Possibilities of Internet resources in Teaching English Vocabulary

Theoretical aspects of relationship between technology and language. Research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning. Analysis of examples of vocabulary learning strategies available on the Internet during the lesson.

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE

REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

Eurasian National University named after L. N. Gumilev

Faculty of Philology

Department of Theory and practice of foreign languages

Term Paper

Possibilities of Internet resources in Teaching English Vocabulary

Written by S.K. Kaldybayeva

FL-35 pupil

Major 5B011900

Supervised by D.K. Anasheva

Senior teacher

Astana 2014

The contents

  • Introduction
  • 1. Theoretical aspects of relationship between technology and language
  • 1.1 Research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning
  • 1.2 Strategies that use Internet resources to engage pupils in vocabulary learning
  • 1. Learn from visual displays of word relationships within text
  • 2. Take a digital vocabulary field trip
  • 3. Connect fun and learning with online vocabulary games
  • 4. Have pupils use media to express vocabulary knowledge
  • 5. Take advantage of online word reference tools that are also teaching tools
  • 6. Support reading and word learning with just-in-time vocabulary reference support
  • 7. Use language translators to provide just-in-time help for ELLs
  • 8. Increase reading volume by reading digital text
  • 9. Increase reading volume by listening to digital text with a text-to-speech tool and audio books
  • 10. Combine vocabulary learning and social service
  • 1.3 Vocabulary.com - an adaptive learning system
  • 2. Analysis of examples of vocabulary learning strategies available on the Internet during the lesson
  • 2.1 Analysis of examples of using Web application during the lesson
  • 2.2 Analysis of examples of teaching vocabulary using Games from the Internet
  • Conclusion
  • References

Introduction

Vocabulary refers to the words used in a language.

The theme of our research work is "Possibilities of Internet resources in teaching English vocabulary”

The topicality of our research is defined by the fact that for many years, possibilities of internet resources did not receive priority in teaching English vocabulary. Vocabulary is the first and foremost important step in language acquisition. In a classroom where pupils are not finding themselves comfortable with the second language, language learning can be made interactive and interesting with the introduction of appropriate vocabulary exercises. This paper is an attempt to study and explore the various methodologies that can be incorporated in the teaching of vocabulary items in a language classroom. Online virtual worlds are becoming important tools in foreign/second language instruction in view of the fact that they enhance learner motivation; promote autonomy and social presence in a 3D environment. Internet is a type of reality in which pupils can meet and communicate with other learners in the target language using text, voice or video as well as share ideas related to language learning. Furthermore, internet provides learners with the opportunity to take part in virtual language courses or lessons as well as visit places connected with the target language culture.

The aim of our research is to investigate the effectiveness of using online activities and a browser-based virtual world in teaching English vocabulary.

The object of the research is possibilities of internet resources in teaching English vocabulary.

The subject of the research is teaching primary school children to use internet resources in learning English vocabulary.

According to the aim, object and subject of our research we have to fulfill the following objectives:

To identify the useful methods of teaching English vocabulary.

internet teaching english multimedia

To find strategies that use Internet resources to engage pupils in vocabulary learning

To analyze the role of using internet resources in teaching English vocabulary at primary schools.

During our research we used immediate constituent analysis method.

Theoretical significance: We have done an analytical work, made a valuable contribution to the studying of the beneficial strategies that use Internet resources to engage pupils in vocabulary teaching at primary schools. And in our opinion, it will be quite right to research this problem on the basis of works of outgoing scholars such as Lubliner & Scott, Stanovich, Dalton, B. and Grisham, D. L., Son, J. - B.

The practical significance of our research work: The materials given in our work can be used at the seminars and can be the reference to defined internet programs, books, sites for people who are interested in using internet resources in teaching English vocabulary at primary schools.

The structure of research includes Introduction, theoretical part, practical part, Conclusion and Reference. In Introduction the aim, objectives, object and subject, methods of investigation, theoretical and practical significances, also the materials under analysis of research were considered. In the theoretical part of research we considered about the theoretical aspects of relationship between technology and language. In the practical part of the research we have given the analysis of examples of using Web application during the lesson at primary schools. In conclusion: the result of our research is considered. In Reference: the list of works foreign scientists that were analyzed during the investigation.

