Intensification of learning a foreign language using computer technology
Theoretical foundation devoted to the usage of new information technologies in the teaching of the English language. Designed language teaching methodology in the context of modern computer learning aid. Forms of work with computer tutorials lessons.
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Intensification of learning a foreign language using computer technology
lesson english language computer
National Compulsory Educational Standard of the republic of Kazakhstan states as one of the primary goals of education «development of the multilingual personality with the basic national and world cultural values, ready for socio-cultural interaction and self-realization» along with «building up communicative competence on the basis of state and other socially important languages acquisition».
Thus, the schooling system faces the task of presenting new approaches to learning, guiding children to such ways of thinking and interacting, that would be useful in solving any problem arising in front of them at any age. Acquisition of home and world culture achievements; state, Russian and foreign languages acquisition are among objectives of system of education in Kazakhstan.
The final qualitative result of realization of the foreign language education content is defined as intercultural communicative competence. The model of education belongs to competence-building ones, which are oriented on the development of personality that can be the subject of intercultural communication.
The theme of our research is «Intensification of teaching English with the help of computer technologies». The urgency of investigation in this sphere is connected with the fact that today we have reached the stage where changes occur so rapidly that each of us has continuously to work out a practical code of behavior for a better adjustment. The nature and direction of changes taking place around the world, and more precisely within the educational system, reinforce the need for a new approach based mainly on the recent technologies of the century.
Thanks to the fact, that our society belongs to the age of computer technologies, we have an opportunity to process data more efficiently. Moreover this opportunity allows to process more information, than we were able to do before. Huge volume of knowledge, which was storing by mankind during centuries, makes to look for other ways of organization of teaching process.
The computer has brought a revolution in education. Unlike most machines that are capable of only a few tasks, computer can be programmed to perform a great number of tasks and thus becomes a useful tool in the hand of teachers and learners helping them at any stage of learning process: presentation, learning, and practice including language use.
However, even nowadays the influence of computerization affects indirectly aims and content of high education devoted to foreign languages. Teacher of new generation should be able to choose and use computer technologies which suit content and purposes of teaching and which will help pupils to succeed in harmonious way taking into consideration their personalities. So, analysis of research studies shows us, that in spite of considerable advancement in realization of different computer technologies, their potential is used insufficient because of lack of information about multimedia material, algorithm of its designing and methodological recommendations how to use it.
Thereby, insufficient readiness of methodology in teaching English with the help of computer technologies is the main reason of choice this problem for our research. It consists in search and realization of different types of computer technologies which will be able to improve level of pupils' knowledge on English.
The purpose of our work is theoretical examination of major methods of using computer technologies and approbation one of them in the process of teaching English.
As consistent with mentioned purpose, the hypothesis of our research is based on supposition, that the process of teaching English will run more successfully in the case of designing a model using computer technologies which will take into account peculiarities of teaching English and wear innovative trend at the same time.
For realization of formulated aims we need to solve the following tasks:
· make a research of theoretical literature (psychological, methodological etc.) which deals with methods of teaching using computer technologies;
· substantiate in theory and check in practice effectiveness of computer designed complex of lessons;
· design methodological recommendations which are based upon results of research.
The object of investigation is a process of teaching English in high school
The subject of our research is methods of teaching the English lessons with the help of computer technologies.
During the research, we have used the following methods:
· theoretical (analysis of psychological, pedagogical, methodological literature);
· diagnostic (questionnaire poll, testing, talk, written test);
· observational (direct and indirect pedagogical observation);
· experimental method (statement, formation and test);
· method of statistical inference.
Investigation is divided into 3 stages.
The first stage is a search-theoretical. During this stage we study problems of usage of new computer technologies in the process of teaching English, resting upon literature on methodology, psychology, theory of pedagogics; we analyze theoretical bases of personality-oriented education and method of projects, their usage in the process of teaching English; we reveal new computer technologies requirements, which provide development of linguistic and communicative competence and rise in motivation of pupils.
The second stage refers to research. We approbate a pedagogical experiment: research of results of the usage of computer technologies during the process of teaching; analyze and generalize this experience.
The third stage is making a conclusion. We finish forming experiment, analyze our experience and summarize our results. The theoretical part of our research is based on works and articles of Zimniya, Kuklina, Mishina, Polat, Teplova, Nehorosheva, Bim, Turkina etc.
Theoretical significance consists in theoretical substantiation of methodics of teaching English with the help of computer technologies.
Practical importance of our research consists in work out a complex of lessons and methodological recommendations for organization lessons of foreign language, using computer method of projects.
