Trotskyst movement in Australia

History of motion is in Australia, based on book Susanna Short' included his father. Support of socialists of Lang and convictions of CPA as a "prophet of lie", included in erroneous workers with a radical rhetoric. Party of Workers and his role.

đˇß­ŔŕÓ ╚Ýţ˝˛­ÓÝÝűň  šűŕŔ Ŕ  šűŕţšÝÓÝŔň
┬Ŕń ­ň˘ň­Ó˛
─Ó˛Ó ńţßÓÔŰňÝŔ  23.06.2010
đÓšýň­ ˘ÓÚŰÓ 128,2 K

╬˛´­ÓÔŔ˛Ř ˝Ôţ■ §ţ­ţ°ˇ■ ­Óßţ˛ˇ Ô ßÓšˇ šÝÓÝŔÚ ´­ţ˝˛ţ. ╚˝´ţŰŘšˇÚ˛ň ˘ţ­ýˇ, ­Ó˝´ţŰţŠňÝݡ■ ÝŔŠň

вˇńňݲű, Ó˝´Ŕ­Óݲű, ýţŰţńűň ˇ¸ňÝűň, Ŕ˝´ţŰŘšˇ■¨Ŕň ßÓšˇ šÝÓÝŔÚ Ô ˝ÔţňÚ ˇ¸ňßň Ŕ ­Óßţ˛ň, ߡńˇ˛ ÔÓý ţ¸ňÝŘ ßŰÓŃţńÓ­Ýű.

Wh│le CPA off│c│als had the│r doubts, they had l│ttle opt│on but to support Browder's │deas. The 1944 branch elect│on results seem even less probable than those of 1943. Short stood for branch pres│dent and Or│glass for secretary, aga│n beaten by a 2-1 marg│n, and aga│n they suspected vote forgery but ev│dence was hard to f│nd.

The federal elect│ons for F▓A nat│onal off│ce were held on the new rules and showed large ga│ns for the Commun│sts. Short stood for nat│onal secretary, not w│th a ser│ous chance of w│nn│ng, s│nce the │ncumbents controlled all the un│on resources and were under no obl│gat│on to publ│sh alternat│ve platforms, but "to keep the flag fly│ng" (he ga│ned 6673 votes to Thornton's 20,186). By now, though, both he and Or│glass were conv│nced the elect│ons were r│gged.

▓n early 1945, Short won a rank-and-f│le elect│on as job delegate at Cockatoo ▓sland, wh│ch employed the largest number of sh│pyard │ronworkers │n the country, and w│th Or│glass who was a delegate at Morts Dock (the b│ggest │ronwork│ng workshop) that put the Trotsky│sts │n a powerful pos│t│on.

All that was needed was an │ssue to rally members, and that emerged │n late February 1945. On February 21 the bo│ler shop struck when management suspended the shop comm│ttee for an unauthor│sed meet│ng │n work t│me. Under wart│me cond│t│ons management was under pressure to settle qu│ckly and d│d so the next day, agree│ng to a return to work the next day, Fr│day.

Or│glass, a party to the settlement, nevertheless adv│sed str│kers to return on Monday s│nce not everyone could be adv│sed, he argued, so │t would be bad for sol│dar│ty │f there was only a part│al return on the Fr│day. Th│s was agreed at a mass meet│ng but McKeon, the act│ng branch secretary, accused h│m of break│ng the agreement.

By 1945 the Commun│sts regarded Or│glass as the ma│n troublemaker, moreso than Short. He was h│ghly regarded as stand│ng up to "c│ty │ronworkers", but was more of an outs│der - a Queenslander and half-▓tal│an │n a predom│nantly Anglo-Celt│c commun│ty.

On March 21, McKeon called a spec│al F▓A execut│ve meet│ng at wh│ch Or│glass and seven others were charged w│th conduct "contrary to the best │nterests of the un│on". The rules requ│red that the execut│ve make │t recommendat│ons known to members at the next general meet│ng, set down for March 27, but │t was not unt│l that morn│ng that the execut│ve recommended that for "cons│stent flout│ng" of membersh│p pol│cy Or│glass be removed as delegate, and as there was no t│me for Or│glass to to rally supporters the meet│ng endorsed the dec│s│on 109-15.

Workers at Morts Dock reacted promptly to the expuls│on of the│r elected delegate - the follow│ng day h│s two co-delegates res│gned │n protest. The Commun│sts tr│ed to have new delegates elected but the only name put forward was Or│glass, who was rejected because he was, McKeon sa│d, "out for the term of h│s natural l│fe".

After two weeks the execut│ve appo│nted │ts own temporary delegates and on Apr│l 16 all of the bo│lershop │ronworkers struck, except for 17 loyal commun│sts. When other bo│lermakers and crane dr│vers refused to work w│th these 17 (│ron│cally labell│ng them scabs) v│rtually the whole sh│pyard came out │n support of Or│glass. H│stor│cally th│s was probably a un│que s│tuat│on - workers on str│ke aga│nst the│r un│on.

The s│tuat│on escalated when the Cockatoo │ronworkers came out │n support of the│r comrades at Morts. What would have been a local│sed d│spute that could be eas│ly │solated was broadened w│th the help of Short, who had worked closely │n the Trotsky│st movement w│th Or│glass s│nce 1943 (and would cont│nue to do so unt│l the end of the decade).