1. Theoretical aspects of relationship between technology and language

1.1 Research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning

Vocabulary is central to English language teaching because without sufficient vocabulary pupils cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Why is vocabulary learning so important? To understand a text, one must understand the words that represent the ideas or concepts. Studies confirm the high correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. We also know that there are degrees of word knowledge, from "I've never heard this word before," to "I know this word and can apply it in multiple contexts", as well as metacognitive knowledge about how to apply prior knowledge and strategies to vocabulary learning.

Usage of Internet resources is one of the important objectives in learning foreign language. Many studies have been conducted about the relationship between technology and language. Some of them have focused on attitudes of the participants while some have taken concrete test scores into account. Overall, the results of multiple studies seem to suggest that active leisure use of the Internet is beneficial for one's English skills. Reading online texts, both in one's own time and when assigned, are extremely good for acquiring necessary language skills. Linguists conducted a study exploring the correlation of language acquisition and reading for pleasure online. The result was that the pupils who spent more time reading on the Web scored better on reading tests. Furthermore, scholars studied ESL business pupils' approaches and attitudes towards learning vocabulary through Internet reading. In the study, he divided the participants into two groups, consisting of readers and non-readers. Interestingly enough, he also monitored the participants' vocabulary knowledge throughout an 8-week period. The results showed that those who were assigned to do online reading scored higher in the post-test. The youth themselves also feel that they learn through browsing the Web. Scientists studied upper secondary pupils' motivation in relation to learning English in the Internet. Aim was to chart how the Internet affected young people's motivation, skills and attitudes towards learning English. The results showed that over 80% felt motivated to learn English. In addition, well over 50% of the web pages they browsed were English-based. Finally, 10 out of 21, that is, 48% of the participants stated that the Internet has been of great help when learning English. All in all, young people view learning through the use of Internet positively. They enjoy visiting English sites for pure leisure purposes.

We know that there is a wide range in pupils' word knowledge and that as early as age 5 there is a 30-million-word exposure gap between. The results of this gap are manifested in pupils' literacy learning, particularly reading comprehension. The Matthew Effect, where strong readers get stronger and weak readers get weaker, as well as the fourth-grade reading slump, can be attributed, at least in part, to a less developed store of conceptual knowledge and vocabulary.

The good news is that we can improve vocabulary learning and address the gap by actively and systematically teaching vocabulary to pupils. Teaching words, morphology, and word origins is an important component in any vocabulary learning program. It is also necessary to provide multiple exposures to the word in different contexts and to teach word learning strategies, such as using context clues, cognate information, and deciding when a word is important to know and remember. Although teaching can make a real difference in vocabulary learning, explicit teaching of vocabulary is not enough; a dedicated teacher can teach perhaps 300-400 words per year.

Direct vocabulary instruction is essential, but research indicates that pupils with well-developed vocabulary learn many more words indirectly through reading than from instruction. Two strategies that encourage children to read widely and deeply are to provide an array of reading materials that capitalize on their interests and to set aside time for reading during the school day and at home. Conversations about their reading with adults and peers also strengthen pupils' word learning.

Whether directly teaching vocabulary and word learning strategies, or increasing pupils' volume of reading, an important research-based principle that applies across the board is to promote a lively interest in words through pupil expression and participation in a learning community that enjoys playing with words, builds on individual interests as well as curriculum needs, and emphasizes self-efficacy in word learning [3].

There are several main actions for learning vocabulary which should be used during the English class.

Listening Carefully

Careful listening to the words may be a good option in teaching vocabulary items in a heterogenic classroom. "Let the students hear the word in isolation and in a sentence. If the sounds of the word have been mastered, the students will hear it correctly with two or three repetitions." (Robert Lado: 121) Slow pronunciation without distortion will help. Breaking the word into parts and building up to the whole word will also be helpful.

Pronouncing the Word

Pronouncing the word enables the students to remember it longer and identify it more readily when they hear or see it.

Methods of Grasping the Meaning

The teacher should try to get the meaning to the class without using translation. This is not preferable on the ground that translation may or may not provide the meaning of the word accurately and precisely. It is advocated as it enables the class to go without grasping the meaning of a word that they have learned to pronounce rather than to depend upon the translation.

Dramatization

This method can be practiced at ease. It can win the favor of the students as learners like dramatizations and can easily learn through them. Many situations can be dramatized or demonstrated.

Examples

· Sing [Sing a song]

· Open [Open a book]

· Close [Close the book]

Pictures and Drawings

Pictures of many types and colours can be used successfully to show the meaning of words and sentence. Handmade pictures can also be used as there is no need to be very artistic.

