Methods of teaching English language

Comparative teaching methodologies. Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language. Role plays as a method of teaching. Comparative characteristics of modern techniques of teaching english. Grammar translation method. Communicative approach.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид дипломная работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 18.04.2015
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We distinguish three basic functions which are carried out by the pupil, and the teacher is to organize and direct the doctrine of the pupil. Then it is necessary to attribute acquaintance, training and application to the basic methods. Control including correction and an estimation is accompanying, as it is in each of the basic methods.

The organization of acquaintance with "portion" of a teaching material includes:

First, display. I.L.Bim marks, that display is addressed to sensual perception of pupils - acoustical, visual, motor [5; 3]. The teacher can accompany display by some explanatory;

Second, an explanation inducing pupil to reflection is necessary and enough for understanding and realizing of a perceived material with a view of the subsequent intelligent training and application. The teacher can involve various means of presentation.

Due to training memory of the pupil is enriched with new units of language and automatism in their use is developed. At application of new vocabulary organizing function of the teacher is shown most precisely. He should create favorable conditions, benevolent atmosphere for normal course of the speech act. He should make such conditions in which each pupil would like to participate in work of group, in which children aspired to understand the contents and sense of the text, they have read or listened to, and were not afraid to make a mistake. At application of new vocabulary it is supervised formulation of speaking skills, it is established, how the pupil can use each of them in the practical purposes.

The considered methods reflect essence of pedagogical process in which the teacher and pupils cooperate. These methods are used in teaching a foreign language at school, open specificity of a subject and are directed on achievement of the practical, educational and developing purposes.

Each of the considered methods is realized in system of the modes used by the teacher in the organization of teaching pupils, carried out by the latter through the decision of set of the specific targets which are bound up with cogitative operations and perception by sense organs. Modes as well as methods are structural-functional components of mutual action of teacher and pupil. But if the method names the basic, dominating activity mode is bound up with the concrete action making essence of formed speech activity [1; 52].

It is very important, that modes which are applied by the teacher, let pupils solve tasks, and not just demand simple storing. And also it is necessary, that the pupil not only reproduces speech unit, but also creates his own «speech product ", i.e. he can construct the statement in connection with a communicative problem facing to him, using units of language.

2.2 Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language

2.2.1 Constructivist teaching strategies

Characteristics of Constructivist Teaching

One of the primary goals of using constructivist teaching is that students learn how to learn by giving them the training to take initiative for their own learning experiences.

According to Audrey Gray, the characteristics of a constructivist classroom are as follows:

* the learners are actively involved

* the environment is democratic

* the activities are interactive and student-centered

* the teacher facilitates a process of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible and autonomous

Examples of constructivist activities

Furthermore, in the constructivist classroom, students work primarily in groups and learning and knowledge are interactive and dynamic. There is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas [1; 7]. This is contrary to the traditional classroom in which students work primarily alone, learning is achieved through repetition, and the subjects are strictly adhered to and are guided by a textbook. Some activities encouraged in constructivist classrooms are:

* Experimentation: students individually perform an experiment and then come together as a class to discuss the results.

* Research projects: students research a topic and can present their findings to the class.

* Field trips. This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed in class in a real-world context. Field trips would often be followed by class discussions.

* Films. These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into the learning experience.

* Class discussions. This technique is used in all of the methods described above. It is one of the most important distinctions of constructivist teaching methods.

Role of teachers

In the constructivist classroom, the teacher's role is to prompt and facilitate discussion. Thus, the teacher's main focus should be on guiding students by asking questions that will lead them to develop their own conclusions on the subject.

David Jonassen identified three major roles for facilitators to support students in constructivist learning environments:

* Modeling

* Coaching

* Scaffolding [6; 45-46]

Jonassen recommends making the learning goals engaging and relevant but not overly structured.

Learning is driven in CLEs by the problem to be solved; students learn content and theory in order to solve the problem. This is different from traditional objectivist teaching where the theory would be presented first and problems would be used afterwards to practice theory.

Depending on students' prior experiences, related cases and scaffolding may be necessary for support. Instructors also need to provide an authentic context for tasks, plus information resources, cognitive tools, and collaborative tools [6; 34].

