Methods of teaching English language

Comparative teaching methodologies. Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language. Role plays as a method of teaching. Comparative characteristics of modern techniques of teaching english. Grammar translation method. Communicative approach.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид дипломная работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 18.04.2015
Размер файла 71,9 K

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I got up at eight a.m.

I've just got off the bus

I'm going to work today

Put the students in fours. Each draws a picture of a real past action of theirs. They pass their picture silently to a neighbor in the foursome who adds a past tense sentence. Pass the picture again and each adds a past perfect sentence. They pass again and each adds a was going to sentence. All this is done in silence with you going round helping and correcting.

Ask a student to draw a picture on the board of a person holding an umbrella. The umbrella looks like this.

Explain to the class that this `tulip-like' umbrella design is a new, experimental one.

Ask the students to work in small groups and brainstorm all the advantages and disadvantages of a new design. Ask them to use these sentence stems:

It/you can/can't…

It/you + present simple…

It/you will/won't…

It/you may/may not…

For example: `It is easy to control in a high wind', `You can see where you're going with this umbrella'

Give the students large sheets of paper and ask them to list the advantages and disadvantages in two columns.

Ask the students to move around the room and read each other's papers. Individually they mark each idea as `good', `bad' or `intriguing'.

Ask the student how many advantages they came up with and how many disadvantages. Ask the students to divide up into three groups according to which statement applies to them:

I thought mainly of advantages.

I thought of some of both.

I thought mainly of disadvantages.

Ask the three groups to come up with five to ten adjectives to describe their group state of mind and put these up n the board.

Round off the exercise by telling the class that when de Bono asked different groups of people to do this kind of exercise, it turned out that primary school children mostly saw advantages, business people had plenty of both while groups of teachers were the most negative.

Advantages the students offered:

In a hot country you can collect rain water.

It won't drip round the edges.

You can use it for carrying shopping.

It's not dangerous in a crowd.

It's an optimistic umbrella.

It's easy to hold if two people are walking together.

With this umbrella you'll look special.

It'll take less floor space to dry.

This umbrella makes people communicate. They can see each other.

You can paint this umbrella to look like a flower.

You'll get a free supply of ice if it hails.


Divide students into five equal groups. Each group will get one fairy tale to read. The stories are "The Ugly Duckling," "Snow White," "Hansel and Gretel," "Jack and the Beanstalk," and "The Three Little Pigs." Each group is responsible for collecting the following information:

* Who are the characters in the story?

* Where does the story take place?

* What are the major events of the story?

* Are there any magical or supernatural events? If so, what are they?

After the students read, discuss, and record the above information, split them into jigsaw groups. One person from each fairy tale assemble in a new group. In their new groups, students are each given three minutes to tell the other group members about the story they had read as well as the information they have collected. After that, the group has to create a poster and give a presentation that addressed two points:

1. What do all five stories have in common?

2. Using what you found in common, write your own definition for a fairy tale.

This is a well known theatre exercise which is extremely effective for encouraging controlled but spontaneous interaction in ESL classes.


Begin by presenting a list of debate expressions such as those listed.


Model a discussion. Choose yourself as conductor and 4 other students to be conducted. First, the conductor presents a topic. He then selects a student and an expression for the continuation of the discussion.

Conductor: Elephants shouldn't be allowed into Bangkok. Student B "Furthermore"

Student B: Furthermore, the government should fine their owners.

Conductor: Student A "On the other hand"

Student A: On the other hand, people in Bangkok are very generous when they see elephants.

Conductor: Student C "For example".

Student C: For example, when they see elephants they feel compassion and give them food and money.

Conductor: Student D "You may have a point".

Student D: You may have a point. Nevertheless, the pollution and traffic are terrible for the elephants' health.


To reinforce the use of these expressions further, follow this activity by a debate or writing exercise

Project method Activity

№1. My Favourites. Children prepare at home material (press-cuttings, pictures) which illustrates their interests, hobbies. At the lesson on the lists of colour paper they design the album where every pupil tells about his favourite things and pastime (about favourite colour, sport, town, etc.)