1. Theoretical foundation devoted to the usage of new information technologies in the teaching of the English language
1.1 Informational Computer Technologies as a mean of development of cognitive activity of pupils according to the conditions of new context of education
The beginning of the third millennium is characterized as a transition to the «information society», having the new structure, in which the decisive role is played by industries related to the receipt, distribution and processing of information [1; 51]. This transition is connected with the new «technological revolution», which is characterized by generalized computerization and informatization of society.
For the dynamic development of information society the development of human resources is necessary that can meet the requirements of the information age through education and lifelong learning to meet the growing demand for professionals in the field of information technology [2; 86]. That's why it's necessary to pay greater attention to basic education, acquired in secondary institutions.
We can't deny that information changes, which we face nowadays, are global. Moreover, it's obvious that there is a necessity of reconsideration of approaches to education as a whole system.
Modern development of pedagogics, its freedom from stereotypes and innovative orientation require creative integration of up-to-date methods. Informatization of system of education is a process which provides this field with theory and practice of usage of new computer technologies. The matter is that they are oriented on realization of psychological and pedagogical goals of teaching
The use of new technologies in the educational process not only improves the performance level of digestibility of material by students, but also develops their knowledge of the potential of emerging information technologies.
One of the most effective areas of usage of information technologies are lessons of foreign languages.
Saying it, we can't keep from mentioning that citizens of Kazakhstan should know 3 languages. This is dictated by the necessity and it was repeatedly told by the president of the republic N. Nazarbaev. According to his words, it's very difficult to speak about genuine competitiveness of the nation if its representatives don't know English. He says that multilingualism is a norm for Europe and we should also come to such norm. For example, one of the most important factors which led to economic success of Japan, India, Singapore, Malaysia was widespread public knowledge of English.
The main purpose of learning English is the formation and development of the communicative culture of students, teaching practical English language. In this sense, the main task of the teacher is selecting the most effective teaching methods that permit the realization of individual and differentiated approach to learning, taking into account the capacities of children, their level of training, inclinations, etc. [3; 65].
The trends of globalization, global integration in various fields of economic, technical, cultural, social and personal life make great high demands of the practice of English language [4; 47].
Because of changes in the content of education, the priority role in teaching and educational process belongs to information and communication technologies. Usage of them gives us tremendous opportunities of a computer as a tool for teaching. Computer training programs have many advantages over traditional methods of teaching.
They allow you to train different types of speech activity, and mix them in various combinations. They help to understand the phenomenon of language, form the linguistic ability to create communicative situations, to automate speech, and as well, they provide the opportunity of leading of representative system, the realization of individual approach and the intensification of independent work of pupils [5; 54].
Computer technologies have begun to play an increasingly important role in the teaching of foreign languages. Its use in this context is supported by a growing body of research that highlights the importance of the negotiation of meaning and computer-based interaction in the process of teaching foreign languages. Majority of methodologist point out the importance of computer technology during the process of cognition. It allows pupils to acquire language in meaningful contexts for specific purposes.
The usage of computer during the process of teaching foreign languages influences greatly on effectiveness of educational activities. Computer is a multifunctional technical devise of teaching. It allows to save considerable volume of linguistic material in its memory, to find information which we are interested in and to show it on the screen in the most easy-to-use forms.
There are 2 fields of application of computers during the process of teaching: computer support of traditional education and education which is realized with the help of a computer.
Personal computer can be used by a teacher for solving some didactic tasks which he can face during the lesson:
a) Presentation of information in different forms;
b) Formation of common and special knowledge and skills on the subject;
c) Control, rating and correction of results of teaching;
d) Organization of individual teaching and group teaching;
e) Running of the process of teaching.
Computer can be used during all stages of teaching: explanation of new material, its revision and control.
Computerization of the process of teaching influences greatly on all components of modern educational system and surely, on the subject «Foreign languages» too: its aims, tasks, content, methods, technology.
Teaching foreign language with the help of computer differs and has its own advantages:
· Pupils are interested in the process of teaching and in result, it leads to high motivation of learning;
· Pupils eagerly «communicate» with computers and it increases not only computer but also linguistic culture;
· Individualization of teaching;
· Computer doesn't show negative emotions if a pupil repeats his mistakes;
· Objectivity of marks.
It means that, when we use computer technologies during the lesson of English, a teacher isn't only carrier and owner of information. It's much more important to show his creative approach to interpretation of computer programs.
The main task of pupils isn't just getting new knowledge but formation of skills which will allow to work with information. We shouldn't forget that traditional method of teaching is good because of communicative aspect which is realized more effectively. That's why it's necessary to combine computer technologies with traditional teaching.