Constructivist assessment

Traditionally, assessment in the classrooms is based on testing. In this style, it is important for the student to produce the correct answers. However, in constructivist teaching, the process of gaining knowledge is viewed as being just as important as the product. Thus, assessment is based not only on tests, but also on observation of the student, the student's work, and the student's points of view. Some assessment strategies include:

* Oral discussions. The teacher presents students with a “focus” question and allows an open discussion on the topic.

* KWL(H) Chart (What we know, What we want to know, What we have learned, How we know it). This technique can be used throughout the course of study for a particular topic, but is also a good assessment technique as it shows the teacher the progress of the student throughout the course of study (See Appendix 1).

* Mind Mapping. In this activity, students list and categorize the concepts and ideas relating to a topic.

* Hands-on activities. These encourage students to manipulate their environments or a particular learning tool. Teachers can use a checklist and observation to assess student success with the particular material.

* Pre-testing. This allows a teacher to determine what knowledge students bring to a new topic and thus will be helpful in directing the course of study.

* Jigsaw and RAFT activities (See Appendix 2, 3).

2.2.2 Communicative Teaching Method

The “communicative approach to the teaching of foreign languages” -- also known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) or the “communicative approach” -- emphasizes learning a language through genuine communication. Learning a new language is easier and more enjoyable when it is truly meaningful.

Communicative teaching is based on the work of sociolinguists who theorized that an effective knowledge of a language is more than merely knowing vocabulary and rules of grammar and pronunciation. Learners need to be able to use the language appropriately in any business or social context.

Over the last three decades, theorists have discussed (and continue to discuss) the exact definition of communicative competence. They do agree, however, that meaningful communication supports language learning and that classroom activities must focus on the learner's authentic needs to communicate information and ideas.

Grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary are, of course, necessary parts of effective communication. With the communicative method two primary approaches may be taken. Some teachers prefer to teach a rule, then follow it with practice. Most, though, feel grammar will be naturally discovered through meaningful communicative interaction.

The communicative approach is a flexible method rather than a rigorously defined set of teaching practices. It can best be defined with a list of general principles. In Communicative Language Teaching (1991), expert David Nunan [7; 18] lists these five basic characteristics:

1. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.

2. The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.

3. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language but also on the learning process itself.

4. An enhancement of the learner's own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.

5. An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom.

As these features show, the communicative approach is concerned with the unique individual needs of each learner. By making the language relevant to the world rather than the classroom, learners can acquire the desired skills rapidly and agreeably.

2.2.3 Using project methods in teaching a foreign language

In the European languages the word "project" is borrowed from Latin: the participle "projectus' means «thrown out forward", "striking one's eye". With reference to a lesson of foreign language, the project is specially organized by the teacher and independently carried out by pupils complex of the actions, finished with creation of a creative product. A method of projects, thus, is the set of educational and cognitive modes which allow to solve this or that problem as a result of independent actions of children with obligatory presentation of results.

Let's result some examples how to achieve at once at the lesson with the help of project methods the several purposes - to expand children's vocabulary, to fix the investigated lexical and grammatical material, to create at the lesson an atmosphere of a holiday and to decorate a cabinet of foreign language with colorful works of children.

The work with the projects teacher can realize in groups and individually. It is necessary to note, that the method of projects helps children to seize such competences as: to be ready to work in collective, to accept the responsibility for a choice, to share the responsibility with members of the team, to analyze results of activity.

2.2.4 The method of debates

It allows forming also the conscious attitude to consideration of problems, activity in its discussion, speech culture, an orientation on revealing of the reasons of arising problems and installation on their decision further. Here the principle of formation of critical thinking in pupils is realized. Language, thus, is simultaneously both the purpose and means of teaching. The method of debates helps pupils not only to seize all four kinds of speech activity, but to means of a language situation on a background of a problem in social and cultural sphere to find out the reasons of the arisen situations and to try even to solve them. Interest to the independent decision of a problem is the stimulus, driving force of process of knowledge.

