Methods of teaching English language
Comparative teaching methodologies. Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language. Role plays as a method of teaching. Comparative characteristics of modern techniques of teaching english. Grammar translation method. Communicative approach.
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1. Comparative Teaching Methodologies
1.1 Grammar Translation Method
1.2 Direct Method
1.3 Audio-Lingual Method
1.4 Silent Way
1.5 Total Physical Response (TPR) Community Language Learning (CLL)
1.6 Suggestopedia (Suggestology)
1.7 Communicative Approach
1.8 Natural Approach
1.9 Emotional-semantic method
2. Theoretical aspect of effective methods of teaching
2.1 The bases of teaching a foreign language
2.2 Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language
2.2.1 Constructivist teaching strategies
2.2.2 Communicative Teaching Method
2.2.3 Using project method in teaching a foreign language
2.2.4 The method of debates
2.2.6 Role plays as a method of teaching
2.3 Methodological principles of modern methods of teaching
2.4 Practical aspect of ways of teaching
3. Comparative characteristics of modern techniques of teaching English
3.1 Features of techniques
3.1.1 Communicative method
3.1.2 Project methodology
3.1.3 Intensive method
3.1.4 Activity Based method
3.2 Similarities of methods
3.3 Positive and negative aspects of techniques
Language teaching came into its own as a profession in the last century. Central to this process was the emergence of the concept of methods of language teaching. The method concept in language teaching--the notion of a systematic set of teaching practices based on a particular theory of language and language learning--is a powerful one, and the quest for better methods preoccupied teachers and applied linguists throughout the 20th century. Howatt (1984) documents the history of changes in language teaching throughout history, up through the Direct Method in the 20th century. One of the most lasting legacies of the Direct Method has been the notion of method itself.
Methodology in language teaching has been characterized in a variety of ways. A more or less classical formulation suggests that methodology links theory and practice. Within methodology a distinction is often made between methods and approaches, in which methods are held to be fixed teaching systems with prescribed techniques and practices, and approaches are language teaching philosophies that can be interpreted and applied in a variety of different ways in the classroom. This distinction is probably best seen as a continuum ranging from highly prescribed methods to loosely described approaches.
Last years the imperative need of using a foreign language appears in all areas of a science, manufacture and culture.
In present practice of teaching foreign languages there are some typical problems forcing the teacher to address to experience of the colleagues, to innovative ideas, to a science.
Among these problems, difficulties and lacks of a traditional technique of teaching there are the following basic problems:
· Low authority of a subject because of shortages of a present technique of teaching.
· Low intensity of pupils' speech activity.
· Superficiality in forming of base skills and haste of transition from reproductive to productive kinds of work.
· Absence of good practical recommendations on elimination and the prevention of gaps in pupils' knowledge and skills.
· Weakness of existing system of appreciation of pupils' work.
· Spontaneity of a choice and application of evident support, their low didactic efficiency.
Researches of methods of teaching have shown, that all named problems will effectively solved, if we apply elaborations of various innovators for amplification of a traditional technique of teaching that can increase essentially quality of teaching foreign (in particular English) language.
Imperfection of the existing approach to teaching foreign language in the high school, which is focused only on communicative purposes to the detriment of such kinds of language activity as reading and the writing, that has led to the low level of knowing a foreign language of graduates of secondary school.
Importance and openness of the problem of effective teaching foreign languages have caused its topicality, and consequently the choice of a theme for the given research work.
It also has determined the aim of work: to distinguish the most rational techniques of teaching a foreign language which can be used in school.
The subject of this course paper is variety of methods and ways and their effectiveness of using in teaching a foreign language.
The object of research is the process of teaching and pupils who are the subjects of this teaching process.
In this work it is necessary to solve the following primary objectives:
1. Theoretically to comprehend and approve in practice available approaches to teaching a foreign language in high school.
2. To analyze the basic contents of a teaching material and principles of its organization in a rate of foreign language
3. To compare suggested approaches and to choose the most comprehensible.
Proceeding from this, the hypothesis of the given research can be formulated as follows:
1. Teaching a foreign language should be complex (parallel) with an insignificant oral advancing;
2. Teaching should be directed on formation of steady interest to a subject.
During the work the following methods of research were applied:
1. The analysis of the scientific literature on a theme of the research work;
2. The analysis of programs and textbooks on the English language of various authors and for various types of schools both domestic, and foreign;
3. The analysis of experimental training on the basis of experience of the teachers using innovative techniques, results of supervision.
Basis and investigation: Tobol secondary school.
Theoretical value of this research work is in its results, having received which it will be possible to organize effectively teaching process, using in practice methods and ways of teaching which were offered in this work.
