Class modeling in foreign LTL: traditional and modern approaches

Traditional and modern methods in foreign language teaching and learning. The importance of lesson planning in FLTL. Principles of class modeling. Typology of the basic models of education: classification by J. Harmer, M.I. Makhmutov, Brinton and Holten.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
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Coursework

Class modeling in foreign LTL: traditional and modern approaches

Introduction

Education is acknowledged to be one of the main priorities of “Kazakhstan - 2030” Strategy. The common goal of education reforms in Kazakhstan is to adapt the education system to new socio-economic environment. The President of Kazakhstan has also set a task on accession of our republic to the club of 50 most competitive countries in the world. Improvement of the education system plays an important role in achieving this goal. [1]

Progressive development and modernization of education in the Republic of Kazakhstan becomes possible due to understanding of the importance of human capital development by the country's top officials and all-round support rendered while initiating and conducting reforms in education sector. [1]

Since 2005, the Republic of Kazakhstan has adopted several documents in education sphere. These are namely the State Program of Education Development for 2005-2010, the State Program of Technical and Vocational Education Development for 2008-2012, “Children of Kazakhstan” Program for 2007 - 2011 and “Balapan” Preschool Education Program for 2010-2014. [1]

The implementation of the “Bolashak” International Scholarship Program initiated by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan has made a significant contribution to the development of the country's human resources and has provided a unique opportunity to young talented Kazakhstanis to obtain education in the best universities of the world. [1]

To date Kazakhstan is an active participant of international documents related to education, human and children rights protection. These are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Lisbon Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region, the Bologna declaration and others.

Human resources development is defined as one of priorities of Kazakhstan's 2020 Strategic Development Plan. [1]

There are achievable goals of quality development of human capital through investing in education. [1]

Following the implementation of the State Program of Education Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011 - 2020, as of July 1, 2010 the network of related organizations has institutionally supported all levels of education. The structure of education has been changed in accordance with the International Standard Education Classification. Conditions for implementation of the 12-year education model are being created. Technical and vocational education system has been renovated. A three-level of specialists' training “undergraduate - graduate - PhD” has been introduced. The Classification of Specialties of Graduate and Postgraduate Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan including the groups of majors has been approved. [1]

That is why teachers must pay a big attention to modernization of their lessons; it means they should use modern approaches to planning their lessons, because the efficacy and the success of the lesson depends on a lesson plan.

A lesson plan is the instructor's road map of what students need to learn and how it will be done effectively during the class time. Before you plan your lesson, you will first need to identify the learning objectives for the class meeting. Then, you can design appropriate learning activities and develop strategies to obtain feedback on student learning. A successful lesson plan addresses and integrates these three key components:

Ш Objectives for student learning

Ш Teaching/learning activities

Ш Strategies to check student understanding [2]

To be a teacher is a very hard work, which inquires much labor and creativity. In the modern world it is a bit difficult to observe all the innovations, so we, as the students of pedagogical institute must use different modern approaches in our work. It is necessary to plan lessons properly. There is a plentity of lesson models which can help to make lessons more interesting and effective. After graduation from the institute we are facing an important decision. We have come to the point where we have to choose to follow eitherthe example of the teachers who we observed at school or the model presented to us in our institute during our studies. This makes an enormous difference inthe approach to the teaching itself and to the students. This is the relevance of the course paper.

The problem is that these days, especially at private schools and language schools, we have greatpossibilities in what a teacher can do with his or her students, in terms of teachingmethods, seating arrangement, visual aids, etc. With this freedom in teaching, we have as well an enormous number of ideas to use in our classrooms. A young teacher like me is discovering a great number of new ideas and activities all the time. However, since the time of our students is precious, one of the teacher's crucial tasks is to compare, analyze and evaluate the methods they use in order to motivate the students and to make the learning as effective as possible. In my course paper I focused on some techniques commonly used today. With a theoretical study of these methods, I will present how I will apply them in real classrooms and how they will work.

The topic of my course paper is `Class modeling in foreign LTL: traditional and modern approaches'.

The modern teacher should not only be fluent in the subject, methods, means and forms of organization of the educational process, but it should also apply to their work and modern technology training. The process of teaching and learning foreign languages in secondary schools is the object of the course paper. There are as traditional so modern methods of teaching second language, many teachers do not use most of them, and this is the subject of the course paper.

Hypothesis: If the teacher will use a variety of methods and approaches to class modeling correctly, he will be able to achieve the effectiveness of FLTL.

Goal: to consider principles of class modeling in foreign language teaching and learning.

Objectives:

ь to find out traditional and modern methods in foreign language teaching and learning;

ь to consider typology of lesson models;

ь to approbate the theory in the lesson plans.

Research methods: in the course paper we used theoretical and practical methods of research such as analyses of the publication, prediction of the obtainedresults, modeling the work on this course paper, approbation with the help of the lesson plan according the theme of the course paper.