The computer is regarded as a tool to improve motivation, builds strong language skills and improve the knowledge of English language. The computer stirs up all three channels of perception: auditory, visual and kinesthetic that allows to increase the volume and durability of learning new material, it greatly improves the status of pupils in the teaching process, increases the cognitive activity of them and supports the interest to the subject [6; 25].
Multimedia training programs for English language use different techniques to conduct familiarization, training and supervision of knowledge and skills of pupils. Usage of multimedia programs doesn't exclude the traditional teaching methods, it's combined harmoniously with them at every stage of education [7; 47].
Usage of computer allows a teacher not only to improve the effectiveness of learning, but also encourage pupils to learn English in the future. These lessons include interactive multimedia content, which allows a teacher to involve pupils in the learning process promoting interest to the studied subject, and better assimilation of the material.
Multimedia Computer programs allow to conduct classes at a qualitatively new level. Visual richness of the educational material makes it vivid, and convincing. Computer presentations allow pupils to focus attention on important points of information and create a visual effect in the form of illustrations, charts, diagrams, graphic compositions [8; 213].
For creating of lessons, teacher needs to know at least basic knowledge of software applications. According to the fact that lessons with multimedia applications are not so developed in ready materials, a teacher should create missing elements [9; 18]. The computer in this case will perform the following functions:
1. Ñomputer as a simulator in the process of formation of skills. In order to reach this aim the following programs are used:
· The Microsoft Word - for exercises of spelling of the studied words, building of sentences, the transformation of the sentences and execution of exercises.
· The Microsoft Power Point - using means of this program you can create good exercises for the introduction of new vocabulary and grammar. For example: presentation (lexicon and / or grammar) + a series of exercises (with the control right - wrong) + sound + control test or exercise.
· The Microsoft Excel - with the help of this program you can also create similar exercises with an assessment of the testing, the number of errors made, the return to the incorrect executed sentences.
· The Windows Movie Maker - a program for creating / editing videos. It's included in the software of Microsoft Windows, beginning with Windows ME. With the help of this program, it's possible to make slide-shows, edit video, overlay soundtrack, add titles and subtitles etc.
2. Ñomputer - as a visual aid for the teaching and learning:
· The Microsoft Power Point - the most convenient and simple program for people who do not know programming. With the help of this program you can produce materials of country-specific features, introduce new vocabulary, grammar rules etc.
· The Microsoft Excel - used to show charts, graphs, summary tables.
3. Ñomputer - as a source of educational information:
· Program Microsoft Word - is used for presentation of the texts in English, information for discussion and debate.
· The Microsoft Excel - for the various charts, graphs, for the analysis and conclusions.
· The Microsoft Power Point - is used to demonstrate new material. Effecting on all types of memory (auditory, visual and kinesthetic), such presentation of information is very effective. It can breathe new life into plans of old lessons and improve pupils' motivation because in contrast to simple text they may be added with pictures, animations, sounds etc. The secret of this program consist in fact that it's based on rather effective and interesting classical method - method of projects.
Thanks to high level of interactivity, computer technologies create unique informative environment, which can be used for solution of didactic tasks during the process of teaching English (for example: cognitive, informational, cultural). This is one of the most important advantage of computer technologies. They enclose electronic informative environment, allowing to work with a computer as with universal device for information processing.
Because of its novelty computers transform just ordinary task into an adventure, motivating learners to learn a language because the teacher who uses that «genius tool» in his class can use different and even more exciting modes than the course book to present new materials with text, sound video and hypertext facilities offering high-quality interactive feed back on vocabulary, grammar, language answers, culture issues, etc., whenever the pupil feels he needs it.
The fact that the acquisition process is related to the effort to convey or interpret meanings and cannot flourish in activities which concentrate on forms has led several commentators on computer-assisted learning to state that the computer should be used for formal grammar drilling which favour learning, thus releasing the teacher to run such forms of activity which will enhance acquisition. This combination of teacher and computer sounds sensible. Teachers are good at conveying and interpreting meanings. Computers are good at processes which require patient repetition and attention to detail.
Thus, we can't keep from underlining that cooperation of teachers and informational computer technologies is quite effective during the process of teaching English.
1.2 Designed language teaching methodology in context of modern computer learning aid
Analysis of material which is discussed on international scientific conferences shows us that the purpose of education isn't just knowledge and skills, but also definite qualities of personality. Post-industrial society is interested in ability to take decisions, adapt to varying conditions of life, act on one's own etc.