№2. Picture poem. Children are suggested to draw picture - poem, so that its shape is concerned with its meaning.

Housemates Roleplay

Duration: 20-25 min

Aim: Oral fluency practice; politely disagreeing

Summary: Two housemates try to resolve their conflicts.


This short roleplay activity requires no materials apart from a blackboard. The situation is actually roleplayed twice, with some phrases for "politely disagreeing" introduced before the second round. The idea behind this is that the first round will hopefully help the students realise the importance of being polite in order to avoid arguments, and so they will be more receptive to the new language which helps them achieve this.


Explain only that these sentences are from two different people, A and B. Ask, "Who are these two people, and what are they talking about?" Give the students a minute or two to discuss it with a partner (make it clear that they should only discuss your question, not attempt to roleplay the situation yet!).

Elicit the fact that A and B are housemates, and then explain the situation in more detail: they are not close friends, but they are living together in order to save money. However, lately B has been quite annoyed by some of A's habits. Write these habits on the blackboard, explaining them at the same time:

A: * plays loud music (all the time!)

* leaves his/her things all over the house (books, clothes, bags, etc on chairs, tables, and even the floor)

* doesn't pass on messages (if one of B's friends calls and leaves a message, A never remembers to pass it on)

* never buys food (when they moved in they agreed that A would buy the food one week, B the next week, and so on)

Ask who probably starts the conversation. B, of course. Suggest a polite conversation starter, such as:

"Could I have a word with you please?"

Then get the students to roleplay the situation in pairs. Afterwards, get some feedback from a few pairs. Was the conflict resolved, and if so how?

Now introduce and drill some phrases for politely disagreeing:

* No offense, but... (I don't like your music)

* I see your point, but... (I have a bad memory)

* I understand your feelings, but... (I can't concentrate)

Now get the students to swap roles and repeat the activity, making use of the new phrases. It's a good idea to get them to swap partners too--this should help keep the momentum up. At the end, get more feedback on how their conversations turned out.


If you intend to ask the students to swap roles and also swap partners before the second round, you should plan it carefully to avoid wasting time. In most of my classes, the desks are arranged in three columns which are each two desks wide, so here is the way I managed it: for the first round, I assigned roles so that everybody on the left-hand desk was A and the others were B (check that everybody knows their role by getting them to put their hands up). Then for the second round, I simply asked all the "A" students to stand up and move to the desk in front of them.


Short Roleplays, each character's three prompt sentences could be written on a roleplay card instead of on the blackboard. In this case, the 4 conflicts still need to be written on the board.

Find the Differences

Duration: 10-15 min

Aim: Oral fluency practice

Summary: Students speak in order to find the differences between two similar pictures.


This is a well-known activity, and a classic example of the principle of an "information gap" in communicative activities. If you put two pictures in front of a pair of students and tell them to talk about the differences, there is not much to motivate them. But if you arrange the activity so that each student only sees one picture, then an information gap is created. Cooperating with their partner to identify the differences becomes an act of genuine communication.

Although suitable pairs of pictures are provided in many modern textbooks, this activity is included here to remind teachers that it is not too difficult to create picture pairs by oneself, especially with access to the internet. For example, cartoons can be adapted. A suitable picture can be found to fit with almost any theme-based lesson.


The first step is to find a suitable picture. These might come from books and magazines, or from the internet. For example, try a search on Google Images (note that the Advanced Image Search allows you to limit your results to black and white, or a particular size). There are also several websites which sell cartoons online, such as CartoonStock.

In Discussions that Work (Cambridge University Press, 1981), Penny Ur writes:

"The preparation of such pictures is fairly simple and fun to do. You need a black and white line drawing (not photograph) with a fair amount of detail but without shades of grey (these do not reproduce well). The content of the drawing should not entail vocabulary beyond the level of the students. You photocopy it and then make the requisite number of alterations to the original drawing, using either a black fibre-tip pen (for additions) or white type-correcting fluid (for erasures)."

Alternatively, the modifications could be done on a computer using even the simplest "paint" application. If you create any picture pairs in this way, please send them to us for inclusion on this page.