Thus, application of a method of discussion allows making active cognitive activity of pupils, their independence, forms culture of creative operative thinking, creates conditions for use of personal life experience and received before knowledge for mastering new. As discussion and the decision of problems occurs during controlled group dialogue at participants skill to operate in interests of group is developed, there is an interested respect for interlocutors and conducts to formation of collective. Application of this method in aggregate with a method of projects will allow generating thinking and owning not only the English language, but also the expert understanding in various problems, capable to be guided in quickly varying information streams.

Not less interesting technique of activization of cognitive activity trained is the technique of role game which also can to reflect a principle of problematical character at its certain organization and allows to solve problem situations of a various degree of complexity. It can be used as independently, and in a context of a method of projects, is especial as the specific form of protection of the project. Trained apply the experience of the saved up knowledge, results of research during work above the project in realization of socially significant roles growing on the importance with passage of a cycle of occupations. Such modeling of situations of professional - business intercultural dialogue helps pupil to get used to various situations of the future activity which he can face in a real life. Problematical character of role game is realized through modeling of situations in which this or that problem can find the certain decision. Being in a role, pupil solves problem situations, evidently showing in full communicative competence the practical decision of a problem. Certainly, such way of protection should be adequate to a researched problem. Selection by that and problems for use of this or that method - a separate research problem. Here it is important, that communicative competence was formed in real acts of intercourse in which the English language is means of formation and a formulation of idea. Thus, pupil, being based on the skills generated with the help of a debatable method, it is capable to apply and develop these skills in concrete situations of dialogue, carrying out socially significant roles and skill to assert the position in problem situations.

2.2.5 Games

The advantages of using games. Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms. He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. "Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely" (Richard-Amato). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen). They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, "add diversion to the regular classroom activities," break the ice, "[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas". In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus ). Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future.

Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems.

Choosing appropriate games. There are many factors to consider while discussing games, one of which is appropriacy. Teachers should be very careful about choosing games if they want to make them profitable for the learning process. If games are to bring desired results, they must correspond to either the student's level, or age, or to the material that is to be introduced or practiced. Not all games are appropriate for all students irrespective of their age. Different age groups require various topics, materials, and modes of games. For example, children benefit most from games which require moving around, imitating a model, competing between groups and the like. Furthermore, structural games that practice or reinforce a certain grammatical aspect of language have to relate to students' abilities and prior knowledge. Games become difficult when the task or the topic is unsuitable or outside the student's experience.

Another factor influencing the choice of a game is its length and the time necessary for its completion. Many games have a time limit, but according to Siek-Piskozub, the teacher can either allocate more or less time depending on the students' level, the number of people in a group, or the knowledge of the rules of a game etc.

When to use games. Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game "should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do". Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen. At different stages of the lesson, the teacher's aims connected with a game may vary:

1. Presentation. Provide a good model making its meaning clear;

2. Controlled practice. Elicit good imitation of new language and appropriate responses;

3. Communicative practice. Give students a chance to use the language.

Games also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant, entertaining way. All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency.

2.2.6 Role plays as a method of teaching

Scholars suggest different steps and various successions in applying role play in teaching. Based on the empirical evidence, we suggest our step-by-step guide to making a successful role play.

Step 1 - A Situation for a Role Play

To begin with, choose a situation for a role play, keeping in mind students' needs and interests (Livingstone, 1983). Teachers should select role plays that will give the students an opportunity to practice what they have learned. At the same time, we need a role play that interests the students. One way to make sure your role play is interesting is to let the students choose the situation themselves. They might either suggest themes that intrigue them or select a topic from a list of given situations. To find a situation for a role play, write down situations you encounter in your own life, or read a book or watch a movie, because their scenes can provide many different role play situations. You might make up an effective role play based on cultural differences.

Step 2 - Role Play Design

After choosing a context for a role play, the next step is to come up with ideas on how this situation may develop. Students' level of language proficiency should be taken into consideration (Livingstone, 1983). If you feel that your role play requires more profound linguistic competence than the students possess, it would probably be better to simplify it or to leave it until appropriate. On low intermediate and more advanced levels, role plays with problems or conflicts in them work very well because they motivate the characters to talk [8]. To build in these problems let the standard script go wrong. This will generate tension and make the role play more interesting. For example, in a role play situation at the market the participants have conflicting role information. One or two students have their lists of things to buy while another two or three students are salespeople who don't have anything the first group needs, but can offer slightly or absolutely different things.