Examples

· into [Raj goes into the circle.]

· in [Rahman is in the circle.]

Drawings can be used to explain the meaning of things, actions, qualities, and relations. A line drawing of a head, for example, provides many useful nouns and verbs.

Despite the ubiquity of technology and media, it is not on teachers' priority lists of vocabulary instruction strategies and materials [3]. We address this gap by offering 10 Internet-based strategy strategies organized into three instructional areas. First, we offer strategies for teaching words and word learning strategies. Second, we focus on on-demand digital language tools to support just-in-time strategic vocabulary learning and reading. Third, we suggest ways to increase the volume of reading to support pupils' incidental vocabulary learning. Along the way, we offer ways to stimulate pupils' interest in words and self-efficacy. Technology, when used flexibly in response to pupils' varied needs and interests, can and should be part of the solution to the vocabulary gap. It's a fun way for English Language Learners to build and reinforce vocabulary.

1.2 Strategies that use Internet resources to engage pupils in vocabulary learning

An Internet-based strategy is an electronic strategy that teachers can use to develop pupils' vocabulary learning and interest in words. The term Internet-based strategy is used both to highlight that the strategies rely on digital tools and resources and to suggest the evoking of learning potential that is possible when technology and media are part of the instructional mix.

Vocabulary is also an area where teachers are asking for guidance on instructional approaches, strategies, and materials. Internet and media are available in most schools that teachers could harness now to improve vocabulary learning, tools that capture the interest of pupils and that provide scaffolds and contexts in which to learn with, and about, words more profitably.

Drawing on research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning, this paper presents 10 strategies that use free digital tools and Internet resources to engage pupils in vocabulary learning. The strategies are designed to support the teaching of words and word learning strategies, promote pupils' strategic use of on-demand web-based vocabulary tools, and increase pupils' volume of reading.

1. Learn from visual displays of word relationships within text

Developing breadth and depth of vocabulary depends on building connections between words and developing elaborate webs of meaning [5]. Graphic organizers and visual displays highlight the relationships between words [8]. Two words mapping tools that support visual representation are Wordle and Wordsift.

Wordle is a free Web application that allows you to create a word cloud based on the frequency of words in a particular text.

WordSift is another free word cloud tool available on the Internet. Like Wordle, a word cloud is created based on text that is cut and pasted into the application. Although WordSift does not support artistic design of the display, it offers important learning supports. Each word can be clicked on to show a collection of related images, a word map, and a listing of sentences from the text that present the word in different contexts. WordSift also sorts words by difficulty and identifies academic words. Note that both Wordle and WordSift support several different languages, a feature particularly helpful to ELs

2. Take a digital vocabulary field trip

In the original vocabulary field trip [15], the teacher begins with a large poster of a topic, such as weather. Students are seated on the carpet, and the teacher leads a field trip that includes having pupils observe and record what they saw as they read books and other materials. As pupils volunteer weather words, the teacher records them on sticky notes or tag board and puts them up beside the poster. After the observations are concluded, the teacher returns the pupils' attention to the words, repeating them and linking them to the poster. Next, pupils sort the weather words into conceptually related groups and engage in other semantic activities.

Teachers can create a digital version of a vocabulary field trip using a free online program called TrackStar [12]. TrackStar allows you to collect a series of websites and annotate them so that pupils follow the online journey. On the left side of the figure you can see the questions and multiple websites that we selected to guide pupils in finding out about weather in Alaska, where the Iditarod takes place. We selected a context where weather is extreme to heighten pupils' interest and to provide a dramatic contrast to their own local weather. We begin with a website featuring photos and video of dog sledding in Alaska and asked pupils to respond with descriptions of the weather conditions.

Next, pupils visit a website on the aurora borealis and look for connections between the aurora and Alaskan weather. They complete the virtual field trip with a visit to a website on weather comparisons, where they examine the differences between local weather and Alaskan weather. Throughout this process, they visit several teacher-selected websites and gain knowledge about words through multiple exposures in different contexts and through different media, including reading, viewing, writing, and conversation.

3. Connect fun and learning with online vocabulary games

No list of technology applications for vocabulary would be complete without mention of the vocabulary games that are available for free on the Internet. We recommend two sites that offer a variety of activities to engage pupils in playing with words and word meanings: Vocabulary Games and Vocabulary. Games include crossword puzzles, picture-word matches, word scrambles, and 8 Letters in Search of a Word (a game that can draw you in unexpectedly as you race to create as many words as possible from eight letters within the time limit). The games are supplemented with themed word lists, test preparation items, and activities on prefixes and suffixes. These sites can be bookmarked for pupils' independent practice and can provide a basis for whole-group instruction.

