Criticism of Vladimir Propp’s Theory on Genesis of Magic Fairy Tales’ Structure
Philosophical basis of the Weltanschauung Categories of Ultimate Bases researching. Investigation of profound invariant of the structure of a fairy tale as the applied version of search for universalias in texts of culture. Ànalysis of folk rituals.
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Îòïðàâèòü ñâîþ õîðîøóþ ðàáîòó â áàçó çíàíèé ïðîñòî. Èñïîëüçóéòå ôîðìó, ðàñïîëîæåííóþ íèæå
Ñòóäåíòû, àñïèðàíòû, ìîëîäûå ó÷åíûå, èñïîëüçóþùèå áàçó çíàíèé â ñâîåé ó÷åáå è ðàáîòå, áóäóò âàì î÷åíü áëàãîäàðíû.
In turn, a part of a concrete material of a fairy tale, in particular, some objectively-figurative embodiments of actants, owing to their steady fixing at the certain basic elements of fairy tale structure or at its typical episodes, become similar to clichés. Owing to this circumstance, the given embodiments of typical functions in the certain characters show resistance to their artificial inclusion in such cells of structure where the not inherent functions will be imposed to them. Nevertheless if they are still forced "to enter" the "place" in the structure not inherent in them, determined by a functional role alien to them, then this character starts to look as something distorted or mockly-ridiculous.
It is exactly those cases when the stepmother will love the stepdaughter more, than her own daughter or when the peaceful Wolf will suffer from the Little Red Riding Hood, and Tsarevitch will fall in love with the She-Dragon.
It is interesting, that similar experimentation with functions of fabulous characters was carried out by a famous Italian children's storyteller J. Rodari who in „topsy-turvy fairy tales” suggested sating an invariant “bare scheme” of fairy tales with the characters performing functions, opposite to habitual ones. However, the „bare” scheme therefore is considered „bare”, because it does not exist just as it is, outside of its concrete personifications. Characters through their actions should "open" this "scheme" (structure). But then on this basis it is possible to draw an opposite conclusion that it is exactly "structure" that sets meanings (functions) to the "elements", rather than conversely. What is the true answer?
Here we have approached to the main point of the problem. It consists in what represents and by what is determined the „bare scheme” mentioned above, which retains in all possible though extravagant embodiments. It is necessary to accept, that only the account of that circumstance, that a deeper universal-cultural worldview context acts as an invariant basis of fairy tales, where all concretely-structural and substantial moments are strung on idea of a survival through struggle against death, allows breaking off a vicious circle which arises here.
Then in the work there is given explication to negative singular consequences of the theory of V. Propp about an origin of structure of a fairy tale from a ceremony. It is carried out through demonstration of discrepancy between a key postulate of the concept of V. Propp - „the structure of a fairy tale is determined by the structure of an (initial) ceremony” and the contents of his research. There is also used a method of „back (reversal) reconstruction” by means of transformation of the relation „a ceremony - a fairy tale” to „a fairy tale - a ceremony”, that leads to paradoxes and obviously absurd hypothetical situations.
Thus, the motive “chopped and poisoned” is explained by V. Propp by means of the contents of an initial ceremony. In the course of time a real murder, which is nonsense in itself, as an initiant should pass a ceremony of initiation, instead of fall a victim in sacrifice, was replaced, according to V. Propp by cutting off a finger. But then all masculine population of archaic communities should be entirely adactylous, and it is not so.
Similar discrepancies arise in cases of explanation of ritual defloration of women who have already given birth and in other similar absurd statements which testify that such illogical result of research cannot be considered satisfactory in any way.
Some other weaknesses are inherent in explanations by V. Propp concerning the sources of fairy tale structure, that are able to testify their incorrectness. Thus, he, in spite of a many times declared position that the structure of a fairy tale is determined by the initial, and also, partially, by other ceremonies, was never able to stay in limits of this key postulate.
Actually he pass to another level of "reality" connected not only with initial, but also funeral, wedding and calendar ceremonial and with beliefs which accompany them, including the developed forms of myth and religion, with cult of ancestors and totemistic cults. When explaining the origin of motives and episodes of a fairy tale he uses separate details of other ceremonies, in particular, sacrifices and becoming related, adding to them national believes, and even imaginations, dreams and, an absolutely extreme case, the ability of people to forget. He also bases on data about customs, a common law and life, referring to such social phenomena, as transition from polygamy to monogamy, struggle for authority, on industrial activity.