The mast important reference is the fifth reference - Harmer, J. How to Teach English. (7th ed.) England, Edinburg 2001.

This research will be used in the teacher's practice and it will help teacher to make difference, to distinguish positive and negative sides of each approach and how he/she can use them.

This research consists of introduction, problem, topic, object and subject, hypothesis, goal and objectives and research methods. The first chapter is about traditional and modern approaches of class modeling and its principles. The second refers to different classifications of lessons' models. Also it shows the approbation of theory of the course paper. Also it concludes scientific basis and sphere of application.

1. The Role and various approaches to lesson planning in FLTL

1.1 The importance of lesson planning in FLTL

Lesson planning is a vital component of the teaching-learning process. Proper classroom planning will keep teachers organized, on track while teaching, thus allowing them to teach more, help students reach objectives more easily, and manage less. The better prepared the teacher is, the more likely she/he will be able to handle whatever unexpectedly happens in the lesson.

Lesson planning:

- provides a coherent framework for smooth efficient teaching.

- helps the teacher to be more organized.

- gives a sense of direction in relation to the syllabus.

- helps the teacher to be more confident when delivering the lesson.

- provides a useful basis for future planning.

- helps the teacher to plan lessons which cater for different students.

- Is a proof that the teacher has taken a considerable amount of effort in his/her teaching. [3]

Decisions involved in planning lessons:

Planning is imagining the lesson before it happens. This involves prediction, anticipation, sequencing, organizing and simplifying. When teachers plan a lesson, they have to make different types of decisions, which are related to the following items:

- the aims to be achieved;

- the content to be taught;

- the group to be taught: their background, previous knowledge, age, interests, etc.

- the lessons in the book to be included or skipped;

- the tasks to be presented;

- the resources needed, etc.

The decisions and results depend on the teaching situation, the learnersґ level, needs, interests and the teacher's understanding of how learners learn best, the time and resources available. [3]

1.2 Principles of class modeling

Learning a second or a foreign language is more than learning a description of it. It is developing the ability to use the language on habit level. This is true of not only second language learning but also of first language learning. Moreover, all language learning involves the processes of listening, speaking, reading and writing. These processes involve both linguistic and psychological aspects. This shows that all language learning is based on certain well-defined principles derived from linguistic science as well as psychological science.

The modern approach to all language learning and teaching is the scientific one and is based on sound linguistic principles. The principles are subject to change in the light of new facts exposed by linguists and language users. These principles are general principles and are applicable to English language.

Principle 1. Give Priority to Sounds: The sounds of English should receive priority. Sounds should be given their due place in the scheme of teaching. Sounds should not be presented in isolation. They should appear in proper expressions and sentences spoken with the intonation and rhythm which would be used by a native speaker. [4]

Principle 2. Present Language in Basic Sentence Patterns: Present, and have the students memorize, basic sentence patterns used in day to day conversation. From small utterances the students can easily pass on to longer sentences. In case of learning mother-tongue, the student's memory span can retain much longer sentences than those of a foreign language. The facility thus gained in a foreign language enables the learners expand the grasp of the language material in respect of sounds and vocabulary items.

Principle 3. Language Patterns as Habits. This principle means that real language ability is at the habit level. It does not just mean knowing about the language. Make language patterns as habit through intensive pattern practice in variety of situations. The students have to be taught to use language patterns and sentence constructions with appropriate vocabulary at normal speed for communication. In fact the habitual use of the most frequently used patterns and items of language, should take precedence over the simple accumulation of words.

Principle 4. An important principle of language learning is imitation. No leaner by himself ever invented language. Good speech is the result of imitating good models. The model should be intelligible. Imitation followed by intensive practice helps in the mastery of the language system.

Principle 5. Controlled Vocabulary. Vocabulary should be kept under control. Vocabulary should be taught and practiced only in the context of real situations. This way, meaning will be clarified and reinforced.

Principle 6. Graded Patterns should be taught gradually, in cumulative graded steps. This means, the teacher should go on adding each new element or pattern to previous ones. New patterns of language should be introduced and practiced with vocabulary that students already know.

Principle 7. Selection and Gradation: Selection of the language material to be taught is the first requisite of good teaching. Selection should be done in respect of grammatical items and vocabulary and structures.

Principle 8. The Oral Way. Experts believe that the oral way is the surest way to language learning. Prof. Kittson rightly observes, “Learning to speak a language is always the shortest road to learning to read and write it.” Prof Palmer also writes, “We should refrain from reading and writing any given material until we have learnt to use its spoken form.”

Principle 9. Priorities of Language Skills: Listening (with understanding), speaking, reading and writing are the four fundamental skills. Listening and speaking are primary skills, while reading and writing are secondary skills. Reading and writing are reinforcement skills. They reinforce what has been learnt through understanding and speaking. In fact, understanding and speaking speed up the reading process. Writing should be introduced after reading.