4. Have pupils use media to express vocabulary knowledge

The previous Internet-based strategies all require pupil interaction, from manipulating a visual word map to taking an online vocabulary field trip. This strategy focuses on pupils' vocabulary representations in multiple modes-writing, audio, graphic, video, and animation. The first set of examples draws on promising research with universally designed digital text, suggesting the benefit of having pupils develop word meaning as they read a definition, view graphics, listen to the word, write or audiotape a personal connection to the word, create a caption for a graphic, and complete an interactive word map. Figure 2 illustrates how pupils communicate word knowledge as they create a caption for an image. These types of activities offer pupils different modes of representation and expression and can be created with a variety of composing tools and formats, such as digital stories, photo essays, podcasts, and so on.

Figure 2: Students create captions to illustrate their understanding of contribute

A multimedia composing and presentation tool that is often underused is PowerPoint. We have certainly seen many poor PowerPoint examples (e. g., the ubiquitous three bullet points and silly clip art approach). However, we have found that PowerPoint can be used creatively for expression. In addition to benefiting from reading and viewing multimodal representations of vocabulary, recent research suggests that pupils may also benefit from creating multimedia representations of words in PowerPoint slides that are hyperlinked together. Working with fifth graders, we created an example of a multimedia glossary item for camouflage, a word from the science curriculum (see Figure 3).

Figure 3: Multimedia glossary example of camouflage using a PowerPoint template

The model elaborates word knowledge in context and illustrates how design influences the message. To provide a structure to guide pupils in creating their own entries, Bridget created a template that pupils could fill in and adapt. The template includes a space for the word, a short definition, an explanation for why the word is important, a graphic, an audio recording or sound, and a source. As pupils create and revise their entries, they reflect on the word's meaning (What does this mean?), its representation (How does this particular graphic and sound effect illustrate this word?) and process (What images did you consider and discard?).

Students' glossary items can be combined into a master document and sorted by word to show multiple meanings and representations [15]. Another approach to compiling pupils' individual work is to teach them how to hyperlink their slides so that a view of one version of a word includes hyperlinks to others' versions of that word. Although this example uses PowerPoint as the media format, these types of vocabulary collections can be created in different modes and published online as a word wiki or word blog. This kind of collaborative publication and engagement with an external audience is characteristic of successful multimedia learning (Fadel & Lemke, 2008). There really is no end to the creative possibilities when pupils use media to develop and celebrate the wonder of words.

5. Take advantage of online word reference tools that are also teaching tools

Many online word reference tools are also excellent teaching resources. For example, the Visual Thesaurus website complements its fee-based content with free information such as the Behind the Dictionary and Teachers at Work columns and teacher-created themed word lists. Many use multiple distribution platforms to reach learners wherever they are. For example, the Back in School webpage of Dictionary.com (dictionary. reference.com/pupilhandbook) links to Facebook, has an iPhone application, a free toolbar application, a word of the day that is communicated on Twitter or as a text message on your mobile phone, and a free weekly word explorer audio podcast on iTunes.

Develop strategic digital readers with "on-demand" vocabulary help

This section highlights two online tools that provide just-in-time support while reading. Students can develop their strategic learning repertoire as they customize their own collection of supports.

6. Support reading and word learning with just-in-time vocabulary reference support

Whether avid or reluctant reader, we all encounter unfamiliar words in our reading and need strategies for what to do when this occurs. Rather than using print dictionaries or asking the teacher, pupils can learn to use online dictionaries and thesauri. When they have access to word help on demand, at the point of need, both monolingual and bilingual pupils tend to use them more often than print references and improve their understanding. Many of these Internet-based tools are free (they vary in difficulty, so try out different applications to determine the best fit for your pupils).

Some word reference tools can be mounted on the browser toolbar, allowing you to right click on any word to look it up and have a brief definition display. More comprehensive dictionaries can be bookmarked for easy access while reading on the computer. The increasingly popular e-book readers, which are becoming more common in schools and homes, usually provide dictionary help in the form of audio pronunciations of the word and brief definitions.

Two popular free online dictionaries/thesauri are Reference.com and Merriam-Webster. Tools expressly designed for pupils include Word Central from Merriam-Webster, Back in School from Dictionary.com, and Yahoo Kids! American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.