Step 3 - Linguistic Preparation

Once you have selected a suitable role play, predict the language needed for it. At the beginning level, the language needed is almost completely predictable. The higher the level of students the more difficult it is to prefigure accurately what language students will need, but some prediction is possible anyway [9]. It is recommended to introduce any new vocabulary before the role play [10].

At the beginning level, you might want to elicit the development of the role play scenario from your students and then enrich it. For example, the situation of the role play is returning an item of clothing back to the store. The teacher asks questions, such as, 'In this situation what will you say to the salesperson?', 'What will the salesperson say?' and writes what the students dictate on the right side of the board. When this is done, on the left side of the board the instructor writes down useful expressions, asking the students, 'Can the customer say it in another way?', 'What else can the salesperson say?' This way of introducing new vocabulary makes the students more confident acting out a role play.

Step 4 - Factual Preparation

This step implies providing the students with concrete information and clear role descriptions so that they could play their roles with confidence. For example, in the situation at a railway station, the person giving the information should have relevant information: the times and destination of the trains, prices of tickets, etc. In a more advanced class and in a more elaborate situation include on a cue card a fictitious name, status, age, personality, and fictitious interests and desires.

Describe each role in a manner that will let the students identify with the characters. Use the second person 'you' rather than the third person 'he' or 'she.' If your role presents a problem, just state the problem without giving any solutions.

At the beginning level cue cards might contain detailed instructions (Byrne, 1983). For example,

Step 5 - Assigning the Roles

Some instructors ask for volunteers to act out a role play in front of the class (Matwiejczuk, 1997), though it might be a good idea to plan in advance what roles to assign to which students. At the beginning level the teacher can take one of the roles and act it out as a model. Sometimes, the students have role play exercises for the home task. They learn useful words and expressions, think about what they can say and then act out the role play in the next class.

There can be one or several role play groups. If the whole class represents one role play group, it is necessary to keep some minor roles which can be taken away if there are less people in class than expected [11; 18]. If the teacher runs out of roles, he/she can assign one role to two students, in which one speaks secret thoughts of the other (Shaw, Corsini, Blake & Mouton, 1980). With several role play groups, when deciding on their composition, both the abilities and the personalities of the students should be taken into consideration. For example, a group consisting only of the shyest students will not be a success. Very often, optimum interaction can be reached by letting the students work in one group with their friends (Horner & McGinley, 1990).

Whether taking any part in the role play or not, the role of the teacher is to be as unobtrusive as possible (Livingstone, 1983). He or she is listening for students' errors making notes. Mistakes noted during the role play will provide the teacher with feedback for further practice and revision. It is recommended that the instructor avoids intervening in a role play with error corrections not to discourage the students.

Step 6 - Follow-up

Once the role play is finished, spend some time on debriefing. This does not mean pointing out and correcting mistakes. After the role play, the students are satisfied with themselves, they feel that they have used their knowledge of the language for something concrete and useful. This feeling of satisfaction will disappear if every mistake is analyzed. It might also make the students less confident and less willing to do the other role plays (Livingstone, 1983).

Follow-up means asking every student's opinion about the role play and welcoming their comments (Milroy, 1982; Horner & McGinley, 1990). The aim is to discuss what has happened in the role play and what they have learned. In addition to group discussion, an evaluation questionnaire can be used.

The methods submitted above are only less part of the whole list of various effective methods of teaching a foreign language. The teacher should remember that each of the submitted methods works more effectively if they are combined and applied together at every lesson. It is impossible to allocate the best and most effective of them, every teacher himself chooses for himself what method approaches for each concrete case better.

2.3 Methodological principles of modern methods of teaching

During the development of foreign language teaching methods, successive crises of the deficit and “overproduction” of ideas it was necessary for the formation of a new methodological direction. For example, the transition to communicative teaching carried out in apparent lack of meaningful and truly new ideas. The crisis has brought to life an active methodological and methodical search, which contributed to the development of modern teaching concepts of language teaching.

In order to understand what the basis of modern methods of teaching English is, it is necessary to consider in detail methodological principles which underlie these techniques.

