Universities in Britain: Cambridge and Oxford
Creation of the oldest universities in the United Kingdom of Great Britain - Oxford and Cambridge, which are two types of degrees: bachelor's and master's. Brief history of the city's founding, development of trade and industry, meaning nationwide.
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Universities in Britain: Cambridge and Oxford
university oxford cambridge bachelor
In England there are 47 universities, including the Open University which teaches via TV and radio, about 400 colleges and institutes of higher education. The oldest universities in England are Oxford and Cambridge. Generally, universities award two kinds of degrees: the Bachelor's degree and the Master's degree.
Cambridge is one of the best known towns in the world and it can be found on most tourists' lists of places to visit. Cambridge is famous for its university, which started during the 13-th century and grew steadily, until today there are more than twenty colleges. The oldest one is Peterhouse, which was founded in 1284. And the most recent is Robinson College, which was opened in 1977. But the most famous is King's College, because of its magnificent chapel. Its choir of boys and undergraduates is well known all over the world. The Universities were only for men until 19th century when the first women's college was opened. Later the doors of colleges were opened to both men and women. Nowadays almost all the colleges are mixed.
To the north of Cambridge is the Cambridge Science Park, the modern face of the University. This park has developed in response to the need of universities to increase their contact with high technology industry. It is now home to more than sixty companies and research institutes. The whole area is in fact very attractively designed, with a lot of space between each building. The planners thought that it was important for people to have a pleasant, park like environment in which to work.
Every year thousands of students come to Cambridge from overseas to study English.
A Brief History of Cambridge
Cambridge was founded in 875 when the Danes conquered Eastern England. They created a fortified town called a burh, from which the word borough derives. Cambridge was surrounded by a ditch and an earth rampart with a wooden palisade on top. However in 1010 Cambridge was burned by the Danes. That was an easy task when all the buildings were of wood.
By the 10th century Cambridge was also the administrative centre for the area and so it was a town of some importance, although it would seem tiny to us. By 1086 Cambridge probably had a population of about 2,000. By the standards of the time, it was a medium sized town.
Later in the Middle Ages, the population of Cambridge probably rose to about 3,000. In 1068 William the Conqueror visited Cambridge and ordered that a castle be built there. At first it was of wood but in the 12th century, it was rebuilt in stone.
The town of Cambridge was severely damaged by a fire in 1174. Fire was a constant hazard when most buildings were of wood with thatched roofs. Another fire raged in Cambridge in 1385.
In the Middle Ages Cambridge had a weekly market and by the early 13th century it also had a fair. In those days fairs were like markets but they were held only once a year for a period of a few days. People came from all over Eastern England at a Cambridge fair. Cambridge prospered because it was located on the river Cam.
In Cambridge there was a leather industry. By the 15th century there was also a wool industry.
In 1728 it was estimated that the population of Cambridge as more then 6,000, 1,600 of whom were inhabitants of the university. By the standards of that time, Cambridge was a big town. The first newspaper in Cambridge appeared in 1744. The first bank in Cambridge was opened in 1780.
The railway reached Cambridge in 1845. It stimulated the growth of industry in Cambridge by connecting the town to a huge market in London. From the late 19th century a new industry of making scientific instruments grew up in Cambridge. Cambridge gained gas light in 1823.
From 1880 horse drawn trams ran in the streets of Cambridge. The first electricity was generated in Cambridge in 1893.
In the 20th century the university, while still important, did not dominate Cambridge. New industries of electronics grew up. Making surgical and scientific instruments was also important.
Cambridge was made a city in 1951. The first cinema in Cambridge opened in 1910.
Today Cambridge has a population of 109,000 people.
Oxford - the University Town
This university town is very beautiful. The oldest university there is Oxford. The first of its colleges was founded in 1249. The university now has thirty-five colleges and about thirteen thousand students, many of them from other countries. There were no women at Oxford until 1878, when the first women's college Lady Margaret Hall opened. Now most colleges are open to men and women. It is not easy to get a place at Oxford University to study for a degree. But outside the university there are many smaller private colleges which offer less difficult courses and where it is easy to enrol. Most students in these private schools take business, secretarial or English language courses.