Practical value of the work is in given methodical recommendations and great number of tasks and exercises which can be applied by teachers of any subjects in primary and secondary schools.
The bibliography contains the most known and important researches for the given work of teachers-innovators and scientists: psychologists, didactists, methodologists.
The appendix included some exercises that for any reasons has not come in the basic part of course work.
teaching english grammar
1. Comparative Teaching Methodologies
At the present time when there are radical changes in teaching, when radically revised the content and teaching methods appropriate it is high time to revisit the history of the methods of teaching foreign languages and the main trends of its development.
Now no one doubts that the method of language teaching is a science. The very first definition of methodology was given by E.M. Ryt in 1930, who wrote that the methodology of teaching foreign languages is a practical application of comparative linguistics. A similar position had A.V. Scherba.
The emergence of views on the methodology as applied linguistics, was due to the fact that the method 30-s not enough to identify the specificity of a foreign language as a subject, and there was no developed system of research methods, without which there can be no true science.
Another direction in determining the methodology as a science, connected with the name B.V. Belyaev, who believed that the technique is nothing like applied psychology. However, a number of problems methods, in particular, the selection of material, especially the use of techniques and ways of working, depending on the audience, cannot be resolved based only on psychology. Therefore, this definition of techniques did not spread.
In the late 30-s - early 40-ies starts take shape, one more line - definition of methodology as pedagogical science. Do pedagogy and methodology, there is one object of study - the processes of learning, education, goals and objectives of training, education and maintenance items. Uniform and research methods are, therefore, the determination method as a science teacher was a step forward to its registration as an independent science.
The direction in determining the methodology as a science began in the late 40-s. The method is recognized by science, which has its own laws and its methods. The most complete definition of the method reads: “Methods of teaching is the science, exploring the aims and content, pattern, means, methods, techniques and training systems, as well as studying the processes of teaching and training material on a foreign language” [1; 52].
At the beginning of XX-th century there was also another problem. That was the problem of method. It was quite natural, since after the October Revolution of 1917 “new” school demanded the application of new techniques. At that time, advocated direct (natural) method. It was believed that this method was based on a correct principle - associating foreign words with the objects themselves. This was the method of natural (associative) learning a foreign language, which was the most economical, fastest-reaching goal.
Why is this being promoted direct method, when the West is having the idea of mixed method? This was due to several reasons. First, in the royal schools dominated the grammar-translation and textual-translation methods based on cramming, from which it was necessary to be free. Direct same method against them was more progressive, as proceeded from the living language of speech training, as the primary means of language functioning.
Secondly, only direct method of instruction intended to communicate.
Thirdly, education was not familiar with the proposals of other methods that have arisen in the West after the World War I, because this war, and then the civil, broke all contact.
In addition, for many practitioners and the teachers direct method was something new, attractive everyone sincerely believed in its effectiveness.
We should also mention that advocated the direct method differed from the orthodox method of direct Western-style, as it demanded the comparison with the native language, though not at the initial stage, which is incompatible with the direct method. There were also characterized the recommendations as follows: “What the study of foreign language should not be neglected the study of grammar, of course, its main features that you can for ease of understanding point to similarities with the grammar of their native language, and their difference, that a more lasting learning enter grammar exercises” [2; 152]. It was also recommended to enter into a direct method elements of comparative linguistics.
All of the above recommendations do not correspond completely to the ideas of direct method.
All these facts suggest that gradually formed a “Russian version” of the direct method, which is then in the methodological benefits of the second half of the 20-ies acquired its final shape.
Contributed to the direct method changes are closely linked with progressive ideas of Russian pedagogy.
Later formed a comparative method for teaching foreign languages, which got its name because learning a foreign language, is expected on the basis of its comparison with the native language. The founder of this method is Scherba.
And by combining the direct and comparative methods in the light appeared mixed method. Depending on what principles it is dominated, it may be closer or to direct or to the comparative method.
Over time, not only the goal of learning a foreign language changed, and claims to ownership of them. Methods of teaching foreign languages were in crisis.
Crisis always requires radical change. Thus, in low productive ideas were made the transition to communicative teaching. The crisis revived the active and methodical search, which contributed to the development of modern teaching concepts of foreign language teaching: Communicative (I.L. Beem, E. I. Passov [19, 20, 21, 22; 35]), intensive (G.A. Kitaygorodskaya [15, 35]), activity (Ilyasov) and others. Currently, the crucial role played by communicative-oriented techniques, which are based on communication and creativity of students.
Methods of teaching foreign languages should be developed further, as stagnation is fatal for any science.