However, according to the opinion of E.S. Polat, who is the author of researches on teaching foreign languages, including the method of projects, «solution of these tasks was rather difficult because of absence of real conditions for carrying out, in consideration of traditional approach to education which focuses on class-lessons system» [10; 13]. She supposes that the main task of school doesn't consist in the content of education, but in usage of new technologies of teaching.
Let us take the concept of «projecting» (latin «projectus» - thrown ahead). Speaking about it, we should pay heed to the fact, that this isn't a new word in pedagogical theory. This definition appeared at the end of 70-s in the context of new program which was offered by Royal college of Art in the Great Britain.
Rely on notions of projecting and technologies of teaching, Polat considers methodology of projects as a complex of reconnaissance, problem, creative methods which develop imagination and at the same time they form personality of pupils [10; 67].
Nowadays we have a computer era here. And the function of projects is carried out by many programs and one of them is Microsoft Power Point. This innovation devise includes the best experience of the past and something completely new and effective of our present. Sure, the advent of new technologies in learning process is always exciting. They add new dimensions to the class and spark students to higher level of motivation and achievement.
Analysis of experimental investigations in this sphere is evidence of conclusion that we need such teaching material, that could take into account all peculiarities and problems which we face during the process of teaching. Many authors (Carol A. Pope, Jeffry N. Golub) find Power Point as a tool which is able to stimulate study of the foreign languages and consider it as a key to the growth of achievements of pupils [11; 2].
J. Bush criticizes this point of view. He says: «Regardless of the cool transitions, laser-letter effects, and snappy backgrounds, a PowerPoint presentation that passes on information is not much different than a chalkboard and overhead lecture» [12; 1]. However we can't agree with him. The matter is that comprehension of grammatical and lexical units of foreign language often causes some difficulties for pupils who study it.
Many methodologists supposed, that at first children don't learn relation between a sign and a meaning, but they learn connection between a word and a subject. It happens automatically because of our conditional reflex and also because of just simple contact between two irritants [13; 34].
Each presentation is a workbook of teaching material on definite themes. The biggest advantage of this program consists in, that a teacher can use prepared presentation as a whole in part. It depends on a teacher and purposes of a lesson.
This technology allows combine successfully different forms of organization of educational process. It promotes better interaction among pupils and also the role of a teacher takes another position. Instead of supervisor he becomes an equal partner and adviser who is always ready to help in the mastering foreign language.
The wide usage of illustrations and Flash-animations in the presentations of this program allows present all vocabulary of the lesson quite easy and understandably. The great advantage of this mean is that we don't need to translate all words in Russian. Foreign words are associated with pictures and they stay in the memory for a long time.
Stage of imposition of new words begins on the separate slide. Each unit of vocabulary is processed phonetically with the help of wave files. It allows to repeat difficult lexical units as many times as you need.
Thank to this program the graphic of the word forms immediately with its sound image. Such mean of entering new vocabulary takes into consideration personality of every pupil - those who have aural memory and also whose memory is visual.
After that the meaning of each lexical unit is opened and examples of its usage are given in the form of word combinations and sentences. It will be the stage of explanation and use of learned material on practice. In presentations of such kind we use the most popular way of semantization of vocabulary - demonstration of a picture in the case when we deal with the words that mean concrete subjects.
Explanation of complicated grammatical rules turns into exiting adventure which guaranties high level of understanding. Also, perfect results can be reached because of cognitive interest of pupils and their desire for all new. For example, real facts about different animals from the Guinness World Records not only open one's mind but also stimulate usage of knowledge on this theme.
Repeated playback of educational situation and interactive use of visual methods allow to realize the principal of better digestion of knowledge. Usage of multimedia technologies favours rise of motivation, reduction of bad marks and better knowledge of foreign languages.
We can't keep from mentioning technical advantage of auding with the help of Power Point, which allows teacher to repeat the material as much as he need without loss of time because audio file is always ready for replaying and you don't need rewind the tape again and again. Besides, a teacher isn't obliged to put all notes on the black-board. All preparation for auding and necessary material can fit one slide in the form of controlling buttons, variety of effects of animation and accompanying sound.
Information which is presented as Power Point presentation increases opportunities of ordinary text-books because of sound, video and animation. During the work with a computer pupils use hearing and sight and they allow to increase not only the volume of perceivable information but also quality of memory.
It should be mentioned, that in the case if a teacher uses designed language teaching methodology, he acquires another role and function in the teaching process. Designed education, especially thanks to new computer technologies, substitutes traditional paradigm of teaching foreign languages. Thereby, projecting helps pupils to realize the role of knowledge on the life and in the process of studying. Knowledge stops to be an aim, it becomes mean of true education.