Thus, in V. Propp's works there are revealed such non-agreements which allow to speak about "abnegation" of his own concept. The reason of this is, obviously, in incorrectness of his basic postulate, that's why V. Propp, contrary to his insistent declaration, is compelled to admit involuntarily the fact, that the structure of a fairy tale by no means corresponds to the structure of an initial ceremony and to ceremonial realities in general. It is the evidence of an obvious internal inconsistency of his paradigmatic concept. Finally, the results got by V. Propp are regarded as arguments in favour of ascertaining of his conceptual failure.
Taking into account an obvious discrepancy of the structure of a fairy tale reconstructed by V. Propp and an unsatisfactory explanation of its “historical roots” we put forward a deductive hypothesis of a low level of universality of an universal-cultural structure of fairy tales and we find its empiric confirmation using a fairy tale material from examples of Antti Aarne, Steve Thompson, Roman Volkov, Vladimir Propp etc.
5. Falsification of the theory of V. Propp by means of increasing a level of universality of a deductive hypothesis about a universal-cultural structure of culture texts
In this chapter the purpose of research, which is defined in the name of the book, is realized by means of enlargement of empirical base of the put forward hypothesis with attraction of a wide file of texts of culture. First of all it is ascertained here, that all fairy tale material can be easily analyzed using such procedure when a universal-cultural contents is revealed in it. On this basis, it is offered to consider, that basic statements of V. Propp concerning the structure of a fairy tale text are incorrect as a matter of fact. Actually, the fairy tale has in its basis that deep invariant which is recreated from a combination of categories of ultimate bases and world outlook codes. But earlier this statement referred only to a fairy tale and consequently a hypothesis concerning the CUB-structure of the texts the culture had a low level of universality.
My further step was enlargement of the research field by means of distribution of the offered hypothesis on other texts of culture, so that on the basis of an objective (empirical) material of ceremonies, mythology, religion and literary and art consciousness to show their is universal-cultural structuredness.
Thus, the level of universality of the mentioned hypothesis has increased, owing to that it became possible to falsify the theory of V. Propp not only at a level of consequences or singular statements, but also at a level of its basic theses.
And really, the reference to a ceremonial material has shown, that both calendar ceremonies, and ceremonies of life cycle have a full CUB-structuredness in all known codes, in spite of what real was semeiotic in them. In other words, New Year's holidays, Pancake week (Carnival), Midsummer Night, ceremonies of a birth, wedding and funeral ceremonies have in their basis a triad „life - death - revival”.
In New Year's ceremonies (originally - spring ceremonies) it is shown, in particular, in their typological identity with funeral repast (twelve dishes, boiled rice with raising and honey, prohibition to sleep, a table-cloth which is prepared for funeral, candles, etc.) and also arrival of the died ancestors (carols with weird attributes) which should help the forces of life in the coming year.
In spring ceremonies it is embodied in a duel of forces of death and forces of life (fisticuffs), in trains-catafalques which bury winter, in swinging-copulations of youth on the hills.
In summer ceremonies the matter concerns dying and revival of a deity (Yarylo, Ch³urylo, Mara, Marena, Madder), a sexual freedom of participants of a ceremony is allowed, and they, being joined in pairs, render a divine married couple of Adonis and Aphrodite (at us - Ivan and Mary) with a derived institute of nepotism with the allowed in its limits sexual relations between godfather and godmother, canalized later on Midsummer Day, and nepotism on graves and during christening.
The perinatal ceremonies, called to remove a threat of death from the newborn child, get paradoxical features of courting death upon the child and its symbolical burial in limits of dialectic understanding of dying as a guarantee of revival. A well-known lullaby „Do not sleep on the edge...” has such continuation „Lullaby, lullaby, at once if you die, tomorrow mother'll have a kissel and pancakes, this is your funeral repast … ”. In such a way the death was removed from a baby allocated: it will come, and there is already nobody to take away.