Comparison of modern teaching methods is important, since there are new techniques emerging based on them and would like to see in them did not have the disadvantages and shortcomings inherent in modern methods.
Comparative characteristics are also important to choose work as a teacher. With such a variety is very difficult to make a choice without knowing the characteristics and specificity of methods.
At the present stage of development of foreign language teaching in the selection method of teaching should proceed from the characteristics of the collective in which it is used, you must take into account the personal characteristics of trainees, their age, interests and level of preparation, the period within which will be trained, as well as technical equipment of the school.
Teaching English as a Foreign Language is a science, and like all sciences, it has a set of underlying principles upon which it is based. However, unlike the better-known sciences such as biology, chemistry and physics, TEFL is not quantifiable to the point of being either objective or equation based in its approach. Therefore, TEFL, like psychology and sociology, must rely on subjectivity in order to formulate its principles. These principles, in turn, define the relationships that exist between either the teacher and the student or the student and other students.
In order to teach English effectively, an EFL teacher must subscribe to one (or more) of the current approaches to teaching English as a foreign language and incorporate its language-learning strategies and techniques into each of his or her lessons.
What follows are descriptions of nine of the principle approaches to teaching English as a foreign (second) language. Without doubt, the reader will have experienced one or more of these approaches in his or her own classroom learning history. Though there is no one correct approach, most teachers usually find themselves more comfortable using one or the other of the approaches listed and described. Though there is nothing overtly wrong with this, it must be remembered that students differ greatly, not just in age but also in mentality, thus they may respond differently to any given approach to language teaching. Because of different learning styles, the effective teacher must be prepared to adapt his or her teaching to the needs and preferences of each class. Our advice is to 'find yourself' with respect to the approaches listed below. That said, don't be afraid to experiment with and/or adapt your style of teaching. In the end, you may discover that the best approach is eclectic in nature and includes bits of this and bits of that.
So as to give some depth of understanding as to the evolution of ideas that has marked the emergence of newer and different approaches to language teaching, we have tried to place the following list of methodological approaches in chronological order.
1.1 Grammar Translation Method
Latin and Ancient Greek are known as "dead languages", based on the fact that people no longer speak them for the purpose of interactive communication. Yet they are still acknowledged as important languages to learn (especially Latin) for the purpose of gaining access to classical literature, and up until fairly recently, for the kinds of grammar training that led to the "mental dexterity" considered so important in any higher education study stream.
Latin has been studied for centuries, with the prime objectives of learning how to read classical Latin texts, understanding the fundamentals of grammar and translation, and gaining insights into some important foreign influences Latin has had on the development of other European languages. The method used to teach it overwhelmingly bore those objectives in mind, and came to be known (appropriately!) as the Classical Method. It is now more commonly known in Foreign Language Teaching circles as the Grammar Translation Method.
It is hard to decide which is more surprising - the fact that this method has survived right up until today (alongside a host of more modern and more "enlightened" methods), or the fact that what was essentially a method developed for the study of "dead" languages involving little or no spoken communication or listening comprehension is still used for the study of languages that are very much "alive" and require competence not only in terms of reading, writing and structure, but also speaking, listening and interactive communication. How has such an archaic method, "remembered with distaste by thousands of school learners" (Richards and Rodgers, 1986:4) persevered.
It is worth looking at the objectives, features and typical techniques commonly associated with the Grammar Translation Method, in order to both understand how it works and why it has shown such tenacity as an "acceptable" language teaching philosophy in many countries and institutions around the world.
1.2 Direct Method
Towards the end of the late 1800s, a revolution in language teaching philosophy took place that is seen by many as the "dawn" of modern foreign language teaching. Teachers, frustrated by the limits of the Grammar Translation Method in terms of its inability to create "communicative" competence in students, began to experiment with new ways of teaching language. Basically, teachers began attempting to teach foreign languages in a way that was more similar to first language acquisition. It incorporated techniques designed to address all the areas that the Grammar Translation did not - namely oral communication, more spontaneous use of the language, and developing the ability to "think" in the target language. Perhaps in an almost reflexive action, the method also moved as far away as possible from various techniques typical of the Grammar Translation Method - for instance using L1 as the language of instruction, memorizing grammatical rules and lots of translation between L1 and the target language.
The appearance of the "Direct Method" thus coincided with a new school of thinking that dictated that all foreign language teaching should occur in the target language only, with no translation and an emphasis on linking meaning to the language being learned. The method became very popular during the first quarter of the 20th century, especially in private language schools in Europe where highly motivated students could study new languages and not need to travel far in order to try them out and apply them communicatively. One of the most famous advocates of the Direct Method was the American Charles Berlitz, whose schools and "Berlitz Method" are now world-renowned.