The structure of the communicative method includes cognitive, developmental and educational aspects, which are aimed at raising student. Given this and the concept of “communicative”, as well as the complexity of learning systems, we can formulate the following methodological principles of communicative methodology:

- The principle of mastering all aspects of foreign language culture through communication. The communicative method was first put forward the proposition that communication should be taught only through communication. In this case, communication can be used as a channel for education, learning and development.

Communication is a social process in which the exchange activity, experience, embodied in the material and spiritual culture. In the communication by the emotional and rational human interaction and influence each other. This communication is essential to proper education.

Thus, communication serves as teaching, learning and development and education in communicative teaching methodology.

The process of learning foreign language communication is a model of the real process of dialogue on key parameters: motivation, focus, information communication process, innovation, situational features, character interaction and communicating system of speech means. This is what creates the learning environment, adequate real that ensures the successful mastery of skills and their use in real communication.

- An interconnected aspects of learning a foreign language culture.

The complex nature of foreign language culture manifests itself in the unity and the relationship of its educational, cognitive, educational and developmental aspects. Each of these aspects, in a practical sense, is equal. But the true mastery of one is possible only when adequate mastery of others.

In this regard, any type of work, any exercise in the learning process, integrates all four aspects of foreign language culture and evaluated depending on the availability of these data points.

This principle applies not only between of aspect, but also inside of aspect relationship. For example, the expected relationship and interdependence of all four types of speech activity (reading, speaking, listening and writing) within the educational process.

The need for an interconnected learning unsubstantiated regularity of training, according to which the acquisition is more successful than more analyzers involved in it. The interdependence is present not only in the learning process, but also in individual exercises specifically developed under this methodology.

- The principle of modelling aspects of the content of foreign language culture.

Volume-cultural, linguistic and lingua country-study knowledge of reality cannot be completely metabolized in the school course, so you must build a model of content object of cognition that is selected according to learning objectives and content course the volume of this knowledge, which will be sufficient to represent the culture of the country and the language system. It is also necessary to consider cognitive needs of individual students related to their individual interests, etc. Specific scope of training and its ultimate objectives require a methodology to create a model of content development, i.e. a certain minimum, which is required to meet the challenges facing the subject.

- The systems principle in the organization of foreign language teaching.

This principle means that the communicative learning system is constructed by the reverse: first scheduled final product (target), then determined the tasks that can lead to this result. This takes place within the course, each year, the cycle of lessons and one lesson and applies to all aspects. This approach provides a systematic training, with all its qualities: integrity, hierarchy, unity of purpose.

Systematic study builds on the students' mastery of the laws of each of its aspects. All training in the organizational plan is built on the basis of the rules of cyclicity and concentricity. Cyclicity manifested in the fact that a certain amount of material absorbed within the cycle of lessons, each of which includes a certain number of lessons. Any cycle of stages based on the development of a skill and ability in each type of speech activity.

Cyclicity is supported by a concentric approach, which applies to both verbal material, and the problems discussed.

Consistency is manifested in the fact that the proposed system includes not only foreign language teacher and student, but his parents, teachers of other subjects. Inter-subject connections are used as a means of extra motivation for students who are not interested in foreign language.

Systemic organization of the learning process also involves the acquisition of language study, that is, includes various levels of the educational process:

1) the level of education levels (elementary, junior, middle and senior),

2) the level of study periods, which are defined in step

3) the level of stages (stage of formation of lexical, grammatical skills, stage in the development of skills, skills development stage),

4) the level of learning stages, which are defined within the steps and sub-stages (stage substitution, transformation, reproduction, combining).

Each level has its own characteristics, which is determined by psycho-pedagogical characteristics of the students.

Thus, the situation has not only acted in the role of the so-called speech situation, but also in the broader status - the situation of training activities.

- The principle of individualization in learning foreign language.

In the communicative approach the student is perceived as a personality.

Each student as an individual has certain abilities, both general and partial nature. Communicative learning is aimed at identifying their original level and further their development. To that end, use special tools to detect abilities - special tests for Development - Exercises and legs.

When organizing joint activities the student will develop personal qualities necessary for effective cooperation.

