leaving from a life (эвтаназия)». The teacher writes down this statement on a board. Warns pupils that will show a fragment in which this idea contains. Pupils look a fragment. The teacher explains that in discussion all should express, using arguments pro's and con's. Two commands (on 2-4 persons) which will represent that or other point of view get out. In each command there should be a captain. The captain in the beginning states the point of view of a command and in the end sums up. If there is time and necessity, pupils look through a fragment once again. Houses pupils prepare the arguments. The teacher warns pupils that they can take advantage of records, but it is impossible to read on a piece of paper. Each performance is limited by 3 minutes. The class should prepare 3-5 questions for the acting. It is desirable, that questions were based on seen and heard in a video fragment. On following employment: Acting sit faced to a class. Each command acts with the statement. After performances and summarising the class asks questions. In the end the class votes, whose position has been stated more convincingly. In the event that it is necessary to show a problem a feature film entirely, it is necessarily necessary to give to a class of the task which would force to listen to dialogue, and also to compare actions and acts of characters and to do from this conclusions. In the event that the film - a comedy, to pupils is given task to write down joke which were clear. If it is a detective, the film is shown to that place where the criminal is exposed, and ask is given reason to answer, who is guilty and why they so consider. It can appear difficult enough, therefore detective stories is expedient look in parts, discussing each part and doing preliminary conclusions about the person and motives of a crime. It does not concern those stories of the criminal which begin with crime display (as in a serial «Colombo»). In the event that the film tells about a life of people, it is necessary to ask questions on their mutual relations. Here too it is desirable to stop from time to time and to do forecasts about the further succession of events and relations of characters. From the point of view of audition specific and other documentary films are represented by easier for understanding as the text most part is read by the announcer with well put pronunciation and an accurate articulation. Besides understanding check here it is possible to give the task to write small article on the same or similar theme, for example «the Most awful accident of the XX-th century» or «Feature of a life of the South American Indians».


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