Principle 10. Multiple Line of Approach: In teaching a language, it implies attacking the problem from all fronts. The teacher can have a number of language activities connected with the topic such as oral drill, reading, sentence writing, composition, grammar, translation, language exercises etc.

Principle 11. Language Habit through Language Using: A language is best learnt through use in different contexts and situations. Prof. Eugene A. Nida rightly noticed, “Language learning means plunging headlong into a series of completely different experiences. It means exposing oneself to situations where the use of language is required.”

Principle 12 Spiral Approach. The “spiral” approach to language learning should be followed. Previously taught vocabulary and structures should be reintroduced in subsequent units whenever logical or possible. This is `spiral approach'.

Principle 13. Use Mother-tongue Sparingly. The mother-tongue should be sparingly and judiciously used during teaching English. Of course, at the early stage, some explanations will have to be given in pupil's mother tongue. It is important that students do not use their mother-tongue in the classroom. [5]

1.3 Modern and traditional approaches to lesson modelling

In class modeling in foreign language, teaching one of the main question is what is the best teaching method for learning? According to academic research, linguists have demonstrated that there is not one single best method for everyone in all contexts, and that no one teaching method is inherently superior to the others. In addition, it is not always possible or appropriate to apply the same methodology to all learners, who have different objectives, environments and learning needs. [6]

Methods of teaching English have developed rapidly, especially in the previous 40 years. It is important that language learners and training managers, as well as teachers, understand the various methods and techniques so learner is able to navigate the market, make educated choices, and boost his enjoyment of learning a language. [7]

Within the general area of `methodology' we can talk about approaches, methods, techniques, procedures and models, all of which go into the practice of English teaching. These terms, though somewhat vague, are definable:

Approach: this refers to theories about the nature of language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching'. An approach describes how language is used and how its constituent parts interlock- in other words it offers a model of language competence. An approach describes how people acquire their knowledge of the language and makes statements about the conditions which will promote successful language learning. [8]

Method:a method is the practical realization of an approach. The originators of a method have arrived at decisions about types of activities, roles of teachers and learners, the kinds of material which will be helpful, and some model of syllabus organization. Methods include various procedures and techniques as part of their standard fare. [9]

Procedure: a procedure is an ordered sequence of techniques. For example, a popular dictation procedure starts when students are put in small groups. Each group then sends one representative to the front of the class to reed (and remember) the first line of a poem which has been placed on a desk there. Each student then goes back to their respective group and dictates that line. Each group then sends a second student up to read the second line. The procedure continues until one group has written the whole poem. [10]

Technique: a common technique when using video material is called `silent viewing'. This is where the teacher plays the video with no sound. Silent viewing is a single activity rather than a sequence, and as such is a technique rather than a whole procedure. Likewise the `finger technique' is used by some teachers who hold up their hands and give each of their five fingers a word, e.g. he is not playing tennis, and then by bringing the is and the not finger together, show how the verb is contracted into isn't. [11]

Each teaching method is based on a particular vision of understanding the language or the learning process, often using specific techniques and materials used in a set sequence. The main methodologies are listed below in thechronological order of their development:

· Grammar Translation - the classical method

· Direct Method - discovering the importance of speaking

· Audio-lingualism - the first modern methodology

· Humanistic Teaching Approaches - a range of new holistic methods applied to language learning

· Communicative Language Teaching - the modern standard method

· Principled eclecticism - fitting the method to the learner, not the learner to the method

Each of the methods above is summarized individually on a separate page, including an overview of the various methods grouped under the category Humanistic Teaching Approaches and an explanation of the most common method currently - Communicative Language Teaching.

1.3.1 Traditional approach of class modeling in foreign LTL

A very typical feature of traditional methodology, as Broughton and his colleagues claim, is the “teacher-dominated interaction” (Broughton 22). The teaching is deeply teacher-centered.

Grammar-Translation Method (1890s-1930s): The Grammar Translation method embraces a wide range of approaches but, broadly speaking, foreign language study is seen as a mental discipline, the goal of which may be to read literature in its original form or simply to be a form of intellectual development. The basic approach is to analyze and study the grammatical rules of the language, usually in an order roughly matching the traditional order of the grammar of language, and then to practice manipulating grammatical structures through the means of translation both into and from the mother tongue.