The joint activity is organized so that students are aware that each of them depends on the success of the common cause. The combination of communication and other activities can bring learning to the real communication that takes place not only for communication but also serves other activities occurring simultaneously.

For a more productive mastery of students in all aspects of foreign language provides for a system means (memos and special exercises) for the formation of students' skills and abilities for the formation of the ability to learn, which is subjective individualization.

The third leading component of the principle of individuation is the so-called personal individualization. It requires registration and use of parameters pertaining to the individual: personal experience, the context of activities, interests and inclinations, emotions and feelings, outlook, status in the team. All this can lead to students' real communicative and situational motivation.

To prove this, it suffices to recall two facts:

1) communication, in this methodology - a way to keep your life in society and

2) training independently of the concept, is a model of the communication process.

In the system of communicative approach provides a package of measures to maintain motivation in teaching.

- Principle of thinking activity and independence of students in learning foreign language.

It lies in the fact that all tasks at all levels of education are problems of different levels thinking problem and complexity.

This technique relies on the intellectual needs of students, and this induces student to mental activity.

Thinking tasks designed to develop the mechanisms of thinking: the mechanism of orientation in the situation, assess feedback signals and decision-making mechanism for determining the objectives, selection mechanism, the mechanism of combining and design.

It is important to note that the more autonomy a student takes, the more effective will assimilate. Therefore, this method pays great attention to the development of independent thinking, in particular, in discussing the problems.

And, finally, autonomy, related to the control. In the communicative teaching used such a strategy, which plans to control the transformation of a mutual control of self-control. In order to do this as a hidden control, and conscious possession of the students' knowledge of objects and control criteria and their application are used.

- The principle of functionality in foreign language teaching.

This principle assumes that every student should understand that it can give not only practical language skills, but also to use the knowledge gained in cognitive and emerging dimension.

This principle is also what is going on mastering functions of speech activities as a means of communication that is understood and assimilated the functions that are performed in the process of human communication: reading, writing, speaking, and listening.

According to the principle of functionality, the object of learning is not verbal means alone, and the functions performed in a language.

On the basis of creating a functional model of speech means that should be studied in foreign language courses: are selected certain speech means different levels of expression for each of the speech functions. Depending on the purpose for the expression each function can be offered and the maximum and minimum number of means of expression. Of course, here is connected and non-verbal means of expression.

- The principle of novelty in the teaching of foreign languages.

Communicative learning is constructed in such a way that all of its content and organization permeated novelty.

Novelty prescribes the use of texts and exercises that contain something new for the students, the rejection of the multiple readings of the same text and exercises with the same assignment, variety of texts of different content, but built on the same material. Thus, the novelty provides a non-arbitrary learning, develops speaking, and productive speech abilities of students is of interest to educational activities.

In conclusion, it is important to note that all the above principles are interrelated, interdependent and mutually reinforcing. Therefore, adherence to the attached system requires compliance with all the above principles and how they are combined.

We now turn to the methodological principles which underlie other modern methods of teaching English. Thus, the basic methodological principles of conceptual importance for the design methodology are:

- The principle of consciousness, which provides a support system for students at the grammar rules, work on which is constructed as a spreadsheet, which in turn is a sign of the next principle.

- The principle of accessibility is manifested primarily in the fact that in constructing the course of design methodology considered relevant to student issues and concerns.

- The principle of activity in the project methodology is based not only on the outside of the activity (active speech), but also on the activity inside that manifests itself when working on projects, developing the creative potential of students and based on previously studied material. In the design method the principle of activity is playing a leading role.

- The principle of communicative, providing a contact not only with the teacher, but also the communication within the groups during project preparation, as well as with teachers of other groups, if any. The design methodology is based on a high communicative, expression involves students of their own opinions, feelings, and active involvement in real work, take personal responsibility for progress in learning.

- The principle of systematic is relevant to this method, not only because all the material is divided into topics and subtopics, but also because the technique is based on the cyclical organization of educational process: each set of cycles is calculated for a certain number of hours. Separate cycle is considered as a complete self-training period, aimed at addressing specific challenges in achieving the common goal of learning English.