Still, the Direct Method was not without its problems. As Brown (1994:56) points out, "(it) did not take well in public education where the constraints of budget, classroom size, time, and teacher background made such a method difficult to use." By the late 1920s, the method was starting to go into decline and there was even a return to the Grammar Translation Method, which guaranteed more in the way of "scholastic" language learning orientated around reading and grammar skills. But the Direct Method continues to enjoy a popular following in private language school circles, and it was one of the foundations upon which the well-known "Audio-lingual Method" expanded from starting half way through the 20th century.
1.3 Audio-Lingual Method
The next "revolution" in terms of language teaching methodology coincided with World War II, when America became aware that it needed people to learn foreign languages very quickly as part of its overall military operations. The "Army Method" was suddenly developed to build communicative competence in translators through very intensive language courses focusing on aural/oral skills. This in combination with some new ideas about language learning coming from the disciplines of descriptive linguistics and behavioral psychology went on to become what is known as the Audio-lingual Method (ALM).
This new method incorporated many of the features typical of the earlier Direct Method, but the disciplines mentioned above added the concepts of teaching "linguistic patterns" in combination with "habit-forming". This method was one of the first to have its roots "firmly grounded in linguistic and psychological theory" (Brown 1994:57), which apparently added to its credibility and probably had some influence in the popularity it enjoyed over a long period of time. It also had a major influence on the language teaching methods that were to follow, and can still be seen in major or minor manifestations of language teaching methodology even to this day.
Another factor that accounted for the method's popularity was the "quick success" it achieved in leading learners towards communicative competence. Through extensive mimicry, memorization and "over-learning" of language patterns and forms, students and teachers were often able to see immediate results. This was both its strength and its failure in the long run, as critics began to point out that the method did not deliver in terms of producing long-term communicative ability.
The study of linguistics itself was to change, and the area of second language learning became a discipline in its own right. Cognitive psychologists developed new views on learning in general, arguing that mimicry and rote learning could not account for the fact that language learning involved affective and interpersonal factors, that learners were able to produce language forms and patterns that they had never heard before. The idea that thinking processes themselves led to the discovery of independent language "rule formation" (rather than "habit formation") and that affective factors influenced their application paved the way toward the new methods that were to follow the Audiolingual Method.
1.4 Silent Way
In addition to "affective" theories relative to language learning, another challenge to the Audio-lingual Method was under way already in the sixties in the form of the "Cognitive Code" and an educational trend known as "Discovery Learning." These concepts most directly challenged the idea that language learning was all about mimicry and good "habit-formation." An emphasis on human cognition in language learning addressed issues such as learners being more responsible for their own learning - formulating independent hypotheses about the "rules" of the target language and testing those hypotheses by applying them and realizing errors. When students create their own sets of meaningful language rules and concepts and then test them out, they are clearly learning through a discovery/exploratory method that is very different from rote-learning. This appears to have much more in common with the way people learn their native language from a very early age, and can account for the way children come out with new language forms and combinations that they have never heard before. The underlying principles here are that learners become increasingly autonomous in, active with and responsible for the learning process in which they are engaged.
Caleb Gattegno founded "The Silent Way" as a method for language learning in the early 70s, sharing many of the same essential principles as the cognitive code and making good use of the theories underlying Discovery Learning. Some of his basic theories were that "teaching should be subordinated to learning" and "the teacher works with the student; the student works on the language". The most prominent characteristic of the method was that the teacher typically stayed "silent" most of the time, as part of his/her role as facilitator and stimulator, and thus the method's popular name. Language learning is usually seen as a problem solving activity to be engaged in by the students both independently and as a group, and the teacher needs to stay "out of the way" in the process as much as possible.
The Silent Way is also well-known for its common use of small colored rods of varying length (Cuisinere rods) and color-coded word charts depicting pronunciation values, vocabulary and grammatical paradigms. It is a unique method and the first of its kind to really concentrate on cognitive principles in language learning.
1.5 Total Physical Response (TPR)
Already in the late 1800s, a French teacher of Latin by the name of Francois Gouin was hard at work devising a method of language teaching that capitalized on the way children naturally learn their first language, through the transformation of perceptions into conceptions and then the expression of those conceptions using language. His approach became known as the Series Method, involving direct conceptual teaching of language using "series" of inter-connected sentences that are simple and easy to perceive, because the language being used can be directly related to whatever the speaker is doing at the immediate time of utterance (i.e., one's actions and language match each other). His thinking was well ahead of his time, and the Series Method became swamped in the enthusiasm surrounding the other new approach at the time in the form of the Direct Method.