See the Resources section for examples.

You need to make enough copies so that each student will receive either one copy of "Version A" or one copy of "Version B".


If the students are already familiar with the concept, then you just need to repeat the "check" questions. But the first time you do this activity, it is helpful to explain the concept using the blackboard: draw two simple pictures with one or two differences and explain that partners will each receive one version. They must not show their pictures to each other, instead they have to talk to each other and circle the n differences. Check:

* Are these pictures the same? (no)

* How many differences are there? (n)

* Can you show your partner? (no)

* What do you do when you find a difference? (circle it)

After the activity, you can either provide the answers, or elicit the answers from the students, or simply tell the students to put the pictures side by side so that they can check whether the differences they found really exist or not.

3. Comparative characteristics of modern techniques of teaching English

3.1 Features of techniques

As mentioned earlier, many modern techniques are communicatively-oriented, and one of their most important aim is to teach communication and ownership of speech means. Each of the techniques uses different tools, methods and principles. That is, each technique has distinctive specific features

3.1.1 Communicative method

The very first specific feature of the communicative method is that the purpose of education is not mastery of a foreign language, but “foreign language culture”, which includes cognitive, educational, developmental and educational aspect. These aspects include the introduction and study of not only the language and grammar, but also its culture, its relationship with the native culture, as well as the failure of a foreign language, its nature, characteristics, similarities and differences with their own language. They also include the satisfaction of personal cognitive interests' trainee in any of its activities. The latter provides an additional motivation to study a foreign language by students, who is not interested.

The second specific feature of the communicative approach is to capture all aspects of foreign language culture through communication. This communicative method first put forward the proposition that the communication should be taught only through communication that was for modern methods of one of the characteristic features. In the communicative teaching methodology communication serves as teaching, learning, development and education.

Another feature of the proposed concept is the usage of all the functions of the situation. Communicative learning is based on situations which (unlike other teaching schools) are understood as a system of relationships. The main emphasis here is put not to play with the help of visual aids or a verbal description of the fragments of reality, and to create a situation as a system of relationships between the trainees. Discussion on the situation, based on the relationship of trainees, can make learning a foreign language culture as possible natural and close to the conditions of real communication.

Communicative methodology also includes the acquisition and non-verbal means of communication: such as gestures, facial expressions, posture, distance, which is an additional factor in memorizing vocabulary and any other material.

A specific feature of the communicative approach is the use of conditional speech exercises, that is, those exercises that are based on full or partial repetition of the remarks of the teacher. As you gain knowledge and skills of the character of conditional speech exercises become increasingly complex, while the need for them does not exhaust yourself when statements trainees do not become self-sufficient and meaningful.

3.1.2 Project methodology

The effectiveness of the project techniques is provided to a greater extent by the intellectual and emotional richness of the education topics. Also we should note their gradual complication. But the distinctive feature is the fact of their concrete. From the outset of training the trainees are expected to participate in meaningful and complex communication, without simplification and primitivism.

The other distinguishing feature of the project methodology is a particular form of communicative and cognitive organization of students in draft form. That, indeed, appeared the name of the method.

The project is an independent, implemented by the trainees' work, in which verbal communication is woven into the intellectual and emotional context of other activities.

The novelty of the approach is that the trainees are given the opportunity by designing the content of communications, starting with the first class. The course has a little number of texts. They are reproduced in the work of trainees on projects proposed by the authors.

Each project is related to a specific topic and is developed within a certain time. Subject has a clear structure, is divided into subtopics, each of which ends with the task of project work.

Particularly important is the fact that students have the opportunity to talk about their thoughts, their plans.

Thanks to the work on the project creates a strong language base.

The specific skills are also a division into two types: learning to learn languages and skills of language users. For the development of the first kind of skills phonetic and lexical-grammatical exercises of training nature are used. These are exercises in imitation, substitution, expansion, transformation, restoration of individual phrases and texts. Their peculiarity is that they are given in an interesting way: as a text to check the memory, attention, games conjecture; puzzles, sometimes in the form of a soundtrack.