- The principle of autonomy also plays a very important role in the design methodology. To prove this, we must consider the essence of the concept “project”. The project is a self-planned and implemented by the trainees' work, in which verbal communication is woven into the intellectual - emotional context of other activities (games travel, etc.). The novelty of that approach is that trainees are given the opportunity by the design content of communications, ranging from first class. Each project is related to a specific topic and is developed within a certain time. Work on the project is combined with the creation of a strong language base. And as the project work is carried out either by itself or in a group with the other trainees, we can talk about the principle of autonomy, as one of the fundamental.

The principles of design methods are closely interrelated and very important. This method teaches students to think creatively and independently planning their actions may be solutions to the challenges ahead, but the principles that underpin this method, make it possible training for any age cohort.

We proceed to the following method of teaching English language. This is an intensive method.

- The principle of collective interaction, which is leading in the method of activation, the most famous in the intensive method. This principle relates the objectives of training and education, describes the means, methods and conditions of the educational process. To the educational process, which was based on this principle, characterized by the fact that students interact with others, broadening their knowledge, improve their skills. They relationships optimal interaction and collective relationships are formed, which serve as a condition and means of enhancing the effectiveness of teaching, the success of each of the trainees depends largely on others. Such a system of relations existing in the school team, revealing and actualized in the individual the best part, contributes significantly to education and improving the individual. This is due to Becoming a positive psychological climate and largely affects the final result. Group education contributes to a more personal socio-psychological stimulus for learning. In addition, increased communication between participants of educational process helps to speed up exchange of information, communication and learning, accelerated development of skills and abilities. From the above we can conclude that the primary means of mastering the subject is communicating with partners in the group.

- The principle of learner- centered communication is no less important. It is based on the impact of communication, his character and style for the implementation of rehabilitation and educational purposes. In conversation, each is both impact and exposed. Especially important place here is the knowledge of other people, which is a prerequisite of human communication.

Communication is a pivotal feature of collective activities and personality in the team. It is inseparable from the process of cognition. Personality-role communication in English with intensive training - this is not a piece of the educational process and methodical step lesson plans, and the basis of an educational learning process.

- The principle role of the Organization of the educational process is closely linked with the previous two. The roles and masks in the group to a large extent contribute to the management of communication in the classroom. Teaching communication in an intensive training requires constantly active subjects of communication (all students) are not confined to just the perception of messages and responses to it, and try to express their attitude towards him, that is, “I am a Mask” always shows personality characteristics. Role play - this is one effective means of establishing the motive for foreign language students to communicate.

- The principle of concentration in the organization of educational material and training process is not only qualitative but also quantitative characteristics of the intensive method. Of concentration is manifested in various aspects: academic hours of concentration, concentration of educational material. All this causes high intensity and density of communication, a variety of forms of work. This encourages teachers to work in constant search for new forms of presentation.

- The principle of multifunctional exercise reflects the specificity of exercise in intensive teaching methods. Language skills are formed in the non-verbal conditions, fragile. Therefore, the most productive working believe the approach to learning a foreign language, which involves the simultaneous and parallel to the mastery of linguistic material and verbal activity. Polyfunctionality exercises can implement this approach. In a system of intensive training methods use a given grammatical form by a series of exercises, where the changing situation is realized at the same communicative intention. Moreover, for any student activity monofunctional, for the teacher is always multifunctional. In this method strictly required polyfunctionality.

The five principles discussed intensive language training provides a clear linkage discipline and training activities and thereby contribute to the effective implementation of learning objectives.

Activity Based methodology found it possible to use the upper secondary schools, except junior, as the first methodological principle of this technique can be formulated as follows:

- The principle of necessity of logical thinking.

Activity Based methodology focuses on the conceptual, logical thinking students, but admits the possibility of using the school from the age, it becomes apparent formed a logical thinking. Application of Activity Based methodology would systematize and synthesize available to the students of language and speech experience.

- The principle of activity.

With Activity Based methodology trainee activity is obvious. The need for this lies in its very title. This technique provides greater activity in a preliminary mastery of language means and subsequent mastery of communication on the basis of existing knowledge, training, skills, and use of language in speech.

- The principle of the primary master language means.

This principle arose from the fact that the creators of Activity Based Training techniques consider wrong language means in the process of working with the content as reported. They believe that this makes it almost impossible to fully own language means.