Some 80 years later, in the 1960s, James Asher began experimenting with a method he called Total Physical Response, and its basic premise had a lot in common with Gouin's. The method was to become well known in the 70s, and it drew on several other insights in addition to the "trace theory" that memory is stimulated and increased when it is closely associated with motor activity. The method owes a lot to some basic principles of language acquisition in young learners, most notably that the process involves a substantial amount of listening and comprehension in combination with various "physical responses" (smiling, reaching, grabbing, looking, etc) - well before learners begin to use the language orally. It also focused on the ideas that learning should be as fun and stress-free as possible, and that it should be dynamic through the use of accompanying physical activity. Asher (1977) also had a lot to say about right-brained learning (the part of the brain that deals with motor activity), believing it should precede the "language processing" element covered by the left-brain.
TPR is now a household name among teachers of foreign languages. It is widely acclaimed as a highly effective method at beginning levels, and a standard requirement in the instruction of young learners. It is also admired as a method due to its inherent simplicity, making it accessible to a wide range of teachers and learning environments.
1.6 Community Language Learning (CLL)
In the early seventies, Charles Curran developed a new education model he called "Counseling-Learning". This was essentially an example of an innovative model that primarily considered "affective" factors as paramount in the learning process. Drawing on Carl Rogers' view that learners were to be considered not as a "class", but as a "group", Curran's philosophy dictated that students were to be thought of as "clients" - their needs being addressed by a "counselor" in the form of the teacher. Brown (1994:59), in commenting on this approach also notes that "In order for any learning to take place... what is first needed is for the members to interact in an interpersonal relationship in which students and teacher join together to facilitate learning in a context of valuing and prizing each individual in the group." Curran was best known for his extensive studies on adult learning, and some of the issues he tried to address were the "threatening" nature of a new learning situation to many adult learners and the anxiety created when students feared making "fools" of themselves. Curran believed that the counseling-learning model would help lower the instinctive defenses adult learners throw up, that the anxiety caused by the educational context could be decreased through the support of an interactive "community" of fellow learners. Another important goal was for the teacher to be perceived as an empathetic helping agent in the learning process, not a threat.
The Counseling-Learning educational model was also applied to language learning, and in this form it became known as Community Language Learning. Based on most of the principles above, Community Language Learning seeks to encourage teachers to see their students as "whole persons", where their feelings, intellect, interpersonal relationships, protective reactions, and desire to learn are addressed and balanced. Students typically sit in a circle, with the teacher (as counselor) outside the ring. They use their first language to develop an interpersonal relationship based on trust with the other students. When a student wants to say something, they first say it in their native language, which the teacher then translates back to them using the target language. The student then attempts to repeat the English used by the teacher, and then a student can respond using the same process. This technique is used over a considerable period of time, until students are able to apply words in the new language without translation, gradually moving from a situation of "dependence" on the teacher-counselor to a state of independence.
1.7 Suggestopedia (Suggestology)
In the late 70s, a Bulgarian psychologist by the name of Georgi Lozanov introduced the contention that students naturally set up psychological barriers to learning - based on fears that they will be unable to perform and are limited in terms of their ability to learn. Lozanov believed that learners may have been using only 5 to 10 percent of their mental capacity, and that the brain could process and retain much more material if given "optimal" conditions for learning. Based on psychological research on extrasensory perception, Lozanov began to develop a language learning method that focused on "desuggestion" of the limitations learners think they have, and providing the sort of relaxed state of mind that would facilitate the retention of material to its maximum potential. This method became known as "Suggestopedia" - the name reflecting the application of the power of "suggestion" to the field of pedagogy.
One of the most unique characteristics of the method was the use of soft Baroque music during the learning process. Baroque music has a specific rhythm and a pattern of 60 beats per minute, and Lozanov believed it created a level of relaxed concentration that facilitated the intake and retention of huge quantities of material. This increase in learning potential was put down to the increase in alpha brain waves and decrease in blood pressure and heart rate that resulted from listening to Baroque music. Another aspect that differed from other methods to date was the use of soft comfortable chairs and dim lighting in the classroom (other factors believed to create a more relaxed state of mind).
Other characteristics of Suggestopedia were the giving over of complete control and authority to the teacher (who at times can appear to be some kind of "instructional hypnotist" using this method!) and the encouragement of learners to act as "childishly" as possible, often even assuming names and characters "in" the target language. All of these principles in combination were seen to make the students "suggestible", and therefore able to utilize their maximum mental potential to take in and retain new material.