The ceremony of a social birth (initiation) in general has as semantic centre the idea of dying of an adolescent in the old status and revival in a new, adult status, through imitation of staying in „the world beyond”.
In wedding ceremonialism the towel, stepping over of which symbolizes passing the Styx, the „weirdness” of newly-weds (a prohibition of touching them and their movement as the dead, against the sun), identifications of getting married with dying (crying-lamentation), a veil of the bride as a muslin which covers the face of the deceased, etc. all these factors clearly indicate a mortally-immortal basis of all this ceremony.
And again, as well as in a New Year's holiday, there appear the died ancestors as only from their sanction the birth of a new member of a clan-tribe was allowed. At first it was shown in the form of a cult, when the bride copulated with a totem animal (a goat, a horse, a bull) in a "natural" way.
Then the right of superiority directly from a totem animal, passed to its personification, to the chieftain-priest. As a result, the first man of the bride at marriage night, often in presence of relatives, her mother and bridegroom, was not the bridegroom, but friends to the bridegroom, respected people of settlement and, according to absolutely recent ethnographic data on the Odessa area (1920th), the groomsman-boyar.
Residual echoes of this element of a wedding ceremony in a fairy tale is cohabitation of Mary and the Bear, and in modern weddings - a ritual seating of the newly-weds on the bear, sheep or bull skins, or, in a degenerated variant, on a fur coat or simply on a pillow.
To the same remnants concerns steady, but already not clear euphemism of conjugal infidelity - "to cuckold" (once the chieftain-totem, having copulated in public with the bride, gave his cap decorated with horns, to the bridegroom, handing him in such a way the force of ancestors). Thereby, the died ancestors symbolically generated a new life.
The main point of funeral ceremonialism is reduced, eventually, to marking this event as a system of actions which will provide an indispensable revival of the deceased, the display of that is an embryonic, crooked position of a died man in a hole-bosom or preservation of ashes in a cremation urn, in a vessel-womb.
To this range of reproduction of the basic formula „life - death - revival” refer also the erotic games of Europeans near the deceased, traditional strewing him with grain-seed (by the ancient Egyptians and modern Ukrainians) which should symbolically germinate, an Indo-Iranian ceremony of „dikshi”, reproduced already in a tomb for those who could not lead it during lifetime because of expensiveness, in the form of sexual poses a posteriori (dogstile) of man and woman, (imitation of self-conception of the dead with the purpose of reincarnation), copulation of the Ky¿v combatants near a funeral fire with the widow of Duke „instead of the husband”, a ceremonial reconstruction in 19 century by Mordvinians of wedding during a funeral (including the ritual defloration of a died virgin by the Jews of Volhynia so that the devil could not copulate with her and she would not given birth to a dangerous monster) etc.
Consideration of a myth from this point of view of the universal-cultural approach has shown that categories of ultimate bases and world outlook codes literally penetrate through their contents. Thus, in mythological figures of fauna - a bull and a cow, a horse, a goat, a bear, a lion, a tiger, birds, fishes and insects, etc. the genitive, vitality and mortality, and also certain codes make their semantic background. For example, the pigeon was understood as allegory of a soul of the dead (immortality).
References to vegetative symbols of mythological consciousness shows, that their dependence on seasonal cycles makes them successful analogue of embodiment of a basic triad „life - death - revival”. The last CUB is shown here because a drink of immortality was made exactly of plants.
If to speak about abstract mythological symbols, then the mythological thinking was developed enough to form in its structure the abstract symbols, having risen above an individual-sensual character of objective images. One of the most widespread world abstract symbols was a circle which was often concretized in illustrative images of the snake turned into a ring and others circular things.
The circle symbolized the coincidence of the beginning and the end, of birth and death (genitive and mortality) and, eventually, eternity (immortality). The erotic code in a circle appeared in its understanding as female beginning and when in its center there was a throne settled down, a trunk, columnar or world mountain - in its unification with male beginning.
The analysis of typological myths, mythological symbols and figures has shown, that in astral, solar and lunar myths there is precisely presented a genitive universalia, connected, in particular, with the description of occurrence of the Sun and others celestial bodies.