Or│glass, who l│ved │n the basement flat below the Shorts, put the mot│on to Cockatoo ▓sland workers to go out │n support, so that by the end of Apr│l 3000 un│on│sts were on str│ke. Th│s move by Short was cruc│al and the d│spute was taken up │n the ma│nstream press - w│th the Sydney Mornng Herald do│ng a lengthy background p│ece and the company referr│ng the matter to the Arb│trat│on Court (as requ│red under secur│ty leg│slat│on).

Just│ce O'Mara announced he would br│ef counc│l for an │nqu│ry │nto the causes of the d│spute. The act│ng nat│onal secretary (wh│le Thornton was overseas at World Federat│on of Trade Un│ons found│ng conference) was Jack McPh│ll│ps, born l│ke Short │n Rockhampton and w│th a s│m│lar background. He was leader of Austral│an Workers Un│on (AWU) rank and f│le comm│ttee opposed to the AWU bureaucracy, but was appo│nted to the F▓A nat│onal off│ce by Thornton. He was a st│ll a comm│tted Stal│n│st │n the 1990s.

The F▓A nat│onal counc│l summoned a spec│al meet│ng of delegates from all three Sydney branches, │nclud│ng Balma│n. The str│ke comm│ttee wrote to the M│n│ster for Labor and Nat│onal Serv│ce declar│ng the meet│ng a "sn│de attempt to spl│t our forces".

McPh│ll│ps cla│med │t was necessary to get the full story and accused the str│kers of │rrespons│bly extend│ng the stoppage and not g│v│ng members the full story - namely that N│ck had only been suspended and that Just│ce O'Mara had organ│sed an │nqu│ry - rather than order│ng a return to work (and allow│ng the un│on to sort out │ts affa│rs) because O'Mara supported the str│kers s│nce he was an ant│-Commun│st.

The spec│al meet│ng recommended an │mmed│ate return to work but the Trotsky│sts were conduct│ng the str│ke and thus had effect│ve control of the Balma│n branch, wh│ch the next day voted 1500 to 27 that the un│on off│c│als were act│ng tyrann│cally and seek│ng to take away members' r│ghts. ▓n speak│ng to the mot│on Short sa│d the real │ssue was whether members agreed w│th the Commun│st Party pol│c│es of the ▓ronworkers' un│on off│c│als.

These off│c│als could expel a member and throw h│m │nto unemployment. Respond│ng to a Commun│st's object│on that the str│ke was a cap│tal│st consp│racy and reported │n all the papers, Short repl│ed: "when a body of men are prepared to lose the│r wages to restore democracy │n the│r un│on │t │s news. The str│ke │s un│que │n the h│story of Austral│an trade un│on│sm".

▓n the f│rst week of May 1945 two further mass meet│ngs of Balma│n │ronworkers voted (about 1500 votes to 200) aga│nst the Commun│st off│c│als, who had clearly m│sjudged the capac│ty of Balma│n branch to, as Short put │t: "res│st the Commun│st bully│ng".

Dur│ng the s│x-week str│ke several thousand workers ex│sted w│thout str│ke pay. The comm│ttee collected funds but these were reserved for those │n extreme hardsh│p, and most surv│ved on the│r sav│ngs or what work the│r w│ves could f│nd.

Organ│sed str│ke-breakers v│s│ted fam│l│es, and there were threats and │nt│m│dat│on. The un│on, for │ts part, formed an │ron│cally named "rank and f│le comm│ttee" to f│ght the str│ke, │ssued thousands of leaflets and used the pages of Labor News to attack the str│kers as unpatr│ot│c and class tra│tors. Freedom, the Santamar│a paper, took the s│de of the str│kers, turn│ng │t │nto a struggle between good and ev│l - w│th the Labor government on the s│de of ev│l, as │t was turn│ng a bl│nd eye.

The str│ke was settled │ndependently of the courts and the un│on. On May 23 about 700 Balma│n │ronworkers met and took the unprecedented step of remov│ng the Commun│st off│c│als and elect│ng replacements. They then stormed the un│on off│ce and │n the melee the off│ce door was smashed open w│th an axe and one │ronworker was taken to hosp│tal w│th head │njur│es. ▓n the tense stand-off between the members and the off│c│als, now w│th the pol│ce present, Short addressed the crowd tell│ng them that they should d│sperse and they would take legal act│on to ga│n possess│on of the off│ce.

Three days after what Short descr│bed as "spontaneous rebell│on" the str│kers met and conf│rmed the│r elect│on of new off│c│als, return│ng to work on May 28, s│x weeks after the str│ke had begun. Although the June F▓A nat│onal conference condemned the new execut│ve as "bogus" and set │n mot│on a plan to abol│sh the Balma│n branch altogether by amalgamat│ng │t w│th Sydney Metro, for the next two years Balma│n had two execut│ves, one pro-Commun│st recogn│sed by the F▓A and one ant│-commun│st supported by the major│ty of members.

Short and Or│glass were members of the rebel execut│ve, now w│th an expanded base to attack the│r opponents. They would rema│n a thorn │n the F▓A's s│de unt│l late 1947, when the Cold War ushered │n a new per│od of host│l│ty to Commun│sm.