1.8 Communicative Approach
All the "methods" described so far are symbolic of the progress foreign language teaching ideology underwent in the last century. These were methods that came and went, influenced or gave birth to new methods - in a cycle that could only be described as "competition between rival methods" or "passing fads" in the methodological theory underlying foreign language teaching. Finally, by the mid-eighties or so, the industry was maturing in its growth and moving towards the concept of a broad "approach" to language teaching that encompassed various methods, motivations for learning English, types of teachers and the needs of individual classrooms and students themselves. It would be fair to say that if there is any one "umbrella" approach to language teaching that has become the accepted "norm" in this field, it would have to be the Communicative Language Teaching Approach. This is also known as CLT.
The Communicative approach does a lot to expand on the goal of creating "communicative competence" compared to earlier methods that professed the same objective. Teaching students how to use the language is considered to be at least as important as learning the language itself. Brown (1994) aptly describes the "march" towards CLT:
"Beyond grammatical discourse elements in communication, we are probing the nature of social, cultural, and pragmatic features of language. We are exploring pedagogical means for 'real-life' communication in the classroom. We are trying to get our learners to develop linguistic fluency, not just the accuracy that has so consumed our historical journey. We are equipping our students with tools for generating unrehearsed language performance 'out there' when they leave the womb of our classrooms. We are concerned with how to facilitate lifelong language learning among our students, not just with the immediate classroom task. We are looking at learners as partners in a cooperative venture. And our classroom practices seek to draw on whatever intrinsically sparks learners to reach their fullest potential."
CLT is a generic approach, and can seem non-specific at times in terms of how to actually go about using practices in the classroom in any sort of systematic way. There are many interpretations of what CLT actually means and involves. See Types of Learning and The PPP Approach to see how CLT can be applied in a variety of 'more specific' methods.
1.9 Natural Approach
Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell developed the "Natural Approach" in the early eighties (Krashen and Terrell, 1983), based on Krashen's theories about second language acquisition. The approach shared a lot in common with Asher's Total Physical Response method in terms of advocating the need for a "silent phase", waiting for spoken production to "emerge" of its own accord, and emphasizing the need to make learners as relaxed as possible during the learning process. Some important underlying principles are that there should be a lot of language "acquisition" as opposed to language "processing", and there needs to be a considerable amount of "comprehensible input" from the teacher. Meaning is considered as the essence of language and vocabulary (not grammar) is the heart of language.
As part of the Natural Approach, students listen to the teacher using the target language communicatively from the very beginning. It has certain similarities with the much earlier Direct Method, with the important exception that students are allowed to use their native language alongside the target language as part of the language learning process. In early stages, students are not corrected during oral production, as the teacher is focusing on meaning rather than form (unless the error is so drastic that it actually hinders meaning).
Communicative activities prevail throughout a language course employing the Natural Approach, focusing on a wide range of activities including games, role-plays, dialogs, group work and discussions. There are three generic stages identified in the approach:
1. Preproduction - developing listening skills;
2. Early Production - students struggle with the language and make many errors which are corrected based on content and not structure;
3. Extending Production - promoting fluency through a variety of more challenging activities.
Krashen's theories and the Natural approach have received plenty of criticism, particularly orientated around the recommendation of a "silent period" that is terminated when students feel ready to "emerge" into oral production, and the idea of "comprehensible input". Critics point out that students will "emerge" at different times (or perhaps not at all!) and it is hard to determine which forms of language input will be "comprehensible" to the students. These factors can create a classroom that is essentially very difficult to manage unless the teacher is highly skilled. Still, this was the first attempt at creating an expansive and overall "approach" rather than a specific "method", and the Natural Approach led naturally into the generally accepted norm for effective language teaching: Communicative Language Teaching.
1.10 Emotional-semantic method
At the root of emotional and meaningful method of learning foreign languages is Bulgarian psychiatrist Losanov, worked with patients at their own method of psychological correction. He created the so-called “Interest groups” and learning a foreign language was medical instrument. In Moscow in 2-language schools, method of Lozanov is used: “System-3” and “School of Kitaygorodskaya”. Naturally, the methods of Schechter Igor and Galina Kitaygorodskaya also differ from the system of Lozanov of how their students from patients of Bulgarian doctor.
School of Kitaygorodskaya is working on the method of the same name for 25 years, built on combination Lozanov' developments in fundamental courses, and takes both adults and children.