Education grammatical skills and their training are usually conducted in the form of work based on the tables. All the exercises, most importantly, are running on the background of the development project submitted.

To practice in using language a large number of situations is given created by using verbal and object-like clarity.

The obvious here is that the specific features of the communicative and projective techniques have many similarities, are built on identical principles, but apply them in different ways of learning. In the first case the study is based on the use of situations, in the second - on the use of the projects.

3.1.3 Intensive method

We now turn to the intensive method and consider its specificity. This method is based on the psychological term of “suggestion”. This is the first specific feature of intensive techniques. The use of suggestion can pass or shoot various types of psychological barriers in the trainees the following way. The teacher conducts classes in the light of psychological factors, emotional impact, using the logical form of training. It is also used in the classroom various art forms (music, painting, elements of the theater) to the emotional impact on students.

However suggestopedia training involves a concentration of training hours. At the senior stages, for example, it is advisable to devote six hours a week through the school component of the curriculum; they should be divided into three, two hours each. If necessary, the number of hours can be reduced to three.

Also, a specific feature of the intensive method is that suggestopedia widely based on the position of the different functions of the two hemispheres of the brain. Connecting the emotional factors in learning a foreign language will significantly intensify the process of learning, opening new perspectives in the development of methods of teaching foreign languages. The whole atmosphere of classes organized in such a way that the development of language is accompanied by positive emotions. On the one hand, this is an important incentive to create and sustain interest in the subject. On the other hand, the intellectual activity of students, backed by emotional activity, provides the most efficient memorization of material and mastery of speaking skills.

Another distinguishing factor is the active use of role-playing games. Specifics of intensive training are laying in the fact that the educational communication keeps all socio-psychological processes of communication. Role dialogue - is both a play and learning, and speech activity. But in this case, if the position of students is role-play game communication - play activity or natural communication, where the motive is not in the content of activities, but outside it, from a teacher role-play game dialogue is a form of organization of educational process.

According to L.G. Denisova [10, 35], the main efficient moments of interactive methods of teaching foreign languages are:

- creation of a strong motivation for immediate study, carried out with casual conversation and motivating communication closer to reality;

- high and immediate impact of training: on the second day of classes, students interact in the target foreign language, using verbal clichйs inherent in the core of training text - remember, the text of polylogue introduced for the first day of school;

- the presentation and the acquisition of a large quantity of speech, lexical and grammatical units; for one presentation 150-200 new words, 30-50 verbal clichйs and a few typical grammatical phenomena are introduced and assimilated.

This is also, of course, a specific feature.

All of the above is particularly intense techniques that provide greater effectiveness. These specific moments entirely differ from the two previous methods. Only one of them, perhaps, is similar. All three techniques considered essential for a successful learning teamwork in a positive emotional atmosphere. This intensive method pays more attention to activities such as speaking and listening.

3.1.4 Activity Based method

What are specific features for Activity Based Methods of teaching English? It should be noted that there are quite a lot of such learning tools specific to the Activity Based methods.

In the beginning, we note that the creators of this technique believe that we should teach separately design skills and the ability to work with content following information. In order to ensure a conscious mastery of linguistic tools and training in design, they must form before there will be a learning to work with content. From this follows another specific feature of this method.

In Activity Based method is a separation between the tentative mastery of language means and subsequent mastery of communication on the basis of existing knowledge, abilities, skills, use of language.

But really specific feature of Activity Based method is the selection of what is called linguistic communicative units. As for complete communication during training not only verbal status of linguistic units is required, speech status must be combined with freedom of choice in speech. Linguistic units which have the status of speech and provide a full communication with the terms of the freedom of choice, on the basis of meaning imparted called communicative language units.

And the last specific feature is the use of this method, a conventional version, which is used not only what students have mastered and what they are taught at this stage.

This shows that Activity Based technique differs significantly distinctive from the first three methods.

3.2 Similarities of methods

The objective of learning English is formulated as follows now: teach students to communicate in English. But when posed in this way it becomes a goal in itself. The purpose of education is much broader than the acquisition of certain skills and abilities, and opportunities for the subject “English” is much broader. Therefore, the purpose of teaching English language at present can be summarized as follows: to teach students not only participate in communication in English, but also actively participate in the development of the individual student.