Contemporary pedagogical technologies such as teaching in cooperation, project method, using new informational technologies, Internet resources help to realize personal orientational approach in teaching, support individualization and differentiation of teaching in calculation with students abilities, their pre-higher educational preparation level, inclination and etc. According to E. Polat, informational technologies contribute to increase academic motivation of teaching foreign languages and advance pupils' knowledge. Usage of computer during English lessons increase significantly academic process intensivity. Computer teaching assimilates a large amount of material, than it was acquired using traditional teaching conditions. Besides material in using computer is acquired more substantially. Computer supplies multisupporting, that is current, intermediate, total academic process control. Computer supplies multisupporting control of academic process that is current intermediate, total. Using the computer control of quality students' knowledge to achieve the large objectiveness of valuation. Besides, computer control considerably economizes academic time, as it checks students' knowledge simultaneously.
Such cooperation suggests control six methodically important summons of pupil as personality context activity, personal experience, wish, interest, inclination sphere, emotional perceptional sphere, worldview, pupil's status in the group. All these instigate pupils to learning.
1.3 Existing software for learning foreign languages
Also, nowadays, there is more versatile technical means of teaching. They're electronic interactive boards, for example SMART Boards. Using them, we practice method of projects, which was already mentioned by us. But they have more advantages over usage of application program Microsoft Power Point. The matter is, that SMART Boards refer to the class of software for learning foreign languages, which has more higher level than just ordinary computer programs.
Below we'll give brief analysis of main computer technologies used for teaching foreign languages which exist nowadays. Each of these technologies is an inseparable symbiosis of hardware and software, that's why we should add short description of appropriate technical devises to our analysis.
So, for the first, let us come back to interactive SMART Boards. It's a very effective way of entering electronic content of teaching and multimedia material in the process of schooling. Information which will be discussed on the lesson is shown on the screen of such board and it aims every pupil at fruitful activity. Prepared theme texts in English, exercises, colorful pictures, audio and video materials serve for stirring up of lesson's material, revision, training of lexical units and grammatical structures, check, self-testing of knowledge.
SMART Board allows to work without use of keyboard, «mouse» and screen of a computer. All necessary actions can be made directly on the board with the help of special marker or even a finger. A teacher isn't distracted from a lesson for making some manipulations at the computer. And it has a favorable impact on presentation of teaching material.
Interactive board goes with special software SMART Notebook. This software allows to make notes which can include different types of information (texts, videos, tables, signs, illustrations). The software has the following facilities:
· During explanation of grammatical material (for example: making different types of sentences) we can use many-colored pencils in order to underline the most important information.
· Also we can imprint ideas, scheme of brainstorming in the screen. And if there is a necessity, we can come back to the beginning and discuss some difficult points again.
· The function «drag and drop» allows to move pictures and words in the exercises such as «Find a pair», «Make a match». This function differs SMART Board greatly from Microsoft Power Point presentation, where all objects are on their own places and their position can't be changed.
· Several frames can be on the same slide at the same time. It helps to follow the main idea of a lesson.
· All material can be saved and a teacher needn't to create and write everything again.
Also this program includes a big collection of prepared theme pictures, which can be useful during the lessons.
The next software which will be examined by us is multimedia-lingaphone equipment RINEL-LINGO.
Its main facility is voice communication and visual communication of a teacher with all pupils or a group of pupils (1-8 groups). Also voice communication and visual communication are available for pupils which are united in a group.
Voice communication doesn't influence on the speed and quality of any software's work, since software and hardware recourses of computers aren't used. New facilities of this equipment in aggregate with multimedia capability of computers allow using absolutely different methods of teaching, which weren't accessible before.
All software and hardware which are included in package of RINEL-LINGVO, allow carry out the following variants of work:
· A teacher makes an announcement in the classroom or says something and his speech is broadcasted on telephones of all pupils and also it' broadcasted through speakerphone. Also transfer of image from the screen of teacher's computer is possible on the screens of pupils.
· A teacher, working with pupil, carries out voice communication with him and also he sees his screen on his screen. He can rule his keyboard, using his own keyboard. This facility allows working with every pupil without leaving desk.
· A teacher can work with a group of pupils. It differs from the first variant, because in this case there isn't relay with the help of speakerphone and work is carried out not with all pupils, but with a definite group.
· A pupil tells something to all his classmates and also broadcasts the content of his screen on screens of others, and it makes an effect of separated virtual auditoriums. There pupils can answer material simultaneously and solve tasks together, have dialogues, read texts and etc. A teacher can make a connection to every of these auditoriums and control work of pupils.