- The principle of using communicative units.

Creators Activity Based techniques identified a new communicative language unit, which resulted in a need to rethink the problem of language learning content, especially the principles of selection of grammatical knowledge.

As is evident from all of the above, the activity method has some specific tools inherent one. And if the previous method can be used with children at primary level, then this method is no such possibility.

The techniques described above can be subsumed under one title: “The best learning to communicate - is communication”.

And yet, despite the large number similarities, cannot miss differentiation methods, techniques, content of teaching foreign language, depending on the objectives and planned levels of tenure, the characteristics of pupils and the learning environment. Hence are the specific features of the methods of teaching English language.

2.4 Practical aspect of ways of teaching

In a theoretical part of this course paper it was spoken about various effective ways of teaching a foreign language. But if teacher wants effectively put them into practice, it is necessary to know how to use these methods at each separate lesson. Therefore, in a practical part of the given course paper the examples of various exercises will be shown for each of the methods, which were listed in a theoretical part. The teacher can adapt and make variations of them for his lessons.

Preparation

Prepare three large cards with wide on one, narrow on the second and broad on the third.

In class

1. Clear as much space as you can in your classroom so that students have access to all the walls and ask two students to act as secretaries at the board. Steak each of your card on one of the other three walls of the room. Ask the rest of the students to gather in the middle of the space.

2. Tell the students that you're going to read out sentences with a word missing. If they think that the right word for that sentence is wide they should rush over and touch the wide card. If they think the word should be narrow or broad they touch the respective card instead. Tell them that in some cases there are two right answers (they choose either).

3. Tell the secretaries at the board to write down the correct versions of the sentences in full as the game progresses.

4. Read out the first gapped sentence and have the students rush to what they think is the appropriate wall. Give the correct versions and make sure it goes up in the board. Continue with the second sentence etc.

5. At the end of the strenuous part ask the students to tale down the sentences in their books. A relief from running! ( If the students want a challenge they should get a partner and together write down as many sentences as they remember with their backs to the board before turning round to complete their notes. Or else have their partner to dictate the sentences with a gap for them to try to complete.)

Variation

You can play this game with many sets of grammar exponents:

Forms of the article; a, the and zero article

Prepositions

In class

1. Pair the students and give them the two texts. Ask them to spot all the differences they can between them. Tell them that there may be more than one pair of differences per pair of parallel sentences. Tell them one item in each pair of alternatives is correct.

2. They are to choose the correct form from each pair.

3. Ask them to dictate the correct text to you at the board. Write down exactly what they say so students have a chance to correct each other both in terms of grammar and in terms of their pronunciation. If a student pronounces `dis voman' for `this woman' then write up the wrong version. Only write it correctly when the student pronounces it right. Your task in this exercise is to allow the students to try out their hypotheses about sound and grammar without putting them right too soon and so reducing their energy and blocking their learning. Being too kind can be cognitively unkind.

4. Variation

5. To make this exercise more oral, pair the students and ask them to sit facing each other. Give Later-comer A to one student and Late-comer B to the other in each pair. They then have to do very detailed listening to each other's texts.

6. Feeling and grammar

In class

Ask the students to draw a quick sketch of a four-year-old they know well. Give them these typical questions such a person may ask, e.g. `Mummy, does the moon go for a wee-wee?' `Where did I come from?'. Ask each student to write half a dozen questions such a person might ask, writing them in speech bubbles on the drawing. Go round and help with the grammar.

Get the students to fill the board with their most interesting four-year-old questions.

Variations

This can be used with various question situations. The following examples work well:

Ask the students to imagine a court room-the prosecution barrister is questioning a defense witness. Tell the students to write a dozen questions the prosecution might ask.

What kind of questions might a woman going to a foreign country want to ask a woman friend living in this country about the man or the woman in the country?

And what might a man want to ask a man?

What kind of questions are you shocked to be asked in an English-speaking country and what questions are you surprised not to be asked?

Ask three students to come out and help you demonstrate the exercise. Draw a picture on the board of something interesting you have done. Do not speak about it. Student A then writes a past simple sentence about it. Student B write about what had already happened before the picture action and student C about something that was going to happen, using the appropriate grammar.


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