For this reason, most modern techniques of teaching English based on the principle of active communication.

Communicability involves the construction of learning as a model of the communication process. To make learning the basic features of the communication process, firstly, the need to go to personal communication with students, making the work with the audience composing the normal psychological climate. Secondly, it is necessary to use all modes of communication to solve this problem - interactive (when there is an interaction with the teacher the students on the basis of any activity other than teaching), perceptive (when there is a perception of each other as individuals, bypassing the status of teacher and student), information (when the pupil and teacher change their thoughts, feelings, and not words and grammatical structures). The third necessary condition is the creation of communicative motivations - needs, which encourages students to participate in communion with the aim of changing the relationship with the interlocutor. Communication should be constructed in such a way that there was a gradual mastery of verbal material.

The motivation for communication can be various incentives. When working with a project methodology is the work on joint projects. The same stimulus is used in distance learning, and intensive methods. Frequently, the situation used in the training, are problematic. These situations should contribute to the formation of different opinions among the trainees and should not give clear solutions. Discussion of these situations can throw together different views is the need to defend their point of view, there is a need to communicate in a foreign language. The use of problem situations also has another positive side, because it provides an opportunity to solve and educational problems as foster proactive personality is possible only when discussing situations which are based on true values.

It is also important to note that situations learning, case must permeate all stages of learning verbal material at all stages of learning.

In addition, almost all methods commonly use collective joint activity. The tendency of replacing the individual work by the group work developed for a long time. Teamwork is intensifying collective. The formation of skills and competencies takes place in the system of collective actions that contribute to internal mobilization capacity of each student. The forms of collective interaction are easily implemented in the classroom. It is a work in pairs, a work of three, a work in micro-groups and in the complete group. It should also be noted that the role-play game communication, constantly interacting with the personal, is its prerequisite and condition. The situations of role communication in which the skills and abilities of foreign language communication develops, provide a transition to a higher level of communication.

Still, collective work in all methods implemented in different ways. In the communicative approach - is to create situations like the real, presenting issues of concern and discussion. In the project method is also used by the group working together on projects.

The next feature which is found in all methods is a cognitive autonomy. Take into account that now the teaching of English should be based on a new basis, which performs the shift from the transfer of knowledge to the trainees ready Gathering them in the process of active teaching and learning activities, thus forming an active personality with creative thinking. This principle is widely used in the Activity Based method, as it is designed primarily for people with established logical thinking. In addition, it allows you to consciously master the linguistic resources and use them intelligently, as well as it ensures the formation of a strong knowledge and skills.

All the more widely used in foreign language teaching methods become features of intensive methods of teaching English. They are, for example, multifunctional exercise. It must be remembered that polyfunctionality is inherent and must be common to all speech exercises in the existing practice of teaching. After all, while there are several types of activities: listening, speaking, and certain grammatical knowledge.

The same is true with the conditional speech exercises, once a sentiment typical of the communicative method. Now they are also used in an interactive method.

There is another idea, found in virtually all methods, with minor variations. This is the principle of the educational process on the basis of its quantization and programming in the communicative conception. Quantization in this case being everything from goals and finishing materials, training process is divided into definite cycles. In the project methodology similar phenomenon is called “the principle of systematicity”, which is manifested not only in the division of material on topics and subtopics, but in the cyclical organization of educational process. The teaching process in distance education undergoes structuring, course structure is modular, so the student can clearly recognize your progress from module to module, or choose a module, depending on their qualifications. Even the Activity Based technique divides the course of learning English (foreign) language, as mentioned earlier, the tentative mastery of language means and subsequent mastery of communication.

And use this systematization of teaching for more specific goal-setting courses, in addition, the material is grouped according to themes, more convenient to remember, as well as its use and secure.

Thus, we see that the modern methods, despite the large number of specific features, have much in common, lying in their very basis.

3.3 Positive and negative aspects of techniques

To determine how well each of the described methods, we will try to highlight and explore the pros and cons of each.