Also this software includes RINEL-SOUNDBOOK, which is intended for teaching foreign languages. It consists of:
· Set of multimedia computers RINEL JUNIOR.
· Package of multimedia-lingaphone equipment RINEL-LINGO
· Software RINEL-LINGO, RINEL-SOUNDBOOK
· Complete set of special tables.
· Equipment for power wiring.
· Networking equipment Ethernet.
There is one more software for learning foreign languages which share the same principles.
The company «Multimedia systems» offers multimedia networking training complex HiClass. It's unique solution for teachers and pupils who study foreign languages. The main idea of this software is the same as in the RINEL-LINGO, but it doesn't include so much equipment. Pupils work with ordinary computers which are connected between each other with the special cable which allows to demonstrate all necessary material in the real time. Multimedia net combines discussion between a teacher and pupils, learning new material etc.
The main advantages over other software of this class are:
· Simplicity of installation.
· Saving of expense because of absence of hardware component.
· It's rather simple to use, that's why we concentrate our attention on teaching of pupils since it's not necessary to study the system of this program.
· Simplicity of usage.
More than 6000 schools and institutions all over the world use advantages of the complex HiClass.
So, we can see that usage of multimedia software and interactive technologies really enriches the content of a lesson, speeds up its temp and, that goes without saying, arouses the interest in learning language.
1.4 Usage of Internet recourses in the process of teaching English
All these innovations became a great discovery in the sphere of computer technologies, but one of the most revolutionary achievements of last decades, which influenced considerably on educational process all over the world, is creation of Internet. Usage of cyberspace for teaching purposes is absolutely new trend of didactics and methodology. These changes touch all areas of teaching process: from choice of means and style of work to change of requirements of knowledge's level.
The main purpose of learning foreign language in high school is formation of communicative ability, all other aims are put into effect during the process of carrying out that mean purpose.
Communicative approach implies teaching communication and formation ability to cross-cultural interaction and it's a base of Internet. It doesn't have any sense without communication, because Internet is an international society, which lives only by electronic communication of millions of people. When we enter Internet on the lesson of foreign language, we create a model of real communication.
Internet provides true language environment, and pupils find themselves in real true-to-life situations. They are involved in solution of important and interesting tasks, pupils are taught spontaneously and it helps them to create unusual statements which differ from clichés.
Opportunities of usage Internet-recourses are enormous. Global net creates all conditions for getting any necessary information: country-specific material, news of youth's life, articles from newspapers and magazines and others.
It's possible to solve a lot of didactic tasks during the lessons of English with the help of Internet: to form skills of reading, using materials of Internet; to improve skills of writing; enrich vocabulary of pupils; to form steady motivation to learning foreign languages.
Pupils can take part in testing, quizzes, competitions which can be found in Internet. Also they can communicate with pupils of the same age from other countries and participate in charts and video conferences.
Besides, computer is loyal to variety of pupils' answers: it doesn't accompany their work with eulogistic comments or criticism and this fact creates favorable psychological atmosphere on a lesson.
Also we should remember mastering of communicative ability is impossible without practice of communication, and usage of Internet-recourses on the lesson of foreign language is irreplaceable in this sense: virtual environment of Internet allows to go out of boards of time and place, giving users an ability of authentic communication with real interlocutors. However, we shouldn't forget, that Internet is just educational supplement and in order to reach better results we should integrate it correctly in the process of lesson.
Internet can be very helpful for other purposes of teaching too. For example, let us observe use of Internet in auding.
The site of company Lucent Technologies and its department Bell Labs allow listening to pronunciation of any phrase in foreign language. Here can be found speech synthesizer, which turns printed text into sound. It means, that we can post-synch any phrase from the textbook or any other teaching material. On-line textbooks are most suitable for these purposes. Also all data can be saved and there will be no need to use Internet in order to listen to the extract again.
Internet is a perfect mean of getting information from all over the world and besides, we always will receive the latest news about what is going on. Thereby, with the help of Internet we can turn a classroom into news agency and pupils into reporters of first-class. Such way of activity during the lesson of foreign language suits pupils of senior school, since in includes the great volume of reading and art of interpretation, fluent speaking.
Almost all significant newspapers have their own web pages. In order to find out where and what newspapers exist, there is site MEDIA LINKS [14; 1] which contains links to a great number of editions.
As a mean of knowledge's acquirement, on-line newspaper is a irreplaceable «helper». It allows to be absorbed in the thick of things, and it takes place in current situation. Also it's a great opportunity to see what is going on from different points of view. The most valuable link is «send us feedback», which carries out interaction of readers with publishers. Also, pupils can pass an opinion concerning what they read and have a talk with the author of the article. They can do it thanks to the section «Today's columnists».