The method involves free Schechter linguistic communication of teachers with students from the first lesson. Students choose a middle name, familiar to the media studied language, and the corresponding “legend” architect from Glasgow, a violinist from Palermo etc. The method that the phrases and designs are stored naturally: Be wary of Moscow papan and maman? It is well known that many metropolitan gentry who lived at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries by the words of Pushkin, “in Russian know not well”. The patriotic wave swept Linguistics high society only after the events in 1812. To some extent the Russian nobility could be considered forerunners of those who study language by the method of Schechter. In his school, “System-3” not to install the creator of the method, which argued that the basic rules of grammar to the student, must “walk” independently. Grammar courses serve as bridge-ligaments between the two stages of training (a total of 3). Expected that after the first phase of a student will not be lost in the language is spoken after the second - do not get lost in the grammar of their own monologue, and after the third will be a full participant in any discussion.
Language teaching came into its own as a profession in the last century. Central to this phenomenon was the emergence of the concept of "methods" of language teaching. The method concept in language teaching--the notion of a systematic set of teaching practices based on a particular theory of language and language learning--is a powerful one, and the quest for better methods was a preoccupation of teachers and applied linguists throughout the 20th century. Howatt's (1984) overview documents the history of changes of practice in language teaching throughout history, bringing the chronology up through the Direct Method in the 20th century. One of the most lasting legacies of the Direct Method has been the notion of "method" itself.
Language Teaching Methodology Defined
Methodology in language teaching has been characterized in a variety of ways. A more or less classical formulation suggests that methodology is that which links theory and practice. Theory statements would include theories of what language is and how language is learned or, more specifically, theories of second language acquisition (SLA). Such theories are linked to various design features of language instruction. These design features might include stated objectives, syllabus specifications, types of activities, roles of teachers, learners, materials, and so forth. Design features in turn are linked to actual teaching and learning practices as observed in the environments where language teaching and learning take place. This whole complex of elements defines language teaching methodology.
Within methodology a distinction is often made between methods and approaches, in which methods are held to be fixed teaching systems with prescribed techniques and practices, whereas approaches represent language teaching philosophies that can be interpreted and applied in a variety of different ways in the classroom. This distinction is probably most usefully seen as defining a continuum of entities ranging from highly prescribed methods to loosely described approaches.
The period from the 1950s to the 1980s has often been referred to as "The Age of Methods," during which a number of quite detailed prescriptions for language teaching were proposed. Situational Language Teaching evolved in the United Kingdom while a parallel method, Audio-Lingualism, emerged in the United States. In the middle-methods period, a variety of methods were proclaimed as successors to the then prevailing Situational Language Teaching and Audio-Lingual methods. These alternatives were promoted under such titles as Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Community Language Learning, and Total Physical Response. In the 1980s, these methods in turn came to be overshadowed by more interactive views of language teaching, which collectively came to be known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). Communicative Language Teaching advocates subscribed to a broad set of principles such as these:
· Learners learn a language through using it to communicate.
· Authentic and meaningful communication should be the goal of classroom activities.
· Fluency is an important dimension of communication.
· Communication involves the integration of different language skills.
· Learning is a process of creative construction and involves trial and error.
However, CLT advocates avoided prescribing the set of practices through which these principles could best be realized, thus putting CLT clearly on the approach rather than the method end of the spectrum.
Communicative Language Teaching has spawned a number of off-shoots that share the same basic set of principles, but which spell out philosophical details or envision instructional practices in somewhat diverse ways. These CLT spin-off approaches include The Natural Approach, Cooperative Language Learning, Content-Based Teaching, and Task-Based Teaching.
It is difficult to describe these various methods briefly and yet fairly. However, several up-to-date texts are available that do detail differences and similarities among the many different approaches and methods that have been proposed. Perhaps it is possible to get a sense of the range of method proposals by looking at a synoptic view of the roles defined for teachers and learners within various methods. Such a synoptic (perhaps scanty) view can be seen in the following chart.
As suggested in the chart, some schools of methodology see the teacher as ideal language model and commander of classroom activity (e.g., Audio-Lingual Method, Natural Approach, Suggestopedia, Total Physical Response) whereas others see the teacher as background facilitator and classroom colleague to the learners (e.g., Communicative Language Teaching, Cooperative Language Learning).
There are other global issues to which spokespersons for the various methods and approaches respond in alternative ways. For example, should second language learning by adults be modeled on first language learning by children? One set of schools (e.g., Total Physical Response, Natural Approach) notes that first language acquisition is the only universally successful model of language learning we have, and thus that second language pedagogy must necessarily model itself on first language acquisition. An opposed view (e.g., Silent Way, Suggestopedia) observes that adults have different brains, interests, timing constraints, and learning environments than do children, and that adult classroom learning therefore has to be fashioned in a way quite dissimilar to the way in which nature fashions how first languages are learned by children.