The communicative method has several positive aspects that should be actively used to work with him.

First and foremost, this is the purpose of training, which is not just mastering a foreign language, and learning a foreign language culture. This is achieved by subordinating and interrelatedness of all aspects of training. Following such installation, the teacher involves in the formation of the individual student, which is certainly a positive side.

Another advantage of this concept is the interface and the balanced development of all activities (speaking, listening, reading, and writing). This factor is very important.

Very good factor is the creation of an additional motivation, using interdisciplinary communication.

But the most important positive aspects were the use of communication as the main method of teaching English language, and use situations to realize this.

However, the unjust will not say that the latter two factors are characteristic for the other techniques discussed in the research.

This technique does not have pronounced negative features. Perhaps it has minor issues, but they are not expressed as clearly as positive qualities.

We now turn to the intensive method.

Undoubtedly, the biggest of its plus this is the fastest results. By the second day of classes the student to communicate in English using verbal clichйs, studied at the first lesson.

Also important are the psychological bases of advantage of this technique (of suggestion), which allow a psychologically comfortable in the classroom, but also used for more effective learning.

Big plus is multifunctional exercise, repeatedly referred to earlier, as well as very well a lot of time given to activate the new vocabulary. At each cycle of training is recommended to spend up to 20-24 hours, including on the activation of a new material - 18-20 hours.

There are also some disadvantages in this method. For example, too much new material, which is given for a presentation (150-200 new words, 30-50 verbal clichйs and a few typical grammatical phenomena).

The disadvantage is also the training, especially oral forms of communication: reading and listening comprehension, writing as a form of communication while becoming secondary, which is impossible to allow in any case.

The project methodology of foreign language teaching has distinct disadvantages, like the communicative method. In this case it is characterized by positive features, such as: capture the culture of designing, developing abilities to think creatively and independently, to predict the solutions to the task.

A positive feature is the extensive use of problem issues, it makes students think.

It is worth noting that the grammar is given most often in the form of tables, which greatly facilitates the acquisition and systematization of the students.

This course itself is very interesting and exciting, because it is widely used ego-factor.

Now turn to Activity Based methodology, which has the following advantages.

First, it is the formation of skills of choice of language when the speech based not only from the meaning imparted, but also the ability to construct a logical sequence.

The second positive feature is the possibility of constructing a system of grammar according to this method, using communicative units.

This technique also requires copious verbal practice.

Drawback of Activity Based method is that the goal of learning English (practical, educational, educational and developmental) are not sufficiently interconnected, and the fact that the percentage of independent cognitive activity is lower than in other methodologies.

Analyzing all of the above, we can say that the ideal methods of teaching English does not currently exist. Although the communicative and design techniques nowadays are the most harmonious and relevant to the modern methodology.


From all above-stated it is possible to draw the following conclusions.

The purpose of this work was to discover the most effective ways of teaching a foreign language to children.

For achievement of the purpose the works of home and foreign authors on the given problem have been studied.

In formation of interest to a subject the huge role is played by the person of the teacher. Therefore a pledge of successful mastering a foreign language by the pupils is professionalism of the teacher which should in the work not only take into account the methodical principles underlying teaching, but also to be in constant search of new receptions and means of teaching which will recover a lesson, will make it fascinating, cognitive and remembered.

The most useful for this purpose are the following receptions and methods: methods of constructivism, communicative methods, methods of projects and discussions, games and role games, etc.

In course work have been analysed all these methods and the receptions raising quality of training to foreign language on the basis of studying of various techniques of teaching, used in work with children. Many of receptions can be applied with success at teaching children of younger and more advanced age. The resulted techniques are interesting from many points of view, simple in application and can add essentially existing operating time of teachers foreign (including English) language.

While some of the methods are let be omitted by the teacher (like silent way, synthetic or analytic (every teacher choose his own way to work with students) all of these must be included in the learning process. They act like general concepts giving you a full length of techniques to apply within one method. They don't give strict directions of how to apply them but a wide space for creative work.