Strength of digital text is its capacity to communicate in multiple modes, enhancing understanding by providing two channels of input, visual/spatial and linguistic. Merriam-Webster offers an online visual dictionary (visual. merriam-webster.com/index. php), and Enchanted Learning provides a picture dictionary for young children. Be on the alert for educational sites that offer specialized picture glossaries, such as NASA's online space picture dictionary. These sites can be added to your browser favorites. And, finally, it is important to teach pupils to notice and strategically use the vocabulary help that is offered on various sites, such as the word wizard that pops up when pupils are reading Scholastic News Online.

7. Use language translators to provide just-in-time help for ELLs

Successful ELs leverage first-language knowledge to develop their English. Online dictionaries often support multiple languages (e. g., the Yahoo! Kids dictionary supports 90 languages), and EL pupils should be taught to look for this option. Another resource is the language translator. The value of a translator is that it supports learning words as they occur naturally in authentic text and allows pupils to view bilingual versions of a text side by side so that they can use their first-language knowledge to develop their English vocabulary. You can paste text into the translator field, select the input and output languages, and view the translation (see Babelfish, Google translator, and Bing Translator). You may also download a toolbar extension that translates any webpage automatically. Although these tools are not perfect (and may never be, given the nuances involved in translation), they are a good place to start for ELs. In fact, pupils often find the translator's mistakes both humorous and an entry point for discussing the nuances of word meanings.

Expand wide reading and incidental word learning with digital text

Reading widely and deeply is important for vocabulary development and reading comprehension. These two strategies help increase pupils' volume of reading and, indirectly, their incidental word learning [10].

8. Increase reading volume by reading digital text

Class libraries, read-aloud, book clubs, and independent reading time during the school day can increase the amount and variety of pupil reading. However, it is challenging to find the resources and time required to provide up-to-date material, to be responsive to pupils' interests, and to accommodate readers at different reading levels. Teachers can dramatically expand text options for pupils by including reading on the Internet and other digital texts. A high percentage of pupils already use the Internet for homework; we can extend their learning and exploration of words in context as they read and view varied text genres on the Internet, or read texts downloaded onto a class computer, an e-book reading device, or a Smartphone.

Increasing the reading of informational text is especially important for learning in the content areas, and informational content reigns supreme on the Internet. To use current events as one example, the currency of information and use of media to communicate the news is unparalleled. To begin, we recommend bookmarking quality sites that pupils read on a regular basis. Many educational publishers and organizations provide free online content, including articles and media about current events, some of which are generated by pupils themselves. A few of our favorites include the following:

· Time for Kids

· Weekly Reader

· National Geographic Kids' blogs

· Science News for Kids

A recent visit to some of our favorite sites included articles about the top stories in the news, a pupil blog about animal myths featured in the animated film Fantastic Mr. Fox, and an explanation of three sided snowflakes. The texts include graphics, video, and sound, along with written text, providing many ways of engaging with the content. Students can rotate taking on the role of Internet news reporter, scanning bookmarked sites for interesting news to share with the class or post to a class blog. Students can also pursue individual interests as they read digital text during sustained silent reading.

A second example is based on literature pupils read in the classroom, generating interest in more reading by developing intertextual connections [7]. Using a digital poster or PowerPoint screen to show a splash of book cover images and screen captures of websites, movie trailers, and blogs invites pupils to pursue their interests in particular authors, books, genres, popular culture, and media.

For example, a screen displaying a book that the class is reading, such as Kate DiCamillo's The Tale of Despereaux, links to several screens, one featuring her website and online interviews, another to a site with video clips from The Tale of Despereaux movie, and still another highlighting other fantasy books and comics. The splash screens can be printed out to build a wall mural that pupils expand as they continue reading.

These examples highlight the value of teachers previewing Internet content. However, pupils will also need support in learning how to search and find their own reading materials on the Internet. This will necessitate teaching Internet safety, something that is now required to obtain E-Rate funding (Protecting Children in the 21st Century Act, 2009), as well as strategies for searching and evaluating Internet content [8].