Rather a widespread motive within the limits of erotically coded genitive in the given type of myths was the motive of a heavenly marriage of the Sun and the Moon and generation of children-stars from this pair. But here we also see aggressively-mortal motives shown in constant struggle between spouses.
The basic world outlook formula „life - death - immortality” was realized in the given myths in stories about lunar phase cycles as its birth, dying and revival. Alimentary coding of the formula is visible in fairy tales about the diminution of the Moon as a result of its eating up by a witch or a dog.
Studying of concrete national mythological systems, in particular, Ukrainian one, has shown, that all CUB and codes were present in it. In the "lowest" mythology the Mermaids (drowned women) are young, beautiful girls who attract young men, and then lead them up to death by means of a wearisome sexual act though sometimes marry them and even have children from them.
In a pantheon of "high" mythology gods, for example, Svarog, personified the current of time and its triadic structuredness that was embodied in the motive of a star which lives, dies and revives (movement of the Sun).
Consideration of the epic writings (Hillyads, Odysseys and Òhe Story about Igor's Regiment) has shown also their monosemantic CUB-structure with that only difference when the basic universal formula „life - death - immortality” in myths of an agrarian cycle was represented in a narration about a deity which dies and revives, and in myths of adventurous type - in a story about never-ending dangerous trials of the main character with his indispensable rescue from death.
In religious consciousness, in particular, Christianity, the display of CUB and codes was showed in a wide set of concepts, in the basis of which there is the same world outlook base. These codes are most essentially represented in laconic Christian definitions of God, such, as „ I am bread” (an alimentary code), „ I am love” (an erotic code), „ I am word” (an informative code). An aggressive code in the concentrated form is represented in understanding of God as the victorious Force that is not dependent on the death, though usual concepts also have here the most universal-world outlook significance (wine, pupils, vine, fornication, virginity, etc.).
In the architectonics of the Bible the universal basic formula is displayed at least three times:
A. 1) Birth (creation of the world and people); 2) life of people in Paradise; 3) the Fall, exile from Paradise and transformation of people into mortal beings; 4) sinful life of people; 5) punishment by flood; 4) rescue (survival) of a part of mankind.
B. 1) Birth (Christmas) of Jesus Christ; 2) Jesus Christ's terrestrial life; 3) the death of the Saviour on the Cross; 4) Jesus Christ's Resurrection as the victory over forces of death.
C. 1) Sinful life of people; 2) threat of eternal death to sinful mankind; 3) rescue of people in the Christ, revival in the Holy Spirit and getting of a prospect of an eternal life and a victory over the enemy - death.
Even in this extremely simplified scheme we can fix the main motive of development of the big drama of eternal struggle of Life with Death as it has been presented in one of the forms of practically- religious ideology. Besides, the basic formula is represented in separate episodes of the Book (revival of Lazarus, revival of the daughter of a synagogue servant).
Revealing of a universal-cultural basis in literary consciousness and entertainment art was realized in this work through the CUB-analysis of such writings, as Ivan Bunin's story A Light Breath, short stories of Marguerite de Navarre from the collection of stories The Heptameron, Anna Ahmatova's poems.
I have also analyzed short stories which Michael Bakhtin and Olga Frejdenberg used as examples. Besides at a level of „concepts” the given type of a discourse was examined by us on the material of a methodological reflection on the structure of works of art by Michael Bakhtin, Låv Vógotsky, Yuri Lotman and other researchers.
In the first named piece of literature the formula „life - death - immortality” was reconstructed by Me at a level of a disposition, the key moments of that are oppositional pairs „childhood - a tomb”, „sex with Malyutin - murder”, „conversation on a light breath - funeral”.
In wide meaning these pairs express a global opposition of life and death. A Light Breath - it is a figuratively designed culmination category of universal-cultural structure of the text of this piece of literature at the basis of which there is the CUB - immortality. Olga Meshcherskaya after her death, as well as Snow Maiden and Mauka (The Wood Song) "was dissolved" in the nature, but she did not totally disappear - her „light breath” is now everywhere.