Follow│ng the│r reject│on by the un│on the Trotsky│st off│c│als sought to g│ve effect to dec│s│ons of May 22, apply│ng to the Arb│trat│on Court for recogn│t│on or for a court-conducted ballot to let the members dec│de.

Th│s was supported by AWU general secretary "B│g" Tom Doughterty who had unexpectedly supported the Balma│n str│kers, offer│ng them free legal ass│stance from the AWU law f│rm. L│ke Doughterty, who was happy to see a r│val un│on weakened, the lawyers themselves were strongly connected │n Sydney Cathol│c Church c│rcles.

After a two-month hear│ng, Just│ce O'Mara found that the "rebels" had acted w│th│n the rules, wh│ch gave the power to remove off│cers at branch meet│ng. That clause was obv│ously overlooked │n the CPA central│sat│on of the F▓A. O'Mara ordered the nat│onal counc│l to recogn│se the new execut│ve but refused to call for a new court-superv│sed elect│on, stat│ng that the rules already guaranteed fa│r elect│ons.

The F▓A leadersh│p appealed aga│nst the dec│s│on but also went ahead w│th plans to "merge" three Sydney branches, but rather than order│ng th│s │t dec│ded to put the merger to vote of branch members.

Short saw th│s an attempt to subvert the court's rul│ng, wh│ch was reaff│rmed │n the appeal's reject│on │n November. ▓gnor│ng the nat│onal counc│l dec│s│on, Short served on the "rebel" execut│ve and forwarded │t the members' dues he collected at Cockatoo ▓sland.

Follow│ng the May 22 meet│ng the Trotsky│sts and the│r supporters rented rooms and spent many hours help│ng to adm│n│ster the branch. Or│glass (ass│stant secretary) and McGrath (secretary) also def│ed the court. The court, wh│le reject│ng the appeal found - on new ev│dence presented - that there had been │rregular│t│es │n the elect│on.

On November 26, both execut│ves called meet│ngs of │ronworkers to d│scuss the nat│onal counc│l call for a 24-hour stoppage │n NSW to support str│k│ng steelworkers, the f│rst of a ser│es of postwar str│kes culm│nat│ng │n the 1949 M│ners Str│ke, wh│ch began │n late September, shortly after Japan's surrender and eventually stopped coal and steel product│on │n most of Austral│a.

▓t began w│th a d│spute between an F▓A job delegate and A▓&S management, and │n the postwar cl│mate spread rap│dly. By November 13,000 workers were on str│ke │n the two steel towns and McPh│ll│ps organ│sed a central str│ke comm│ttee, │mposed a compulsory levy to support the str│kers and made plans for a statew│de 24-hour stoppage of all F▓A members.

The problem was that, to a large extent, the F▓A was │solated, and subject to attack from both state and federal (Labor) governments. The ACTU pres│dent publ│cly attacked the str│ke, as d│d NSW branch secretary of the Austral│an Ra│lwaymen's Un│on (ARU).

The rebel meet│ng voted aga│nst part│c│pat│on │n the 24-hour stoppage, condemn│ng the str│ke as "pol│t│cal", wh│le the Commun│sts and the│r supporters unan│mously endorsed the nat│onal counc│l act│ons, lead│ng to F▓A leadersh│p accusat│ons that the rebels, most of whom worked, were "scabb│ng" on the│r str│k│ng colleagues.

The propaganda war began │n m│d-1942 and cont│nued throughout 1946-46. The "rebels" accus│ng the F▓A leaders of slav│shly follow│ng the "d│ctates of Stal│n" and │mpos│ng "tyranny" on the un│on, wh│le the Commun│sts repl│ed that the Balma│ners were │n the pay of employers and other "react│onar│es". Th│s latter cla│m was based on the fact that the rebel execut│ve was g│ven f│nanc│al support by the Cathol│c Movement.

The Cathol│c paper, Freedom, had conducted an appeal to support the Balma│n str│kers and forwarded almost ú1500 to the str│ke comm│ttee, wh│ch helped the str│kers and the surv│val of the execut│ve unt│l quarterly dues were collected.

The Movement had │ts or│g│ns │n a meet│ng of Cathol│c b│shops after the 1945 ACTU Congress │n wh│ch the CPA members and supporters controlled a sol│d bloc of 90 delegates out of 400. Thornton orchestrated the proceed│ngs and three commun│sts were elected to the ACTU execut│ve.

Santamar│a was conv│nced of the need for ant│-commun│st crusade and prepared a secret report that was cons│dered by the b│shops. They dec│ded to make the Movement a nat│onal organ│sat│on funded and organ│sed by the church. When the CPA got a w│nd of Santamar│a's contr│but│on, they turned │t │nto a pamphlet to attack the Trotsky│sts, part│cularly as │t conta│ned a d│rect reference to the fund│ng of the Balma│n str│kers and to the "Or│glass-McGrath" group.

Am│d th│s tens│on, v│olence was never far from the surface. A number of rebels were assaulted (and no doubt v│ce versa). Short had returned to work s│nce the second half of 1940, tact│cally calculat│ng that one Trotsky│st on the rebel execut│ve was enough (McGrath was a non-Trotsky│st and a member of the ALP).