CNN World News [15; 1],
ABC News [16; 1],
BBC World Service [17; 1],
The Washington Times [18; 1],
The New York Times [19; 1].
All links, mentioned above, have very similar and quite convenient structure for users. Titles and number of columns can vary, it depends on edition, however, all of them touch main spheres of our life.
Also the work of groups, which consist of 2-3 pupils, can be offered. A teacher can do it in order they learn how to analyze an article which tell us about all sides of our life: news, sport, weather, culture… The main advantage of such mean consists in the fact, that all pupils are involved in the process of learning foreign languages. And at the same time it solves the problem of different knowledge's level. Pupils, who know English well, can analyze more difficult articles and reports about weather or something of cultural life can be task who those, who know foreign language less.
In this case we improve not only just skills of reading and speaking, we also enrich the vocabulary of our pupils and improve their motivation to work with materials in foreign language and not to be afraid of difficulties which can be met.
And the main advantage of such work is the fact that pupils have an access to information at first hand. They don't deal with printed matter of week or even more ago. They are involved in the thick of things and influence on them.
There is one more purpose of teaching foreign language, which we didn't mention before. It's writing. We might think that Internet can't solve this task, but it would be just not true.
Internet can be and must be used not only passively but actively also. Pupils can try themselves not only in the role of consumers of information but also they can provide it. For example, site THE YOUNG VOICES OF THE WORLD [20; 1]. It's an open forum which presents something like publishing house where everybody may publish his works which will be become public, pass his opinion etc. All works are provided with e-mail of their «creators» in order feedback can be possible.
Many authors mark great opportunities of Internet, especially its possibility to create bilingual internet pages. It can provide optimal results of Internet's integration in the educational process for both sides who participate in this «creation», for example, pupils who study English in Kazakhstan and pupils who study Kazakh or Russian in the USA or England. Here are some possible themes for such cooperation: review of books, articles, TV-programs, quotations, proverbs, anecdotes, receipts, sport, culture and customs, school etc.
Besides, pupils find it interesting to create their own internet pages.
Also communication in virtual reality is carried out by use of E-mail, which can be used on the lessons of foreign language. For example we can offer to find pen-friends all over the world. It's an universal solution, because it's possible to do in any age and having any level of foreign language knowledge. Such communication isn't only training writing. With the help of letters, pupils can learn culture of the country. Besides, it should be mentioned, that E-mail has a lot of advantages over ordinary letters: it's quicker, more convenient and cheaper.
There isn't any problem to find pen-friends in Internet. We could do it with the help of following instruction:
· We can send a request to TESL-L [21; 1].
· We can use list-server for international connection - Intercultural E-Mail Classroom Connections [22; 1], which offer exchange of letters for realization of joint projects, discussion of problems etc.
· Also we can visit home page for ESL/L1NC [23; 1] It offers help and instructions which touch use of E-mail, free access, it helps to find pen-friends and gives opportunities to take part in pair or group projects [24; 56].
Benefit of E-mail projects is that they make communication in English possible and also, pupils can have a talk with real partners. It's very important for pupils to know that these texts are designed not for a teacher, but for them and their partners. They give rather good opportunities to discuss actual problems or share interesting information. It leads to more responsible attitude to learning English. Vocabulary of pupils includes more and more words, their linguistic competence improves and surely, pupils have motivation during the process of teaching.
In order to get better results, let us pay attention to some problems, which can be faced during such way of teaching.
Teacher, who already use E-mail on the lessons of foreign languages, are not satisfied with content of exchange of letters, with its profundity. For the first time, pupils are very interested in communication with their friends from all over the world, but this interest goes away quite quickly and pupils find themselves in awkward situation because they don't know what to write further. In order to prevent this problem and disappointment of pupils, it's necessary to connect this activity with process of teaching. For example, we can offer to ask their pen-friend some questions which touch one theme, and then to make a report, based on their letters.
Not all letters are answered that leads to deep disappointment. In order to prevent this problem, we can recommend having several pen-friends simultaneously.
We've mentioned above that in order to improve effectiveness of E-mail use, this process should be purposeful and the set of task may include the following formulates:
· Insert an advertisement that you're looking for friends in different sites which deal with such search.
· Right down information about yourself.
· Send several messages (for example 2-3 a week).
· In order to get an answer, put questions which are interesting for you.
· Get not less then 3 answers
· Give the detailed report about what you did, what new information you got. Include all letters and answers into your report.