We considered modern teaching methods. Is there a general framework, which underlies all these methods? Yes, of course, the basis of these techniques is the number of general methodological principles. But first I must say that all these four methods have the common goal of education - to teach students to communicate in English, as well as participate in the development of individual students.

Basic principle of all these techniques is the principle of active communication, is a basis which is taken the situation of different nature (from the social and living up problem). The situations are realized through working in groups (teamwork), but these principles are both a student-oriented, and most effectively implemented in a positive psychological atmosphere where all feel comfortable and are in an atmosphere of mutual understanding and active interaction, sharing not only information but also emotions. Another significant point described methods is to create additional motivation for high interest of students in the learning process. Also worth mentioning is that in modern methods plays an important role independent cognitive activity of students. Not welcome submission of the finished material to students, they should show more independence, because it promotes memorization. The basic idea of these methods is the same: the best way of learning is communication.

Yet, regardless of such a large number of similarities, each technique has its own specific features. Thanks to them these techniques differ from each other and become separate, independent phenomenon in the methodology. Specific features of each technique gives their own identity, they also cause all the positive and negative qualities that are inherent in each of them.

After the analysis of positive and negative traits, we can conclude that the most effective, successful and harmonious is the communicative method of learning foreign culture.

But, however, the task of this research is not to identify the best methods of teaching English, but the allocation of their main features, which is designed to facilitate teacher selection methods for use.

It should be noted that the choice of teaching methods should take into account not only their own preferences, and, above all, should focus on the age, abilities, interests and psychological characteristics of students. Focusing on them, you can choose the most appropriate and effective method.

This work may also be useful in the creation and development of other techniques and also to highlight the major trends in methods of teaching English language today.

Most current methods are communicative-oriented. One of their main features is creativity of students. It is creative tasks, as is evident from this work are now a sign of modernity. They allow you to build a new work not only on spoken word but also in other activities.

With regard to the practical application of methods, I think that does not necessarily use the same method. It would be best to integrate several methods by combining their best side, for students.

At the moment there is no universal technique, since the effectiveness of a method depends on many factors. At the present stage of development methodology is the integration methods. We can say that the early formation of an integrated method that incorporates the best elements of different methods.


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Appendix 1

KWL Strategy

Purpose of the Strategy:

Bellanca (1992) explains that the purpose of the KWL strategy is to help students identify prior knowledge and experience as a bridge to a new concept, lesson, or unit (p.10).

Teacher's Role:

In the KWL strategy the teacher serves as a facilitator of learning in the classroom, utilizing the students to create part of the lesson plan and identifying key concepts that need to be addressed before the lesson ends. Bellanca (1992) stated that it is the teacher's role to plan a strategy to ensure students will have the questions they raised answered before the lesson ends.

Learner's Role:

In the KWL strategy the learner is asked to construct their learning experience by identifying what they know, analyze what information they do not know, and reflect upon what they learned. The strategy asks that the learner work as part of a small and large group to brainstorm ideas about the concept or topic. This strategy helps students to realize that learning is an ongoing process by asking them “what I want to know now” (Marzano & Pickering, 1997).

Prior Knowledge Needed by the Learner:

The process of asking good questions is essential to this educational strategy. Because of this, it is also important that students are able to ask appropriate questions that help them develop a deeper sense of understanding about the concept or topic. However, Bellanca (1992) noted that questioning is not an intuitive process and may be difficult for students who have grown up in “one right answer” classroom may lack motivation and/or the know-how to ask questions.

Bellanca (1992) also discusses the importance of using the DOVE guidelines to help students in the brainstorming process. Therefore, students need to have an understanding of what the DOVE guidelines are:

D = Defer judgment; accept others' ideas; avoid criticism and put-downs

O = Originality is OKAY

V = Variety and Vastness of ideas; explore many ideas; search for the best ideas

E = Expand by piggybacking on others' ideas; associate; build on others.

Students also need to have the ability to recall information (K step), analyze information (W Step, and evaluate what has been learned (L step). With practice and use of this strategy in the classroom, students may further develop these skills but they are important to have as they begin to work with this strategy.