Oxford is, of course, famous for its first-class education as well as its beautiful buildings. Some of the most intelligent men and women in the country live and work here. Oxford gives them what they need: a quiet atmosphere, friendly colleagues and the four-hundred-year-old library, which has about five million books. Oxford has same of the finest architecture in Britain. Some of their colleges, chapels and libraries are there, four and even five hundred years old, and are full of books and precious paintings. You can see there many lovely gardens, where the students can read and relax in the summer months.
A Brief History of Oxford City
Oxford was founded in the 9th century when Alfred the Great created a network of fortified towns called burhs across his kingdom. One of them was at Oxford. Oxford is first mentioned in 911 in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
According to legend, Oxford University was founded in 872 when Alfred the Great happened to meet some monks there and had a scholarly debate that lasted several days. In reality, it grew up in the 12-th century when famous teachers began to lecture there and groups of students came to live and study in the town.
But Oxford was a fortress as well as a town. In the event of war with the Danes all the men from the area were to gather inside the burh. However this strategy was not entirely successful. In 1009 the Danes burned Oxford. However Oxford was soon rebuilt. In 1013 the Danish king claimed the throne of England. He invaded England and went to Oxford. In 1018 a conference was held in Oxford to decide who would be the king of England.
By the time of the Norman Conquest, there were said to be about 1,000 houses in Oxford, which meant it probably had a population of around 5,000. By the standards of the time, it was a large and important town (even London only had about 18,000 inhabitants). Oxford was the 6th largest town in England. Oxford probably reached its zenith at that time. About 1072 the Normans built a castle at Oxford.
In the 12th and 13th centuries Oxford was a manufacturing town. It was noted for cloth and leather. But in the 14th and 15th centuries manufacturing declined. Oxford came to depend on the students. It became a town of brewers, butchers, bakers, tailors, shoemakers, coopers, carpenters and blacksmiths. In the later Middle Ages Oxford declined in importance.
In the 16th century Oxford declined further in terms of national importance, though it remained a fairly large town by the standards of the time. Oxford was economically dependent on the university. The students provided a large market for beer, food, clothes and other goods.
From 1819 Oxford had gas street lighting.
In the late 19th century a marmalade making industry began in Oxford. There was also a publishing industry and an iron foundry.
Oxford gained its first cinema in 1910.
The fate of Oxford was changed in 1913 when a man named Morris began making cars in the city. In 1919 a radiator making company was formed. By the 1930s Oxford was an important manufacturing centre. It was also a prosperous city. Furthermore it escaped serious damage during World War II.
Oxford airport opened in 1938.
Today the main industries are still car manufacturing and making vehicle parts and publishing. Today the population of Oxford is 121,000.
1) What is Cambridge famous for?
2) What is the oldest college in Cambridge?
3) The most famous is King's College, isn't it?
4) When was Cambridge founded?
5) Who created a fortified town called a burh?
6) What population had Cambridge by 1086?
7) Who visited Cambridge in 1068?
8) What happened in Cambridge in 1174 and l385?
9) When did the first newspaper appear in Cambridge?
10) When was the first bank opened in Cambridge?
11) When did the railway reach Cambridge?
12) How many people live in Cambridge nowadays?
13) What is the oldest university in Oxford?
14) When did it open?
15) What is Oxford famous for?
16) When was Oxford founded?
17) Who created network of fortified towns called a burh?
18) When was Oxford University founded?
19) What population had Oxford by the time of the Norman Conquest of 1086?
20) When did Oxford decline in importance?
21) When did Oxford gain its gas street lighting?
22) When did Oxford gain its first cinema?
23) Who changed the fate of the town in 1913?
24) How many people live in Cambridge nowadays?
Answer the questions:
1) Cambridge is famous for its university, which started during the 13-th century and grew steadily, until today there are more than twenty colleges.
2) The oldest one is Peterhouse, which was founded in 1284.
3) The most famous is King's College, because of its magnificent chapel.
4) Cambridge was founded in 875 when the Danes conquered Eastern England.
5) Danes created a fortified town called a burh, from which the word borough derives.
6) By 1086 Cambridge probably had a population of about 2,000.
7) In 1068 William the Conqueror visited Cambridge and ordered that a castle be built there.
8) The town of Cambridge was severely damaged by a fire in 1174. Another fire raged in Cambridge in 1385.
9) The first newspaper in Cambridge appeared in 1744.