The method is very much based on the written word and texts are widely in evidence. A typical approach would be to present the rules of a particular item of grammar, illustrate its use by including the item several times in a text, and practise using the item through writing sentences and translating it into the mother tongue. The text is often accompanied by a vocabulary list consisting of new lexical items used in the text together with the mother tongue translation. Accurate use of language items is central to this approach. [12]

Cognitive Approach (1940s-1950s): This approach introduced the four principle language skills for the first time: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Oral communicative competence became the focus. Comprehensible auditory input became important and speaking in the target language began to occur. Learning about the language was overemphasized. [4]

Audio-Lingьal Method (1950s-1960s): With the advent and popularity of audio tapes, this approach ushered in the first recordings wherein the language learner could actually hear and mimic native speakers on reel-to-reel audio tapes, often used with earphones in a language lab setting. Lessons often began with a sample dialogue to be recited and memorized. This was followed up with substitution pattern and saturation drills in which the grammatical structure previously introduced was reinforced, with emphasis given to rapid fire student response. Repetition, substitution, transformation, and translation became the order of the day. This method was strongly influenced by B.F. Skinner's behaviorist view toward learning which favored habit-forming drill techniques. Unfortunately, most students couldn't transfer these dialogues into their own real-life experiences. [4]

The Direct Method (1970s): This approach, also known as the 'oral' or 'natural' method, originated around the 1900s as an alternative to the traditional grammatical translation method. At this time teachers were starting to experiment with teaching and educational models as previous techniques were failing to improve spoken communication.

This method presented discussion in the target language as the major priority. Reference to English equivalents became discouraged. Grammar learning became inductive in nature without overt explanations given the pupil. Teacher/student interaction became fuller, guessing of context or content, completing fill-ins, and doing “cloze” exercises were the order of the day. Accuracy in pronunciation and oral expression became vital. [4]

The Direct Method continues to provoke interest and enthusiasm today, but it is not an easy methodology to use in a classroom situation. It requires small classes and high student motivation, and in the artificial environment of a classroom it is difficult to generate natural situations of understanding and guarantee sufficient practice for everyone.

However, variants of this method have been developed where the teacher allows limited explanations in the student's native language and explains some grammar rules to correct common errors a student may make when speaking.

1.3.2 Modern approach of class modeling in foreign LTL

Unlike traditional methodology, modern methodology is much more learner-centered.

According to Jim Scrivener, the teacher's main role is to “help learning to happen,” which includes “involving” students in what is going on “by enabling them to work at their own speed, by not giving long explanations, by encouraging them to participate, talk, interact, do things, etc.” [13]. Broughton adds that “the language student is best motivated by practice in which he senses the language is truly communicative, that it is appropriate to its context, that his teacher's skills are moving him forward to a fuller competence in a foreign language” [14]. Briefly put, the students are the most active element in this process. The teacher is here not to ex plain but to encourage and help students to explore, try out, make learning interesting, etc.

As suggested by Jim Scrivener, the most popular or the most common methods in modern teaching are:

v Match the words with the pictures.

v Check the meaning of these words in the dictionary.

v Match the words with the definitions.

v Brainstorm words on a set topic (i.e. collect as many as you can).

v Divide these words into two groups (e.g. food words and hobby words).

v Label the items in a picture with the right names.

v Complete gapped sentences with words from a list.

v Discuss a topic (that will feature in the text).

v Say which words (from a list) you expect to be in a text about... (Scrivener 231).

These lists definitely do not include all the methods a teacher can use. However, these methods can be used in a variety of activities, such as pre-teaching, listening for lexis, reading for lexis, using a dictionary, etc

One of the modern methods of class modeling in FLTL is аcase-study method.

It was first used in the United States of America, namely the School of Business at Harvard University. Case method - a method of active learning based on real-life situations. The essence of the case-study method is to use the organization of the learning process of specific learning situations, descriptions of certain conditions of life of the organization, group of persons or particular individuals, orienting students to the formulation of the problem, explore options for its solutions, and then collated in the classroom.

Case method can be successfully used in a foreign language classes, because this method is complex and contains all kinds of language skills: reading, speaking, writing, and listening. Students have a real opportunity to communicate in a foreign language through interaction with other members of the group and the teacher. The success of the case method depends on three main components: a quality of a case, students' and teacher's preparedness and readiness to organize work with a case and conduct discussions. [15]

The Natural/Communicative Approach (1960s-2000s): Originally developed by Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen, this acquisition-focused approach sees communicative competence progressing through three stages: (a) aural comprehension, (b) early speech production, and (c) speech activities, all fostering "natural" language acquisition, much as a child would learn his/her native tongue. Following an initial "silent period", comprehension should precede production in speech, as the latter should be allowed to emerge in natural stages or progressions. Visualization activities that often times make use of a picture file, slide presentations, word games, dialogues, contests, recreational activities, empirical utterances provide situations with problem-solving tasks which might include the use of charts, maps, graphs, and advertisements, all to be performed on the spot in class. Now the classroom becomes more student-centered with the teacher allowing for students to output the language more often on their own. Formal sequencing of grammatical concepts is kept to a minimum. [4]