1.5 Forms of work with computer tutorials during English lessons
Let us consider one more mean which is also referred to the newest technologies, used in the process of teaching foreign language.
The main types of work which can be used during lessons of English are divided into 2 groups: usage of educational computer programs on CD and creation of programs by a teacher and their further usage during lessons of explanation of material or control of pupils' knowledge.
When pupils learn English in the form of play - is one of the best principals of educational system. Diversity of multimedia games favours expantion of vocabulary, familiarizes with grammar of English, teaches to understand speech of native speakers and write correctly.
Multimedia opportunities allow to listen to speech in English adapting it to own level of every pupil. Also, possibility to change speed of auding allows to cut phrases into words. Thanks to it, pupils can suit pronunciation and writing of English words. Usage of microphone and automatic control of pronunciation allow to correct phonetic skills.
Every program has its own tasks, and willing to solve these tasks creates positive pupils' motivation. It's also very important, that learning is possible without any influence from the side.
In order to work with the whole class, we should use computer programs which are based on cooperation of all pupils during the process of teaching. Teacher just rules a process, using a keyboard and presenting material on the screen, and pupils discuss this material and make all necessary tasks. Also, pupils can be divided into groups.
Nowadays, there are a great number of multimedia programs, such as interactive courses «Tell me more», «English: a way to perfection», «Professor Higgins. English without accent», different encyclopedias for children (for example - «Encyclopedia Britannica») etc. They're designed for improving skills of reading, writing, auding, speaking. Also they are rather good helpers for explanation and revision of new grammatical material since such programs include a lot of interesting exercises. They can be used on different stages of teaching process because you can find there tasks of different levels of sophistication. Let us stop on some of these programs.
Among the most successful of them we can underline «Triple Play Plus» or another title for this program is Multimedia Teacher 3. It appeared in 1997 but still it's rather actual and well-spread. It helps to teach pupils to understand speech of native speakers. Also there are special exercises for improving skills on reading and grammar. First of all, it has 3 levels of complexity, this program has a lot of auding material, besides a teacher is able to compare speech of pupils with speech of native speakers, choosing male voice, female voice or voice of a child.
The most popular part of this program is description of person's appearance. Pupils are offered to create a sketch of a definite person. With the help of mouse or microphone pupils can make a portrait and at the same time it will be good training for revision vocabulary on this theme
In order to make revision of theme more «deep» and effective, there are other interesting variants of tasks and games. For example, when a pupil works with a picture (puzzles, to be exact) on theme «Parts of body» it can be helpful for enriching his vocabulary.
Also, discs of this program include a lot of material for description of place where a pupil live. Such exercises touch not only a variety of words but also we work with prepositions, which cause some problems and misunderstandings.
So, as we have already mentioned the program «Triple Play Plus» include a lot of teaching material on many themes. Here are some of them: «Food and Drink», «Numbers», «Home», «Office», «Places and Transportation», «People», «Activities» etc.
More young, but not less popular tutorial for teaching English is program «Professor Higgins». This program has many rewards and is recommended by Ministry of Education of Russian Federation. It's designed for individual work of pupils. «Professor Higgins» pays much attention to phonetics and grammar. This program is used during the following types of work:
· Practicing of phonetics (with a microphone) on initial stage of teaching;
· Training of pronunciation of proverbs and drills (also with a microphone);
· Individual test on grammar themes studied before. It has 3 levels of complexity that allows to train the same material with different classes, in subject to their preparedness.
Let us to speak about the next program. It's «Euro Talk» and it also has 3 levels: elementary, intermediate, advanced.
The most interesting feature of this program is that pupils have an opportunity to get «International certificate», since when they have definite amount of scores, program «prints» a certificate with name and surname of a pupil and even with signatures of team of Euro Talk According to experienced teachers, this program is more suitable during the initial stage of teaching and it's advisable to use this program in the groups with the most «strong» knowledge.
For senior school, tutorial «Learn to Speak English» can be offered since it serves for all-round development.
This program consists of 30 lessons which include dialogues, exercises, games and also videos about cities of the Unites States of America. Besides, a teacher can demonstrate these films with English subtitles or without them at all.
If a teacher is able to choose the most suitable and the most interesting material and use it in the accessible way for pupils, it will lead to the successful teaching process since in this case teacher and his pupils will «win».
One more advantage of such multimedia programs is an availability of video courses. They can be called a rather precious material since they include sociocultural aspects such as: mimicry, gestures, clothes, and environment. Besides, resting upon these video courses, a teacher is able to conduct various role plays and make discussions in order to revise studied lexical material.
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