Another key distinction turns on the role of perception versus production in early stages of language learning. One school of thought proposes that learners should begin to communicate, to use a new language actively, on first contact (e.g., Audio-Lingual Method, Silent Way, Community Language Learning), while the other school of thought states that an initial and prolonged period of reception (listening, reading) should precede any attempts at production (e.g., Natural Approach).
2. Theoretical aspect of effective methods of teaching
2.1 The bases of teaching a foreign language
In the given theoretical part of work it is necessary to pay attention on those basic statements in which the most essential parts of activity are reflected and generalized. That means the methodical principles underlying teaching.
Principles of teaching are understood as starting statements which determine the purposes, the contents, methods and the organization of teaching and are shown in interrelation and inter-conditionality. In our case principles are used to define strategy and tactics of teaching English language at all stages practically in each point of educational process.
As far as the result of teaching of pupils foreign language is formation their skills of using language as means of intercourse, the leading principle is the principle of a communicative orientation.
Its main function is in creation of all conditions of communications: motives, purposes and problems of intercourse. The communicative orientation defines selection and the organization of language material, its situational conditionality, communicative value both speech and training exercises, communicative formulation of educational problems, organization and structure of the lesson. This principle assumes creation of conditions for speaking and intellectual activity of pupils during each moment of teaching [1;22-23].
Proceeding from the aforesaid teacher should follow the rules:
1) Principle of communicative orientation
· Rule 1 - Selection of situations.
· Rule 2 - Recurrence and novelty.
· Rule 3 - Participation of everyone in intercourse.
· Rule 4 - Favorable conditions for intercourse.
· Rule 5 - Communicativeness of tasks.
As far as juniors have still insignificant experience of collective intercourse and they are taught not only to associate in English, but also to associate in general, teacher should provide the support on pupils' realizing the models of intercourse in native language, realizing the communicative function of this or that language unit. Realization of this principle is carried out through system of cognitive problems, solving which children "open" laws of the native language.
On the basis of this realizing there is children's acquaintance with the form and functions of corresponding units of English language.
Proceeding from this, it is possible to plan some rules - following which allows realizing this principle in teaching and educational process.
2) Principle of support on the native language:
· Rule 1. Display of generality between Russian and English languages.
· Rule 2. Formation of the common educational skills.
· Rule 3. Use of similarity and distinctions in the script.
· Rule 4. Use of similarity and distinctions in pronunciation.
· Rule 5. Uses of carry and avoidance of interference in teaching vocabulary and grammar.
It is established, that for each kind of speaking activity "set" of actions and even the lexical and grammatical registration [2; 34]. It has allowed formulating methodical principle of the differentiated approach in teaching a foreign language.
Thus the differentiation is carried out as though at different levels of generalization - precise differentiation is conducted in teaching:
· oral and written speech;
· speaking and listening;
· reading aloud and reading silently;
· script and spelling.
In teaching English language process of integration is realized, it shows, first of all, that mastering of various aspects of language, its phonetics, grammar, lexicon occurs not separately as certain discrete components of language, but is also integrated. Pupils seize and acquire them during carrying out of speech actions which realization can demand the use of a word, word forms, a word-combination, super phrase unity and, at last, the text, caused by situations of intercourse.
Considering the given specific principle of teaching the English language it is possible to formulate rules, their observance will help the teacher to realize this principle.
3) Principle of differentiation and integration:
· Rule 1. The account of specificity of each kind of speaking activity.
· Rule 2. Use of teacher's speech and sound recording for listening.
· Rule 3. Teaching monologic speech, proceeding from features of each form.
· Rule 4. Teaching reading aloud and silently in view of features of each form.
· Rule 5. Mastering of aspects of language in speech units.
· Rule 6. Use semi-typed font in teaching writing.
In a basis of teaching any subject at school including foreign language, there are general didactic principles. Such principles are: scientific character, availability, presentation in teaching, an individual approach in conditions of collective work and others.
Specific and general didactic principles express typical, main, essential, that should characterize teaching a foreign language at school and, first of all at the beginning stage where bases of mastering are pawned by this subject. The understanding of action of principles of teaching and direct use of rules will allow the teacher to carry out teaching effectively.
The learning is the active process which is carried out through involving pupils in a various activities, thus making it active participant in reception of education. In this bilateral process it is possible to allocate the basic functions which are carried out by each the parts. The teacher carries out organizational, teaching and supervising functions. Functions of the pupil include acquaintance with a teaching material, the training which is necessary for formation of language skills and speaking skills, and application of investigated language in the solving of communicative problems [4; 36].
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