Total Physical Response/TPR (1960s-2000s): This approach, also known as TPR, was founded by James Asher. In this method, both language and body movement are synchronized through action responses and use of the imperative (direct commands). TPR may be used in conjunction with some other methods involving psychoneuro kinetic techniques wherein the teacher gives a host of commands with the students then responding by “acting out” the command: “Stand up”, “Go to the door”, "Sit down", etc. Kinetic movement of the hands and arms is incorporated in lieu of rote memorization. Student speech is delayed until they feel comfortable enough to give other students commands too. TPR is very effective in teaching temporal states, personal pronouns, and other deep grammatical structures. [4]

The Silent Way (1960s-2000s): The teacher is supposed to be practically silent - hence the name of the method - and avoids explaining everything to the students. This method is based on a problem-solving approach to learning, whereby the students' learning becomes autonomous and co-operative.

Community Language Learning/CLL: (1960s-2000s): This creative, dynamic, and non-directive approach to language learning was first elaborated by Charles Curran. It is designed to ease the learner into gradual independence and self-confidence in the target language. This is also known as the Counseling-Learning method. Curran's approach is beyond simply a methodical pedagogy, but is rather a veritable philosophy of learning which provides profound, even quasi-theological reflections on humankind! It encourages holistic learning, personal growth, and self-development. Learning a language is not viewed necessarily as an individual accomplishment, but rather as a collective experience, something to be disseminated out into the community at large at a later stage in the second-language acquisition process. Its basic premise can be found in the acronym SARD: S stands for security (to foster the student's self-confidence), A represents attention or aggression (the former an indication of the learner's involvement, the latter their frustration level),R equals retention and reflection (what is retained is internalized and ultimately reflected upon), and D denotes discrimination (the learner can now discriminate through classifying a body of material, seeing how one concept interrelates to another previously presented structure). Student "participants" are thus allowed to register abstracted grammar both peripherally and semi-consciously.

Project method. The main idea of this approach in learning FL is to shift the focus from the different types of exercise on the active mental activity of students requiring registration of ownership for their particular language means. Only the method of projects can help to solve this problem and didactic lessons accordingly turn to the discussion , research club, which solved some really interesting , practically relevant and accessible to students with the problems of the country 's culture and if possible on the basis of cross-cultural interaction .

The course project method in the FL can be used in the framework of the program material on almost any topic, as the selection of subjects is carried out taking into account the practical significance for the student (and his people). The main thing - is to formulate a problem that students will work in the course of work on the theme of the program. [16]

The modern methodology comprises a rich variety of methods which should have some common features: activities involving students and close to the real-life situations. To be effective, the methods follow after each other in a suitable order, and there should be a balance of teaching focused on different aspects of the language.

To summarize, we can say that methods of teaching foreign languages is a set of methods based on the same rules and having a common aim, e.g. to encourage students to use the language, involve the students in the lesson, or explain the language to students who have to listen attentively.

foreign language learning lesson

2. Typology of lesson models

2.1 Classification by J. Harmer

After analyzing different models of classes I came to the conclusion as follow: there are many types and classifications of lesson modeling. I tried and made some topologies of them which I'm going to describe below.

G. Harmer in his `The practice of English language Teaching' book distinguished four types of lesson models based on structure of the lesson: PPP, EAS, OHE/IIIand ARC (see picture 1)

Picture 1. Types of FLTL classes by G. Harmer

PPP: presentation (setting up the situation, modelling the new language), practice (controlled and accurate drilling of six sentences) and production (students making `real' sentences about themselves).

PPP is frequently used for grammar patterns, dialogues and even vocabulary teaching. It is one of the methodological sequences, which has gained most acceptance throughout the English-Language-Teaching world, as any glance at textbooks will show.

ESA: in the ESA model three components will usually present in any teaching sequence, whether of five, fifty or a hundred minutes.

E stands for engage. The point here is that unless students are engaged with what is going on their learning will be less effective.

S stands for study and describes any teaching and learning element where the focus is on how something is constructed, whether it is relative clauses, specific intonation patterns, the construction of a paragraph or text, the way a lexical phrase is made and used, or the collocation possibilities of a particular word.

A stands for activate and this means any stage at which students are encouraged to use all and any of the language they know. Communicative activities, for example, are designed to activate the students' language knowledge. [3]

Picture 2.