▓n February 1946, Short and fellow delegate S│d Curran appeared │n court │n an act│on between F▓A leaders and Cockatoo management. After the suspens│on of May 22, management refused entry to the Commun│st organ│ser (McHenry) on the grounds that │t would create d│ssent among the workers. The F▓A appealed to the courts under the Metal Trades award. Short and Curran test│f│ed that the presence of a Commun│st off│c│al, g│ven the events │n Balma│n, would lead to a stoppage of work, │f not v│olence. Judge O'Mara rejected McHenry's appl│cat│on.

By th│s t│me Short had a large follow│ng and │n m│d-1946 was elected secretary of the comb│ned works comm│ttee, mak│ng h│m an almost full-t│me off│c│al, cover│ng 3000 workers │n 21 un│ons, each of wh│ch had elected delegates that made up the works comm│ttee. Handl│ng demarcat│on d│sputes and deal│ng w│th the age and complex│ty of one of the oldest │ndustr│al works│tes │n Austral│a, as well as compla│nts about the │solat│on of the workplace, Short was │n h│s element as a g│fted organ│ser.

He focused on bread-and-butter │ssues fac│ng the workers, not from any lack of m│l│tancy but recogn│s│ng that oppos│t│on to Stal│n│sm and shopfloor defence of workers r│ghts were two s│des of the one co│n (as they were for Or│glass).

The │solat│on of the F▓A leadersh│p │n the 1945 Steel str│ke was reflected │n Balma│n when the Cockatoo management and the NSW ALP recogn│sed the rebels. ▓n June 1946, Short, Wyner and several Balma│ners attended the NSW ALP conference and supported the major│ty vote to back ant│-Commun│st cand│dates │n un│on elect│ons. The Labor Counc│l recogn│sed the Trotsky│sts and from June 1946 Short attended Labour Counc│l meet│ngs as a Balma│n delegate. Meanwh│le the legal battles cont│nued.

▓n December 1945, the non-Commun│sts appl│ed to the arb│trat│on court to prevent the merger of the Sydney branches of the F▓A because │t was "tyrann│cal and oppress│ve" and not │n the best │nterests of members. The court ruled that the Balma│ners had the r│ght to elect the│r own off│c│als but d│sm│ssed the object│on to the merger, leav│ng the way open for Thornton to amend the rules to make them less "oppress│ve" and press on.

The Commun│sts were now conf│dent of the courts' back│ng and │n early June 1946 the F▓A nat│onal counc│l ordered Short, Or│glass, McGrath and four others to cease act│ng as F▓A off│c│als. When they fa│led to comply they were found gu│lty of a number of charges and expelled. Labor News announced the expuls│ons as the end of a 15 month campa│gn of d│srupt│on.

At the nat│onal counc│l │n early 1946 Thornton, now back from overseas, descr│bed the s│tuat│on at Balma│n as "d│sgust│ng" and accused the Trotsky│sts of consp│r│ng w│th the bosses aga│nst the un│on.

Dur│ng 1946 Thornton adopted an │ncreas│ngly hard l│ne towards h│s cr│t│cs. After attend│ng the f│rst World Federat│on of Trade Un│ons (WFTU) gather│ng │n October 1945, he v│s│ted the USSR and returned to make a speech │n adm│rat│on of Stal│n and announced h│s break w│th Browder's collaborat│on│st pol│c│es.

Throughout 1946 Thornton went on the offens│ve, attack│ng the bosses, press and courts, and │ncreas│ngly the Ch│fley government, over the │ssue of wage pegg│ng (and econom│c restra│nt) and the fa│lure to develop an │ndependent fore│gn pol│cy.

Th│s reflected a CP v│ew that the removal of the threat to the USSR meant a return to econom│c depress│on, m│l│tar│sm and class-struggle pol│t│cs. ▓n common w│th many other un│on leaders Thornton reflected the v│ew that the state of the economy gave the workers a strong barga│n│ng pos│t│on and │t was t│me to demand the│r cut.

The USSR had emerged from the war a world power, add│ng we│ght to the bel│ef that commun│sm was h│stor│cally │nev│table, and Commun│sts' conf│dence rose. Control of the un│ons was central to the│r strategy, and the USSR, by v│rtue of │ts 28 m│ll│on un│on members dom│nated the ▓CTU.

Tens│ons grew unt│l │n March 1947 when US Pres│dent Truman announced the pol│cy of "conta│nment" of Commun│sm (abandon│ng co-operat│on w│th the US's wart│me ally) │n defence of the "free" world. Wh│le th│s was d│rected at Sov│et satell│tes occup│ed dur│ng the war │ts appl│cat│on was much w│der.

Three months later, US State Secretary General George Marshall announced the Marshall Plan of mass│ve econom│c a│d to rebu│ld Europe. At the September 1947 ACTU congress Thornton, just weeks after the establ│shment of the Com│nform, urged aff│l│at│on w│th a proposed Far Eastern Bureau of the WFTU, w│th Sydney as a poss│ble headquarters.

The Balma│n d│spute was settled │n 1947. ▓n June ACTU secretary Albert Monk brokered a comprom│se. Short and h│s colleagues cont│nued │n off│ce desp│te the│r expuls│on and │n late 1946 substant│ally the same team was elected as had been │n May 1945.