9. Increase reading volume by listening to digital text with a text-to-speech tool and audio books

A common concern among educators is the readability of websites and Internet content. One powerful strategy is to allow pupils to listen to text with a text-to-speech (Text-to-speech) tool or, when available, listen to audio narration. This provides pupils with access to age-appropriate content and grade-level curriculum, a right mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. For struggling readers, Text-to-speech increases their reading speed, reduces stress, and for some, but not all, improves comprehension

Fortunately, there are free Text-to-speech tools that can be mounted on the browser toolbar for easy access while reading, such as Click, Speak for Firefox (click speak. clcworld.net), or downloaded to your desktop, such as the NaturalReader free Text-to-speech utility. Balabolka is a PC-based Text-to-speech application that can run off a thumb drive. Some e-book readers such as Microsoft Reader are free to download and can be used with public domain content that is part of their e-book library.

10. Combine vocabulary learning and social service

Many of these Internet-based strategies use Web 2.0 technologies to promote social learning. They also tap into pupils' natural desire to create, to participate in communities, and to develop strategic competence. Recent reports on pupils' digital literacies highlight the importance of this kind of learning. This final Internet-based strategy is a free online vocabulary game, Free Rice that has attracted millions of users, young and old. We believe it offers an opportunity to promote pupils' engagement with words while contributing to the social good.

Free Rice presents a word and four answer choices on the screen. For each correct answer, the United Nations World Food Programme donates 10 grains of rice to countries in need. The game adjusts its difficulty level based on the response, filling a bowl with rice as the player adds to his or her score. As a class activity, the teacher could project the website on screen and guide pupils in playing the game for 5 minutes daily, discussing choices (e. g., "I think it must be 'x' because 'y'") and strategies (e. g., "Any words we can eliminate? Does the root word give us a clue we can use?"). Students can play individually or with a partner, reporting back to class on their rice earnings and sharing intriguing new words.

These 10 Internet-based strategies use technology to support the wide reading, direct instruction, active learning, and interest in words that we know are essential to vocabulary development. In a digital world, knowing how to use the tools and resources available online is part of becoming a strategic learner. We hope that this list provides a useful and Internet-based active jumping off point for integrating technology and media into your pupils' vocabulary learning experience.

1.3 Vocabulary.com - an adaptive learning system

What is Vocabulary.com?

Vocabulary.com is the easiest, most intelligent way to improve your vocabulary. It combines an adaptive learning system (The Challenge) with the world's fastest dictionary, so that you can more quickly and more efficiently learn words.

Why Vocabulary.com?

They teach you useful words. They don't waste your time. They start by looking at books, periodicals, and other material that cumulatively contain over 1.6 billion words. From this corpus, they pull out the most essential English vocabulary words, the words that you need to succeed in an academic or business environment. This list serves as the basis for their learning platform.

They teach you only the words that you have trouble with.

Vocabulary.com uses a proprietary technology that they call Adaptive Vocabulary Instruction or AVI. Unlike traditional learning systems, they don't rely on a series of time-consuming and boring assessments. Instead, everything you do on the site adds to their AVI model. It's like you have a personal trainer in the room, monitoring your work and suggesting new words and exercises to challenge you on your level. Because of this, you don't waste your time learning words that are too easy or too hard.

They don't let you forget.

Finally, they analyze your achievements, and reinforce your skills by reintroducing words at various times to make sure that you are retaining the words you originally learned

A Whole Lot of Questions, a Whole Lot of Learning

The heart of The Challenge is more than 100,000 vocabulary questions that are designed to evaluate and teach vocabulary words. Each question tests a particular meaning of a word, provides helpful hints, and is followed by an explanation of the correct answer. Many studies have shown that the best way to learn is through multiple exposures to a word, with challenging questions that make you think.

It's Like a Personal Trainer for Your Brain

They use their own adaptive learning system to ensure that you get the right question at the right time. They build a model of your vocabulary and abilities as you answer each question, and then serve you up with questions that are not too hard and not too easy. From the results of these questions, they determine what words to focus on in your personalized learning program.

A Personalized List of Words Just for You

As you answer questions, they begin to compile a list of words to learn. If you get a question wrong or choose to use a hint, the word is added to the list. Once They add a word to this list, They keep working with you until you've mastered that word. You can see your list by clicking on the My Progress tab on the top of the screen.

Hints and Explanations Help You Learn

If you're having trouble with a question, they will sometimes provide a hint to help you along. Depending on the word, you can use your hint to eliminate a choice, to see sentence examples, or to see definitions of the word. If you get a question wrong, they provide you with a friendly Vocabulary.com description of the word. Read it! It's designed to help you remember the word.