OHE/III: Michael Lewis claims that students should be allowed to Observe (read or listen to language) which will then provoke them to Hypothesise about how the language works before going on to Experiment on the basis of that hypothesis. Such description is close to the III of McCarthy and Carter (McCarthy and Carter 1995) where they show students examples of language like the transcripts of conversations (Illustration); they then give them discovery activities and questions about the language - for example how would you rewrite this spoken language formally? (Interaction) as a result of which, through such a noticing routine, students will grasp new facts about language (Induction). [3]

ARC: put forward by Jim Scrivener (1994a & b). This stands for Authentic Use of language (the kind of language used in communicative or creative tasks), Restricted use (which describes the kind of language used for controlled practice, in some course books and for tests, for example) and Clarification and focus (which refers to the language which is used to explain, demonstrate, give rules, provide substitution tables etc). For Scrivener lessons can be described in various ways by stringing together these 3 elements in various different orders, e.g. CRA (similar to PPP), RCR, CRCRCRCR etc. In Scrivener (1994b) he also provides global models of lessons, making a useful distinction between `Logical line' lessons (probably CRRA) and `Ragbag' lessons, for example. [3]

2.2 Classical models

In classical typology there are three main kinds of classes in FLTL: language -oriented, skill oriented and mixed type. The most widely spread and the most effective are mixed lessons, or complex lessons that include some language aspects and are oriented towards the development of all the four language skills. (See picture 4) [17]

Picture 3. Types of FLTL classes

2.3 Classification by M.I. Makhmutov

The basis for this classification is the actualization of previous knowledge and modes of action of students, creating new concepts and methods of operation and use - the formation skills and abilities. (See pic.4)

Picture 4. Classification of lessons by M.I. Makhmutov

Lesson planning for learning new materials includes introduction and introductory part, the observation and collection of materials - both methodological options for lesson. Such kinds of lessons as lecture, lesson with using educational film apply to this type of lessons.

Lesson to improve knowledge and skills includes the formation of the lesson and skills, the target and others. For example, lesson of independent work or workshop.

A lesson of generalization and systematization includes the main type of all five types of lesson. The lesson has to generalize student's knowledge of the theme and it may include many types of lesson, like kvn, conference, discourse and others.

A lesson of evaluation of knowledge, skills & abilities includes oral form of checks: front, individual and group interviews, when students get the situation and have to solve it.

And the fifth model of the lesson - mixed lesson is a combination of the first three types. Each teacher may use as many types as he wants to produce them during the lesson.

2.4 Classification by Brinton and Holten

Picture 5. Classification by Brinton and Holten.

This classification was made in 1997.

We usually have one specific idea to teach, but we do not simply give the students the material. This approach to sequencing is called «Into Through Beyond”. We lead them into the material, take them through it, guide beyond it. (See pic. 5)[18]

Picture 6

Picture 7

2.5 Approbation plan

In pedagogical practice, foreign language learners have to work in creative and modern ways to cross disciplinary boundaries, incorporate the study of all finds of material in addition to the strictly literary, and promote wide cultural understanding through research and teaching. It is time for all language programs in all institutions to reflect this transformation.

I have made 5 lesson plans in order to approbate my research in this course paper and I tried to use different kinds of class modeling and models of lessons.

The first lesson's theme is “Traveling” and This lesson can be applies both to listening skills oriented type of the classical models of FLTL lesson and to ESA type of class model by G. Harmer.

Second lesson's topic is First and second conditionals. This lesson focuses on helping students improve their recognition of the structure and use it more frequently in conversation. The structure of the lesson plan is PPP.

The third's lesson's theme is “Men's best friend” and this lesson is intended to improve students' reading skillsincluding matching headings to paragraphs and considering information not found in the text.

The fourth lesson plan is directed to evaluation of pupils' knowledge, skills and abilities. The theme is“Cooking in Britain today”.

The fifth lesson topic sounds like “Negotiations: Building relationships”. This plan is for intermediate level. When we think of negotiations, we tend to focus on the hard negotiating skills connected with bargaining. In fact, many professional negotiators will confirm that the most important skill is effective relationship building. If there is trust and understanding between the two parties, the negotiation will be much more successful, as will the long-term business relationship between them.

Lesson plan 1

This FLT lesson plan is on improving students' listening skills. This lesson can be applies both to listening skills oriented type of the classical models of FLTL lesson and to ESA type of class model by G. Harmer.

Theme: Traveling

Aims: 1) educational - to teach some words at the theme Traveling

2) developing - to develop listening skills

Objectives: to listen to the text Traveling, to work with the tasks according the text, to learn new words. Students will be able to practice and improve their listening skills.

Materials: worksheets with tasks, recordings.

Timing: 45 minutes

Level: 9 form

Table 1

Stage

Procedure/instruction

Time

Materials

1

Engage

Greeting

-Today, we are going to do listening and the theme of our lesson is Traveling.

-Do you like traveling? (yes, we do)

-And where did you go last time?

-very well.

3 min

2

Study

Pre-listening

-So, the first task is to match up the expressions that are on the first card. I give you one minute to do this task and then we will check it.

-very well, thank you.

4 min

Handouts

While-listening

-And next task is to tick the words you hear. Listen to the recording, be very attentive.

-So, which words have you heard? (Two hours, Heathrow, Transatlantic flights, Lipstick, An ordeal, Late)

5 min

Handouts, recording

Post-listening

-Now you should complete the text with the words given in the cards and then we will listen to the text again in order to check your answers. You have one minute.