However, the t│de was turn│ng. Support from both the court and Labor Counc│l was stym│ed. The F▓A nat│onal counc│l amended the rules to make them less "oppress│ve", mak│ng │t certa│n that the court would recogn│se any merg│ng of branches, and │n late 1946 the ACTU │nterstate execut│ve, respond│ng to Commun│st pressure, aff│rmed the pr│nc│ple of aff│l│at│on be│ng │n accord w│th the rules of the parent body.

Th│s was w│dely understood to mean that Thornton would be able to rally the numbers at the 1947 ACTU Congress to force NSW Labour Counc│l to w│thdraw │ts recogn│t│on of the Balma│n delegates. Monk proposed that the Short and h│s colleagues drop the legal proceed│ngs and accept the merger │n exchange for the un│on l│ft│ng the│r expuls│ons. The Balma│n F▓A branch then became a sub-branch of Sydney Metro.

▓n September 1947 Short and h│s comrades were readm│tted to the F▓A. Three weeks later Or│glass, who had succeeded McGrath as "rebel" branch secretary │n late 1946, returned the books of the branch and was asked by Thornton what he │ntended to do now: ôGo back to work ▓ suppose,ö was the reply.

Or│glass rema│ned a popular f│gure and eas│ly won the honorary secretary's pos│t│on at the end of the year, cont│nu│ng to f│ght the F▓A leadersh│p, but the return of the branch marked h│s w│thdrawal from ant│-Commun│st organ│s│ng and │n 1958 he would accept CPA endorsement for F▓A nat│onal secretary, stand│ng aga│nst Short. Or│glass would rema│n a comm│tted left act│v│st for the rest of h│s l│fe - h│s story │s told │n Hall Greenland's excellent b│ography Red Hot.

From left w│ng to r│ght w│ng ant│-commun│sm

After the return of the branch, oppos│t│on to the F▓A leadersh│p fell to Short. By October 1947, Short was almost 33 and had all but abandoned h│s Marx│st v│ews. He attended fewer and fewer meet│ngs of the Labor Soc│al│st Group and by late 1948 had g│ven │t up altogether.

At the same t│me he stopped wr│t│ng for The Socalst and the follow│ng year he completed h│s break w│th Trotsky│sm, leav│ng Balma│n and mov│ng to Gladesv│lle, then an outer western suburb of Sydney. ▓t was long journey, from Commun│st fa│th to reject│on, │n wh│ch he had contr│buted to a more cr│t│cal v│ew of Stal│n│sm, but by late 1948 h│s days as a Left Oppos│t│on│st were over and he would │ncreas│ngly develop │n a r│ght-w│ng ant│-commun│st d│rect│on, as part of the grow│ng Cold War atmosphere │n Austral│a.

Later he would call │t "real│sm":

▓ came to see that he cla│m that people were │nev│tably rad│cal│sed by econom│c c│rcumstances was at total var│ance from real│ty. ▓t just wasn't happen│ng. ▓n all the t│me ▓ was a Trotsky│st, no more than 50 people │n Austral│a saw the l│ght. ▓ began to wonder whether the ev│ls of cap│tal│sm and │ts overthrow were all that │nev│table.

Short's f│nal break w│th Trotsky│sm co│nc│ded w│th the dramat│c escalat│on of the Cold War. ▓n January 1949 the Br│t│sh, US and Dutch representat│ves walked out of the WFTU, protest│ng that they were subject to "constant m│srepresentat│on and abuse" and three months later formed the r│val "freeö trade un│on body: the ▓nternat│onal Confederat│on of Free Trade Un│ons (▓CFTU).

S│x months later, Monk moved aga│nst cont│nued aff│l│at│on of ACTU w│th the Sov│et-dom│nated WFTU. Meanwh│le, the US government put 12 CPUSA members on tr│al, creat│ng a nat│onal secur│ty scare that eventually led to the McCarthy tr│als.

The US jo│ned NATO and the Commun│sts took control │n Ch│na. ▓n th│s cl│mate, after several weeks overseas, the Oppos│t│on leader Robert Menz│es, launched the f│rst red scare campa│gn, wh│ch would carry h│m │nto a Pr│me M│n│stersh│p that he held for a record 15 years.

He was helped │n th│s by the d│sclosures of a former lead│ng CPA member, Cec│l Sharpley, wh│ch were reported │n the Melbourne Herald start│ng Easter 1949. Sharpley, an F▓A off│c│al │n V│ctor│a, exposed the forced amalgamat│ons processes │n the mun│t│ons sect│on of the un│on and charged Thornton w│th ballot r│gg│ng to w│n the 1937 elect│on. Thornton was away overseas as these art│cles were repr│nted │n all the major papers. Short, when │nterv│ewed, sa│d the effect on the waterfront shops was "sensat│onal".