Four Question Categories

On the upper right hand corner of each question is a question category and a point value. There are four question categories:

· Assessment - These questions can be about any word and are chosen based on how you've done on all previous questions. (100 points without a hint, 50 points with a hint)

· Review - If you get a question wrong or ask for a hint, they'll give it to you again as a review question. (75 points)

· Progress - Once a word has been added to the list of words you're learning, they'll continue to ask you new Progress questions about it until you've mastered the word. (100 points)

· Mastery Review - Even after you've mastered a word, they still check up on you every once in a while with a Mastery Review question. (100 points)

Earn Points and Achievements

As you answer questions correctly and learn words, you earn points. And as you earn more points, you are assigned a badge that represents your level. You start as a "novice," and then as you hit different point goals, you'll earn new badges.

You can also earn extra badges based on various achievements, such as answering 5 questions correctly in a row, or acing a round. Click on My Profile to see a list of available achievements and levels.

Chart Your Progress

You can find out more about how you're doing by clicking on the My Progress tab. From there you'll see charts on overall progress, as well as progress on any individual word.

The Dictionary

The Vocabulary.com dictionary is designed to be the fastest, most useful English dictionary in the world. Unlike most online dictionaries, They want you to find your word's meaning fast and then get on to better things. They don't care how many ads you see or how many pages you view. In fact, most of the time you'll find the word you need after typing only one or two letters.

Predictive Magic

Their search box is smart. So smart that it predicts what you're looking up as you type. Try it. You'll see that as you type, They're making their best guess as to what word you're looking for. If you see your word in one of the first five choices, you can click on it to see the word page, or if your word is number one, They'll choose it for you.

Easy-to-Read Definitions with a Little Bit of Attitude

They made an exhaustive review of the dictionaries out there, and they came to a not-so-startling conclusion. Current dictionary definitions can be difficult to understand and not much fun to read. This is OK if you're looking up a word for reference, but if you're actually trying to learn how a word is used in the real world and to make it part of your vocabulary, the typical dictionary definition is not going to do it.

Over 100 Million Sentence Examples

Each word has usage examples from their corpus of over 100 million sentences. You'll see how words are used in edited language by some of the best writers in the world, from periodicals such as The New York Times, Scientific American, and from great works of fiction by writers as diverse as T. S. Elliot and Upton Sinclair. Seeing a word in context is a great way to understand how it's used in the wild.

Keep Track of Your Favorite Words with Vocabulary Lists

One of the best features of Vocabulary.com is that you can easily make and share Vocabulary lists. Create a Vocabulary List quickly from assigned words, grab words from any text, or generate a list from the Advanced Search. Then, you can add descriptions to words, name your list, make your list public, and share it with your friends.

Share the Wealth, Share your Words

By making your vocabulary lists public, you can share them with your friends and colleagues. People can comment on the lists, favorite them, and even use them as the basis for a new list.

How the Blog Works

If You Really Love Words, Check Out The Blog.

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2. Analysis of examples of vocabulary learning strategies available on the Internet during the lesson

We dealt with a way to improve pupils' abilities to explore, store and usage of vocabulary items; determined the role of vocabulary teaching and how a teacher could help their learners; laid emphasis on self initiated independent learning with strategies, in which formal practices, functional practices and memorizing could be included. Teacher should create activities and tasks to help pupils to build their vocabulary and develop strategies to learn the vocabulary on their own. Thus it signifies that a language teacher should be innovative and proficient in the application of methodologies pertaining to teaching vocabulary items in a classroom situation. Following the technologies is the main method for teaching vocabulary items in an English language classroom.

2.1 Analysis of examples of using Web application during the lesson

There are some techniques of teaching English vocabulary using Internet resources that Kazakh primary school teachers can use. Wordle is a free Web application that allows you to create a word cloud based on the frequency of words in a particular text. It can be used to stimulate pupils' thinking about the meaning, importance, and relationship of words as they analyze, create, and publish Wordles. To create a word cloud, you paste text into the applet and then manipulate the visual display by selecting the color scheme, layout, and font. Word clouds can be used to highlight keywords and themes to prepare pupils for reading, as well as prompt discussion after reading.

For example, at the lesson we created the word cloud in Figure 1 based on an online National Geographic Kids article about the troubling disappearance of honeybees in South Kazakhstan. Questions about this Wordle might include the following:

· What does the word cloud suggest this article is about?

· What seem to be the most important words?

· How do these words go together?

Why do you think the Wordle designer chose this shape of word cloud? (Hint: Think of what bees look like when they swarm.)