Steps/Parts of the Strategy:

There are several easy steps when utilizing the KWL strategy. In essence, a teacher helps students identify what they already know about the topic, what they would like to know, and what they have learned (Ogle, 1986 in Marzano & Pickering, 1997). However, Bellanca (1992) offers a much more detailed list of steps to help teachers use the KWL strategy in the classroom:

1. Draw the KWL chart on the board or on the overhead.

2. Label each column and explain its use (the K column is for things they already know about the topic, the W column asks them what they want to know about it, and the L column is for what they learned after they complete the lesson or topic).

3. Invite students to brainstorm all they can recall about the topic from a variety of sources (parents, friends, media, books, movies, and other classes they may have taken).

4. After the brainstorming session, allow time for students to analyze the K column by eliminating wrong information, clarifying information, and noting the most important.

5. Begin to focus on the W column, asking the students to identify what they want to know about the topic. *students may need additional coaching and examples during this phase because some students have not been trained at questioning a topic.

6. Ask the students to identify which items they want to know are the most important questions that need to be asked.

7. Design a lesson which covers and all of the answers the students asked.

8. Review the topic by asking the students to complete the L column - what they have learned.

9. If questions still remain from the W column, you should discuss the information with the entire class.

10. Review with the students how to use and set up the KWL chart and ask where they might use a KWL chart or even why bridging information is important.

11. For additional lessons, pair up students in groups of three and have them use the KWL strategy on a sheet of paper, choosing a few groups of share their ideas with the class after they have brainstormed ideas, and at the end of each lesson.

What is Jigsaw?

Jigsaw is a cooperative learning strategy that enables each student of a “home” group to specialize in one aspect of a learning unit. Students meet with members from other groups who are assigned the same aspect, and after mastering the material, return to the “home” group and teach the material to their group members.

Just as in a jigsaw puzzle, each piece--each student's part--is essential for the completion and full understanding of the final product. If each student's part is essential, then each student is essential. That is what makes the Jigsaw instructional strategy so effective.

What is its purpose?

Jigsaw learning allows students to be introduced to material and yet maintain a high level of personal responsibility.

The purpose of Jigsaw is to develop teamwork and cooperative learning skills within all students. In addition it helps develop a depth of knowledge not possible if the students were to try and learn all of the material on their own. Finally, because students are required to present their findings to the home group, Jigsaw learning will often disclose a student's own understanding of a concept as well as reveal any misunderstandings.

How can I do it?

In its simplest form, the Jigsaw instructional strategy is when:

1. Each student receives a portion of the materials to be introduced;

2. Students leave their "home" groups and meet in "expert" groups;

3. Expert groups discuss the material and brainstorm ways in which to present their understandings to the other members of their “home” group;

4. The experts return to their “home” groups to teach their portion of the materials and to learn from the other members of their “home” group

In more detail, and written from a teacher's perspective, to conduct a Jigsaw in your classroom:

1. Assign students to “home” teams of 4 or 5 students (generally their regular cooperative learning teams). Have students number off within their teams.

2. Assign study topics to “home” team members by giving them an assignment sheet or by listing their numbers and corresponding roles on the board.

3. Have students move to “expert” groups where everyone in the group has the same topic as themselves.

4. Students work with members of their “expert” group to read about and/or research their topic. They prepare a short presentation and decide how they will teach their topic to their “home” team. You may want students to prepare mini-posters while in their “expert” Groups. These posters can contain important facts, information, and diagrams related to the study topic.

5. Students return to their “home” teams and take turns teaching their team members the material. I find it helpful to have team members take notes or record the information in their journals in some way. You may want them to complete a graphic organizer or chart with the new information.

6. Involve the class in a whole-group review of all the content you expect them to master on the assessment. Administer an individual assessment to arrive at individual grades.

How could I use, adapt or differentiate it?

· This strategy is great for differentiation; teachers (and students) can develop any number of possible RAFT's based on the same text that can be adjusted for skill level and rigor.

· Paula Rutherford's book, Instruction for All Students, offers a comprehensive list of "Products and Perspectives" from which to chose.

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