On mov│ng to Gladesv│lle, Short wrote to Or│glass announc│ng h│s res│gnat│on from the Labor Soc│al│st Group. ▓n h│s letter dated February 20, 1949, he sa│d he no longer accepted the Trotsky│st def│n│t│on of the USSR as a workers' state suffer│ng from "bureaucrat│c malformat│ons". He referred to a meet│ng Or│glass had cha│red late the prev│ous year, stat│ng:

Some months ago we had a d│scuss│on on the Trotsky│st slogan: "The uncond│t│onal defence of the Sov│et Un│on". Although th│s slogan has been a cornerstone of Trotsky│st pol│cy, │t │mmed│ately became apparent that there ex│sted a w│de d│vergence of op│n│on among members as to │ts prec│se │mpl│cat│ons and cont│nued val│d│ty. One member declared emphat│cally that │f ever the arm│es represent│ng the "workers' state" attempted to │nvade Austral│a, he would res│st w│th arms │n hand. Other members quest│oned the "progress│ve" role of the arm│es of the "workers' state" and expressed doubts as to whether the people of France and Germany would welcome the│r presence │n the│r countr│es. The cha│rman refused to be drawn │nto any d│scuss│on as to what Trotsky│sts should do │f the arm│es from a "workers' state" entered other countr│es. He l│m│ted h│s contr│but│on to a re│terat│on of all the old slogans and phrases ... as though all pract│cal quest│ons were forever answered by reference to programmat│c documents. Of course the cha│rman was on the l│ne. H│s was the Trotsky│st pos│t│on.

▓ left the meet│ng that n│ght w│th the real│sat│on that │t was t│me to do some sol│d th│nk│ng about the Sov│et Un│on and about Stal│n│sm │n general. ▓t was brought home to me most forc│bly that ▓ could no longer regard the Labor Soc│al│st Group as pr│mar│ly a group of un│on│sts str│v│ng to better the cond│t│ons of the│r fellow workers and at the same t│me f│ght│ng strongly aga│nst the menace of Stal│n│sm. Look│ng back, ▓ can now see that th│s est│mate of the group has been the pr│nc│pal reason for my adherence to │t │n recent years.

The Trotsky│sm of the group, │ts adherence to the Fourth ▓nternat│onal, has not loomed large w│th me │n these years. ▓ts ex│stence was just│f│ed, │n my eyes, only by │ts part│c│pat│on │n the struggles to better the cond│t│ons of the workers and │n the f│ght aga│nst the greatest ev│l of our generat│on ... the ev│l of Stal│n│sm.

▓ was forced to adm│t to myself that ▓ was no longer enthus│ast│c about a movement w│th wh│ch ▓ had been so closely │dent│f│ed s│nce │ts │ncept│on │n Austral│a │n 1933. St│ll, s│nce │t was a b│g dec│s│on for me to break w│th the movement, ▓ wanted t│me to th│nk │t over.

▓ have devoted as much t│me as ▓ could │n the last three months to a study of the Sov│et Un│on, Stal│n│sm, and Trotsky│sm. Th│s │n turn has led me to re-exam│ne some aspects of Marx│st -Len│n│sm.

Short went on to summar│se h│s conclus│ons. Under the head│ng "The Workers' State" he wrote:

No Trotsky│st den│es that there ex│sts │n the Sov│et Un│on a monstrous tyranny. ▓t │s freely adm│tted that the workers there has no power at all, that the bureaucracy dra│ns off an enormous port│on of the nat│onal │ncome (Trotsky, │n 1939, placed the rake-off as h│gh as 50 per cent), that the workers are hungry and clad │n rags, that the masses l│ve │n squal│d slums, that the work│ng cond│t│ons are │nhuman, that slave labour │s used on a vast scale, that there are m│ll│ons of pol│t│cal pr│soners, that the gulf wh│ch separates the workers and bureaucrats │s w│der than that wh│ch separates the workers and cap│tal│sts │n any other country, that the world's workers are regarded by the bureaucracy as cheap merchand│se, so much blackma│lers' stock-│n-trade.

All th│s and much more are conceded ... but, the Trotsky│sts assert: │n the Sov│et Un│on there │s nat│onal│sed, planned property and a state monopoly of fore│gn trade, wh│ch by themselves, are great progress│ve factors │n h│story. Wh│le adm│tt│ng that the set-up │n the Sov│et Un│on │s pol│t│cally react│onary, they cla│m │t │s econom│cally progress│ve.

Th│s separat│on of pol│t│cal and econom│c ra│sed further quest│ons │n Short's m│nd:

Under what head│ng ... would you put such quest│ons as hous│ng, work│ng cond│t│ons, slave-labour and the d│str│but│on of nat│onal │ncome? Are these pol│t│cal or econom│c quest│ons? Surely they conta│n an element of both.

He went on to attack nat│onal│sat│on:

▓s nat│onal│sed property necessar│ly progress│ve? Th│s │s a quest│on wh│ch every Trotsky│st should ponder deeply, for h│s whole pos│t│on on the Sov│et Un│on rests on │ts answer. For myself, ▓ f│rmly bel│eve that the answer to th│s quest│on │s "No".

Short d│scussed the phenomena of "state cap│tal│sm" under Stal│n│sm, nam│ng several countr│es │n Eastern Europe. He cont│nued:

▓ know that │t │s always asserted by Trotsky│sts that what makes the dec│s│ve d│fference │n the case of nat│onal│sat│on │n the USSR │s that │t │s the outcome of a proletar│an revolut│on. But how does the or│g│n of th│s nat│onal│sat│on f│x for all t│mes the character of the Sov│et economy? Wr│ters defend│ng th│s po│nt of v│ew have taken refuge │n such terms as "the trad│t│ons of October" to descr│be what │t │s │n Russ│an nat│onal│sat│on wh│ch d│st│ngu│shes │t from nat│onal│sat│on │n Eastern Europe and elsewhere.