5 min

Handouts, recording

3

Activate

-So, do you like traveling? (discussion)

-Where did you go recently?

-How many kilometers is it from your home?

-did you like your trip?

-what was the weather like?

-What else points can you say about your travel?

5 min

4

Engage

-Now, we are going to work with the fourth task in which you should tick the right variant. Listen the text again and be very attentive.

-First of all look through the handouts for one minute

3 min

5

Study

-Now listen to the recording.

-Let's check your answers. Read the sentences on by one and say it is correct or incorrect.

5 min

Handouts, recording

6

Activate

-Now listen to the text again and answer the questions on the fifth card.

-Now work in pairs, your task is to make a dialogue using this questions, one pupil will ask the questions and the other will answer them. You have two minutes.

5 min

Cards with questions

7

Study

-Listen to the recording once more, pay attention to the pronunciation. Write all verbs that you here.

5 min

8

Activate

-Here is the text to you listen and repeat after the recorder, try pronounce the words correctly.

-Our lesson is over. Good bye!

5 min

Table 2 Task #1

Pre-listening vocabulary: match up the expressions

A long process

To get lounge

Strict flight

Check-in weekend

Short-haul security

Boarding passes

Hand luggage

Departure back

Pre-listening vocabulary: match up the expressions

A long process

To get lounge

Strict flight

Check-in weekend

Short-haul security

Boarding passes

Hand luggage

Departure back

Pre-listening vocabulary: match up the expressions

A long process

To get lounge

Strict flight

Check-in weekend

Short-haul security

Boarding passes

Hand luggage

Departure back

Table 3 Task #2

Tick the words you hear:

Two hours

London

Heathrow

Cosmetics

Transatlantic flights

Lipstick

An ordeal

European flights

Late

Tick the words you hear:

Two hours

London

Heathrow

Cosmetics

Transatlantic flights

Lipstick

An ordeal

European flights

Late

Tick the words you hear:

Two hours

London

Heathrow

Cosmetics

Transatlantic flights

Lipstick

An ordeal

European flights

Late

Picture 8 Text `Travelling'

Picture 9 Task #3

Picture 10 Task 3 key answers: Down, from, there, back, from, in, with, though, before, in, at, though.

Picture 11 Task #4

Picture 12 Answer key:

Lesson plan 2

First and second conditionals

This lesson focuses on helping students improve their recognition of the structure and use it more frequently in conversation. The structure of the lesson plan is PPP.

Level: Intermediate

Aim: Improve recognition of the first and second conditional forms used in conditional statements, while inductively reviewing the structures.

Objectives: Reading Short prepared text with first and second conditional forms included, Speaking Replying to student generated conditional questions, Writing Developing structurally correct questions using the first and second conditionals

Time: 45 minute

Table 4

#

Stage

Instructions/ procedure

Time

Materials

1.

Introduction

-Good morning students. (Good morning teacher)

-Sit down, please

- How are you today? (Very well, thank you)

3 min

2.

Presentation of grammar (Ind.)

- Now, students, please imagine the following situation: You have arrived home late at night and you find that the door is open to your apartment. What would you do? - (Refresh student's awareness of the conditional in this relaxed introductory portion of the lesson).

4 min

3.

Practice

The next task is to look at the following sentences in the card #1 and work out which sentence above indicates each of the second part. -Now, your task is to read this text and underline all conditional structures.

4 min 3 min

Cards #1 Internet resources

4.

Practice

-Work in groups, complete fill-in activity based on previous reading.

5 min

Handouts

5.

Practice

-Let's do the following work, in pairs prepare two “What if…” situations on a separate piece of paper using first and second conditionals and discuss it.

5 min

6.

Practice

-Read two shot dialogue in the card 4. Underline conditional tenses.

5 min

Cards #4

7.

Production

-Write suitable questions for the given sentences in exercise 3.

5 min

Cards #3

8.

Production

-Make up a dialogue using first and second conditional using the dialogue in the card 4

5 min

Cards #4

9.

Production

-Look through your dialogues and play it to your classmates -our lesson is over. Thank you for your participation in it.

5 min

1 min

Appendix B

Activity 1: Working out what happens.

(a) Look at the following sentences:

1. If the weather improves by midday, we shall take a walk to the lake.

2. What will Joseph do if he does not pass his school certificate exams next year?

3. If she feels better tomorrow, she will be discharged.

4. If you put litmus paper in acid, it twins pink.

5. You will not open the door if you do not kick it hard.

Note: Each sentence follows the pattern: if + present + future (or present).

(b) Work out which sentence above indicates each of these:

(i) A fact that happens whenever a certain thing occurs or is done.

(ii) An action that may happen but is not certain until a change is seen.