10) The first bank in Cambridge was opened in 1780.
11) The railway reached Cambridge in 1845.
12) Today Cambridge has a population of 109,000 people.
13) The oldest university there is Oxford.
14) The first of its colleges was founded in 1249.
15) Oxford is, of course, famous for its first-class education as well as its beautiful buildings.
16) Oxford was founded in the 9th century.
17) Alfred the Great created a network of fortified towns called burhs across his kingdom.
18) Oxford University was founded in 872 when Alfred the Great happened to meet some monks there and had a scholarly debate that lasted several days.
19) By the time of the Norman Conquest, there were said to be about 1,000 houses in Oxford, which meant it probably had a population of around 5,000.
20) In the later Middle Ages Oxford declined in importance.
21) From 1819 Oxford had gas street lighting.
22) Oxford gained its first cinema in 1910.
23) The fate of Oxford was changed in 1913 when a man named Morris began making cars in the city.
24) Today the population of Oxford is 121,000.
1) Chapel - каплиця;
2) Choir - хор;
3) Response - відповідь, відгук;
4) to increase - збільшувати;
5) to found - починати будівництво, закладати, засновувати;
6) to conquer - завойовувати, поневолювати; підкорювати, придушувати;
7) fortified town - укріплене місто;
8) borough - містечко, невелике місто;
9) to surround - оточувати, обступати;
10) ditch - канава, рів, канал;
11) rampart - (фортечний) вал;
12) tiny - маленький;
13) to rise (past rose, p.p. risen) - збільшуватися, зростати;
14) William the Conqueror - Вільям, Вільям Завойовник;
15) to build (past built, p.p. built) - будувати;
16) severely - суворо, жорстоко;
17) to damage - пошкоджувати, псувати, завдавати шкоди;
18) hazard - випадкова подія, стихійне лихо;
19) thatched roof - солом'яні дахи;
20) to rage - бушувати, лютувати;
21) fair - ярмарок;
22) to hold (past held, p.p. held) - тут проводити;
23) to prosper - процвітати;
24) leather industry - виробництво шкіри, промисловість із виробництва шкіри;
25) wool industry - промисловість із виробництва вовни;
26) to estimate - оцінювати, робити оцінку;
27) inhabitant - житель;
28) to reach - досягати, доходити;
29) to stimulate - підсилювати діяльність, стимулювати;
30) huge - великий, гігантський, величезний;
31) to grow up (past grew, p.p. grown) - виростати;
32) to gain - одержувати, здобувати, домагатися;
33) horse drawn tram - трамвай на кінській тязі;
34) electricity - електрика;
35) surgical - хірургічний;
36) to enrol - надійти;
37) chapel - каплиця ;
38) to found - починати будівництво, закладати; засновувати;
39) Alfred the Great - Альфред Великий;
40) network - мережа, сукупність чогось;
41) fortified towns - укріплені міста;
42) burh - бург (місто);
43) to mention - згадувати, посилатися на;
44) scholarly debate - наукова суперечка;
45) to grow up (grew, grown) - виростати, збільшуватися;
46) to claim - вимагати; висувати вимоги; заявляти про свої права на щось;
47) to invade - вторгатися; захоплювати, окупувати;
48) castle - замок, палац;
49) to decline - занепадати;
50) brewer - броварник;
51) butcher - м'ясник;
52) baker - булочник, пекар;
53) tailor - кравець;
54) shoemaker - швець;
55) cooper - бондар;
56) carpenter - тесля, столяр;
57) blacksmith - коваль;
58) fairly - тут досить;
59) iron foundry - чавуноливарний цех;
60) to gain - одержувати, здобувати, домагатися;
61) fate - доля; частка;
62) prosperous - процвітаючий, щасливий; успішний;
63) furthermore - до того ж, крім того; більше того;
64) vehicle - транспортний засіб, автомобіль.
1. "Britain 2003", an official handbook.
2. "This is Great Britain" L. Kolodyazhnaya IRIS PRESS, Moscow, 2008.
3. "English-Ukrainian dictionary" D.O. Romanov, Kyiv 2009.
4. "Modern Britain - Cambridge" L.I. Kurylenko, Kyiv 2004.
5. "Modern Britain - Oxford" L.I. Kurylenko, Kyiv 2004.
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