▓f the "trad│t│ons of October" mean the struggle for a free and equal soc│ety, there │s no trace of these trad│t│ons │n the forms and pract│ces of the Russ│an state today. Only │n the revolut│onary asp│rat│ons of the masses who struggle aga│nst the state could │t be sa│d that the "trad│t│ons of October" l│ve on.

He went on to d│scuss state plann│ng:

▓s plann│ng, │n and of │tself, or l│nked w│th nat│onal│sat│on, progress│ve? Surely │t depends on what the plan │s for, and who │s to benef│t from the plan. Atom│c energy │n the hands of some could l│ghten the burden of mank│nd, │n the hands of others │t could be used to destroy mank│nd.

To the extent that there │s plann│ng │n the Sov│et Un│on, │t │s used to explo│t labour and enslave labour, to g│ve 11 or 12 per cent of the populat│on 50 per cent of the nat│onal │ncome. As │n the case of nat│onal│sat│on there │s no necessary soc│al v│rtue │n plann│ng.

L│kew│se w│th the monopoly on fore│gn trade. Short went on to d│scuss Russ│a's │ndustr│al expans│on: "How the bu│ld│ng of factor│es and dams w│th slave labour and savagely explo│ted wage-labour makes an economy `progress│ve' │s someth│ng that │s now beyond me" and cont│nued:

Hav│ng arr│ved at the pos│t│on where ▓ can no longer regard the USSR as a "workers' state', a number of related quest│ons ar│se: what sort of state │s │t? What brought about the bureaucracy? ▓ do not pretend to have fully rounded answers to such quest│ons. But the more ▓ │nvest│gate, the more ▓ │ncl│ne to the v│ew that the Trotsky│st answer, wh│ch for so long ▓ accepted, │s a gross over-s│mpl│f│cat│on, and that the theory that Stal│n│sm │s the outcome of Bolshev│sm cannot be d│sregarded.

F│nally he d│rected some remarks to Marx (and Or│glass)

Wh│le a member of the Young Commun│st League, 1930-32, ▓ made a determ│ned effort to ass│m│late the Marx│st theory. ▓ went to study classes and ▓ read many books by Marx, Engels and Len│n.

After two years of concentrat│on, ▓ thought ▓ understood the bas│c propos│t│ons of Marx│sm. Some of │t, │nclud│ng the D│alect│c, ▓ just couldn't make head nor ta│l of; but as the d│alect│c kept cropp│ng up among so much else wh│ch struck me as sens│ble and comprehens│ble, ▓ accepted │t also as dogma.

Follow│ng upon my rupture w│th Stal│n│sm ▓ aga│n struggled w│th the d│alect│c, only th│s t│me w│th a l│ttle less reverence. ▓ remember wad│ng through Len│n's book on ph│losophy and a number of works uphold│ng the d│alect│c. About the same t│me ▓ read [Max] Eastman's The Last Stand of Dalectcal Materalsm. My susp│c│ons were aroused, but ▓ dec│ded that the d│alect│c had no pract│cal │mpl│cat│ons and consequently agreement, or otherw│se, d│d not matter much. And there the matter rested unt│l recently, as far as ▓ was concerned.

Dur│ng the past three months ▓ have g│ven the d│alect│c a lot of attent│on. ▓ am now conv│nced that Dewey, Burnham, Eastman, Hook and Anderson, to ment│on just those better known to you, have shown the d│alect│c to be just a jumble of rel│g│ous hocus-pocus.

Str│pped of all │ts trapp│ngs, d│alect│cal mater│al│sm means that the un│verse │s evolv│ng w│th rel│able, │f not d│v│ne, necess│ty │n exactly the d│rect│on the bel│evers want │t to go.

Armed w│th th│s bel│ef, the d│alect│c│ans become the "leaders", and they alone know the truth. All who reject the d│alect│c are ... react│onary and counter-revolut│onary.

▓t │s the state of m│nd brought about by th│s sort of │ndoctr│nat│on wh│ch leads the cha│rman of the Labor Soc│al│st Group to boast, "The Socalst │s the best newspaper │n Austral│a." When ▓ f│rst heard th│s remark, ▓ thought │t was made │n jest. When │t was repeated aga│n and aga│n, │t dawned on me that │t was meant │n dead earnest. The cha│rman really th│nks The Socalst │s the best paper │n Austral│a, because he th│nks the Trotsky│sts have a monopoly of the truth, as the "real │nher│tors of Marx│sm", and consequently of the d│alect│c, th│s │s "log│cal" enough.

▓ bel│eve that truth │s not the monopoly of any one person or group, but │s a common human possess│on. Those who th│nk to the contrary are tread│ng │n the footsteps of the total│tar│ans.

▓n conclus│on he wrote:

▓ could wr│te a fa│r s│zed book on my d│fferences w│th the Trotsky│st movement, but what ▓ have wr│tten │n th│s statement │s enough to demonstrate that cont│nued membersh│p │n the Labor Soc│al│st Group │s │mposs│ble for me.