(iii) Something that will not happen without a certain condition being fulfilled.

(iv) Something that will happen almost in the present time of saying (not the future).

(v) An uncertain condition based on something which has not yet happened.

[Answers (a) 4; (b) 4; (c) 5; (d) 1; (e) 2]

(c) Make your own five sentences each of which matches (a) to (e).

Dialogue

A: You'd better report to the headmaster's office.

B: What will happen if I don't?

A: You'll be punished severely.

B: I'd better report then.

A: You'd better not take that path to the village.

B: What will happen if I do?

A: You'll find a python lying across it.

B: I'd better not take it then.

Table 5

Exercise 1: Underline all conditional structures with either 1 (first conditional) or 2 (second conditional)

If you take a look at the handout, you'll find all the telephone numbers, addresses and other necessary information. If Tom were here, he'd help me with this presentation. Unfortunately, he couldn't make it today. OK, let's get started: Today's subject is helping guests with emergency situations. We'd certainly have a worse reputation if we didn't handle these situations well. That's why we like to review these procedures every year. If a guest looses his passport, call the consulate immediately. If the consulate isn't nearby, you'll have to help the guest get to the appropriate consulate. It would be great if we had some more consulates here. However, there are also a few in Boston. Next, if a guest has an accident which is not so serious, you'll find the first-aid kit under the reception desk. If the accident is serious, call an ambulance. Sometimes guests need to return home unexpectedly. If this happens, the guest might need your help making travel arrangements, re-scheduling appointments, etc. Do everything you can to make this situation as easy to cope with as possible. If there is a problem, the guest will expect us to be able to handle any situation. It's our responsibility to make sure ahead of time that we can.

Exercise 1: Underline all conditional structures with either 1 (first conditional) or 2 (second conditional)

If you take a look at the handout, you'll find all the telephone numbers, addresses and other necessary information. If Tom were here, he'd help me with this presentation. Unfortunately, he couldn't make it today. OK, let's get started: Today's subject is helping guests with emergency situations. We'd certainly have a worse reputation if we didn't handle these situations well. That's why we like to review these procedures every year. If a guest looses his passport, call the consulate immediately. If the consulate isn't nearby, you'll have to help the guest get to the appropriate consulate. It would be great if we had some more consulates here. However, there are also a few in Boston. Next, if a guest has an accident which is not so serious, you'll find the first-aid kit under the reception desk. If the accident is serious, call an ambulance. Sometimes guests need to return home unexpectedly. If this happens, the guest might need your help making travel arrangements, re-scheduling appointments, etc. Do everything you can to make this situation as easy to cope with as possible. If there is a problem, the guest will expect us to be able to handle any situation. It's our responsibility to make sure ahead of time that we can.

Exercise 2: Fill in the blanks with the correct missing half of the sentence you'll have to help the guest get to the appropriate consulate you'll find all the telephone numbers, addresses and other necessary information the guest will expect us to be able to handle any situation if we didn't handle these situations well If Tom were here If this happens If a guest looses his passport call an ambulance If you take a look at the handout, _____. _____, he'd help me with this presentation. Unfortunately, he couldn't make it today. OK, let's get started: Today's subject is helping guests with emergency situations. We'd certainly have a worse reputation _____. That's why we like to review these procedures every year. _____, call the consulate immediately. If the consulate isn't nearby, _____. It would be great if we had some more consulates here. However, there are also a few in Boston. Next, if a guest has an accident which is not so serious, you'll find the first-aid kit under the reception desk. If the accident is serious, _____. Sometimes guests need to return home unexpectedly. ______, the guest might need your help making travel arrangements, re-scheduling appointments, etc. Do everything you can to make this situation as easy to cope with as possible. If there is a problem, _____. It's our responsibility to make sure ahead of time that we can.

Exercise 2: Fill in the blanks with the correct missing half of the sentence you'll have to help the guest get to the appropriate consulate you'll find all the telephone numbers, addresses and other necessary information the guest will expect us to be able to handle any situation if we didn't handle these situations well If Tom were here If this happens If a guest looses his passport call an ambulance If you take a look at the handout, _____. _____, he'd help me with this presentation. Unfortunately, he couldn't make it today. OK, let's get started: Today's subject is helping guests with emergency situations. We'd certainly have a worse reputation _____. That's why we like to review these procedures every year. ____, call the consulate immediately. If the consulate isn't nearby, _____. It would be great if we had some more consulates here. However, there are also a few in Boston. Next, if a guest has an accident which is not so serious, you'll find the first-aid kit under the reception desk. If the accident is serious, _____. Sometimes guests need to return home unexpectedly. ______, the guest might need your help making travel arrangements, re-scheduling appointments, etc. Do everything you can to make this situation as easy to cope with as possible. If there is a problem, _____. It's our responsibility to make sure ahead of time that we can.


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