Figure 1. Word cloud for bees using Wordle

Students will most likely conjecture that the article is about bees. Some pupils may notice the less prominent words-dead and poisons-and wonder if the bees are sick. When asked about the color choice, they may speculate that the author/designer chose bright colors to get your attention, or that black goes with poison. What is important in this kind of pre-reading discussion is pupils' close attention to the words and how they might relate to one another and to the larger text that they represent. Students actively engage with meaning as they draw on background knowledge about words and concepts as well as on visual literacy skills.

· The same bees word cloud could prompt a discussion after reading the article, guided by questions such as, Do you think the word cloud captured what was most important to learn?

· Are there keywords or ideas that are left out?

· What super-ordinate terms reflect the main ideas?

As pupils manipulate the word cloud's layout, color, and font, they integrate verbal and visual representations, strengthening the multimedia learning effect [2] while developing an important digital literacy skill in our visual society.

For some pupils, the creative design aspect serves as the hook to engage them in meaning making; for others, it is the words themselves that entice them to explore meanings and relationships. Although Wordles can be published to the public gallery and printed, another option is to use a screen capture program to save the Wordle as an image, creating a bank of images on your desktop or school server. They can then be inserted into a document, PowerPoint, class blog, or other text.

Teacher gives some information about the theme, then gives pictures and shows the video using the Internet. The pupils have to put the pictures in a correct order. Then pupils share their ideas with another pupil and after they in a pair write what place is given in the picture. In this lesson all strategies of using Internet resources that were mentioned in the theoretical part of the research are followed, because the teacher using Web application show the pictures and pupils learn from visual displays word relationships within text

In general, the lesson is well-planned and the single is to add is that, cartoons also can be useful way of developing vocabulary of primary school children, because it is more interesting to watch cartoons than films for children in the primary school. [16]

The next chapter of research is dedicated to identifying useful methods of teaching English vocabulary using Games from the Internet at primary school.

2.2 Analysis of examples of teaching vocabulary using Games from the Internet

There are a lot of methods of teaching vocabulary for primary school children, and the most useful of them is teaching by Online-games. As it was mentioned in the theoretical part, vocabulary learning consists of 3 necessary actions:

Listening Carefully and Pronouncing the Words

According to Davies and Pearse [17], this stage is useful to prepare the learners for what they are going to hear. Firstly, the teacher tells the topic of the game and asks children what they think about it. This stage is important for primary school children, because they should know what they are going to listen about.

Teacher switch on Web-application, choose the game where there are new words read aloud and pupils should repeat after the recording.

The aim of listening and pronouncing, as pointed out earlier, is to give pupils an idea of what the listening material sounds like. This may also be termed free listening.

Dramatization

Explaining words through actions and visuals. This stage is useful to help the learners understand the text through activities

Teacher reads words aloud and asks the pupils to listen and follow from the monitor. The following well-known game, "Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes”, [19] illustrates the activity. Pupils look at the monitor that is in front of the class and touches their Head, Shoulders, Knees or Toes with both hands repeating after Web application.

Pupils: say "head” and touch their heads as shown in the picture

Pupils: say "shoulders" and touch their shoulders as shown in the picture

Pupils: say "knees" and touch their knees as shown in the picture

Pupils: say "toes” and point to their toes as shown in the picture

Pupils: say "eyes," "ears," "mouth,” and "nose” and meanwhile touch the corresponding body parts as in the previous examples

At this stage, it is important to double-check pupil comprehension of words and actions; pupils may say they understood everything because they want to proceed to the next stage right away. To check pupil understanding, teacher randomly name the vocabulary that she has taught and ask the pupils to do the accompanying actions.

Pupils listen again the song and are guided by teacher to do the actions that they have already been taught. This time, the pupils are asked to just listen and do the actions under teacher's guidance. Hearing the teacher sing the song and seeing the teacher do the actions help pupils overcome feelings of shyness and lack of confidence. Besides, pupils find it funny and interesting when they see their teacher doing the actions of the game.

And this situation motivates the pupils and prepares them for the third listening, where they will be asked to do the accompanying actions and sing the complete song aloud with the Web application. This stage is generally accepted as the stage when the teacher integrates different language skills such as listening, reading, speaking, and writing. In this context, Vocabulary Games.com are suitable for competitions, games, and simple drama activities. Some suggested examples follow. There are usually very colorful pictures in this Web site, and it is timesaving to make use of them.


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