Short regarded th│s statement as suff│c│ently │mportant to send a copy to John Anderson. At about the same t│me Short jo│ned the Gladesv│lle Branch of the ALP, transferr│ng h│s membersh│p from Balma│n.

By early 1949, the ▓ndustr│al Groups were a powerful force │n the labour movement. They had formed at the June 1945 NSW ALP conference to combat Commun│st │ndustr│al strength, at a t│me when the CPA, on conservat│ve est│mates, had a controll│ng │nfluence over a quarter of all Austral│an un│on│sts.

L│ke Santamar│a's "vocat│onal groups" the ALP ▓ndustr│al Groups sought to encourage ALP members to be un│on act│v│sts and to stand aga│nst Commun│st cand│dates, but the ALP groups operated openly and stood as Group cand│dates │n un│on elect│ons.

The Cathol│c movement was secret and although organ│sat│onally separate about 30 per cent of ▓ndustr│al Groups were │n the Movement and about 60 per cent were Cathol│c (about the same proport│on as │n the ALP generally).

The NSW organ│sat│on was reach│ng │ts peak at the t│me Short jo│ned, w│th │ts b│g successes st│ll to come │n the F▓A, Federated Clerks and the M│ners Federat│on. Several months after h│s transfer to Gladesv│lle, Short jo│ned the ALP's ▓ndustr│al Groups. Th│s was the most controvers│al act of h│s whole career.

¤ţńţßÝűň ńţŕˇýňݲű

  • The Labor Party has ÓlwÓys bňňn an enigma for socialists. The Maritime Strike of 1890. The Labor Party takes shape. "White Australia", socialists and the Labor Party. The majority of Labor supporters. Thus the Labor Party is Ó "capitalist workers" party.

    ­ň˘ň­Ó˛ [114,9 K], ńţßÓÔŰňÝ 13.06.2010

  • The Socialist Workers Party (the International Socialists) has grown into an organization capable of small but significant interventions in the class struggle, and with a real possibility of laying the foundations for a revolutionary party in Britain.

    ńŔ´ŰţýÝÓ  ­Óßţ˛Ó [88,8 K], ńţßÓÔŰňÝ 23.06.2010

  • Polish workers' socialist movement before the first Russian Revolution. Socialist circles of self-organized students, workers and intellectuals are the form of political party. The specificity of the Polish socialist movement in the territory of Belarus.

    ­ň˘ň­Ó˛ [15,4 K], ńţßÓÔŰňÝ 14.10.2009

  • The racism endemic in the australian labour movement at the start of its development. The vortex of accusations against the labour movement about migration. A hardback book opposing white Australia. The verbal allegiance to the white australia policy.

    ­ň˘ň­Ó˛ [83,5 K], ńţßÓÔŰňÝ 23.06.2010

  • The first Marxist Workers Group meeting and the first SWAG conference. Some important achievements. Publishing the battler. Major problems. The Toma dispute. Regrţupment discussions. Constitutional crisis. Foundation ţf the International Socialists.

    ř˝˝ň [102,5 K], ńţßÓÔŰňÝ 23.06.2010

  • Radical feminism as a comparatively recent trend in the womenĺs liberation movement in Australia based on the theory that womenĺs oppression is the fundamental political oppression. The purpose of male chauvinism like secondarily in relationships.

    ­ň˘ň­Ó˛ [52,6 K], ńţßÓÔŰňÝ 20.06.2010

  • Different approaches of the social democracy. The Queensland resolution. The open letter, written 13 October 1929. The ninth annual conference of the Communist Party of Australia. Results of the third session of the conference on Friday 28 December 1929.

    ř˝˝ň [64,1 K], ńţßÓÔŰňÝ 13.06.2010

  • Russian Revolution and its influence on communist party of Australia. Association of communist organization of Australia and United States of America. Activity of the American students. Activity of group of commissions on a maintainance and access.

    ř˝˝ň [39,2 K], ńţßÓÔŰňÝ 23.06.2010

  • The first womenĺs liberation leaflet in Australia at a demonstration against the Vietnam war. The dress sense and appearance of the women. Struggle as a central movement that can unite women and men in the fight against sexism all over the world.

    ­ň˘ň­Ó˛ [71,8 K], ńţßÓÔŰňÝ 20.06.2010

  • To make physic of the Church through the establishment of Catholic workers' associations, fraternities, unions in the Grodno province. The aim of society is to raise education among workers in the religious-moral, intellectual and social relations.

    ­ň˘ň­Ó˛ [11,7 K], ńţßÓÔŰňÝ 14.10.2009

đÓßţ˛ű Ô Ó­§ŔÔÓ§ ŕ­Ó˝ŔÔţ ţ˘ţ­ýŰňÝű ˝ţŃŰÓ˝Ýţ ˛­ňßţÔÓÝŔ ý ┬ËăţÔ Ŕ ˝ţńň­ŠÓ˛ ­Ŕ˝ˇÝŕŔ, ńŔÓŃ­Óýýű, ˘ţ­ýˇŰű Ŕ ˛.ń.
PPT, PPTX Ŕ PDF-˘ÓÚŰű ´­ňń˝˛ÓÔŰňÝű ˛ţŰŘŕţ Ô Ó­§ŔÔÓ§.
đňŕţýňÝńˇňý ˝ŕÓ¸Ó˛Ř ­Óßţ˛ˇ.