Except for a full representation in The Heptameron of the CUB and the codes, considered by Me, in these collected stories the basic world outlook formula also is precisely traced. The short story from examples of M. Bakhtin is regarded by him as a narration about a victory of forces of life over forces of death when the legionary who watched over a crucified robber, under food and drink consoles the widow directly on the tomb of her husband, and she for this pleasure releases from the pressure of grief and comes back to plenitude of life. This plot tells, he writes, about a continuous chain of victories of life over death.
The same universal-cultural structure underlies the short story of Giovanni Boccaccio, which was investigated by Olga Frejdenberg (enamoured of the wife of his comrade, the man rescues her, wrongly buried, and she gives birth to the child).
In the science-fiction the motive of increasing threat of a life with the following victory over danger of death is expressed in an unusual way. Frequently it is the description of invasion of enemy civilizations to the Earth, their encroachment on beautiful women, hunting of the aliens who have come back from the future, for children who aftertime become their enemies, consuming of people from within through penetration into their body of ugly extraterrestrial forms of a life, destruction of a genotype of people or manipulations with it, etc.
It is easy to see, that stereotyped schemes of science-fiction rotate around the basic formula of world view, opening it in forms of unusual sources of mortal danger to the person with a following victory of vital positive characters.
If we turn to novel, its universal-cultural substructure entirely entering a triad „life - death - revival” was extremely successfully and laconically outlined by J. Lotman. This author directly turns to consideration of this triad in that kind of it, in which it was realized in the Russian novel. Raskolnikov, Mitja Karamazov, and other characters of Feodor Dostoevsky recreate Ìócola Gogol's scheme from The Dead Souls where Tchitchikov goes to Siberia (a hell, death). Having passed a hell of Siberia, these characters "revive".
Already given short definition of specificity of the novel as a kind of a cultural discourse shows, that in its basis there is the same "eternal" universal-cultural scheme, which is filled with the concrete historical contents, caused by features of cultural-world outlook ideas of an epoch.
In my work the same scheme has been reconstructed on examples of works of Taras Shevchenko The Princess, Lesya Ukrainka The Wood Song, in Alexander Pushkin and Anna Ahmatova's verses, and also in plots of the tragedy Hamlet by William Shakespeare and doll performances, in operas of Giuseppe Verdi Aida and Mykola Lysenko Natalka-Poltavka, Alexander Dovzhenko's film The Earth, etc.
So, the received results have allowed to raise a level of universality of my hypothesis as it was found out, that not only the fairy tale structure, but also the structure of wide range of other texts has in the basis the system of the is universal-cultural meanings, organized in the basic formula „life - death - immortality”.
At the same time the analysis has allowed to affirm, that the given hypothesis has found its confirmation because there was explicated the reproduced effect when, basically, any cultural text has fallen under procedure of revealing in it of the CUB-structure.
6. Outlines of a new paradigm of the analysis of the origin of invariant structure of culture texts: “the universal-cultural version”
This chapter begins with a summary of historico-generative concept of Olga Frejdenberg about “metaphors of primitive consciousness” which is regarded by Me as a break of a paradigm „reality - text”. Further its critical analysis and a universal-cultural interpretation are given. As a result, there was deconstructed the real contents of her concept. The basic idea, extracted from her concept, consists in that the structure of texts of culture is not the "representation" of reality. This structure is a product of creative spontaneous activity of our consciousness which actualizes during the process of synthesis of deep meanings of texts those world outlook invariants which are determined by the basic vital purposes of the person. As a result, it has been ascertained, that "metaphors" offered by her are either categories of ultimate bases (for example, group of metaphors of "Death"), or world outlook codes (group of metaphors "Meal").
For a confirmation of my conclusions in the following parts of the work, there are considered theories and the concepts confirming a hypothesis of autogenerating of a universal-cultural structure of the texts of culture. Among them - Charles Jung's and Stanislav Grof's ideas about subconscious factors of generating and synthesis of inner invariant semantic structures of texts of culture, fixing of the fact of spontaneous autogenerating of identical CUB-structures in a historical and political idea, in fairy tales and children psychology by Howard Olker, an explication of autogenerated reproduction of universal-cultural senses in the work of productive ability of imagination through experiments with children's creativity of Italian storyteller Janny Rodari and introspection of a Russian children's writer Nikolay Nosov.
In the following part of work there was carried out the analysis of processes of self-generation of universal-cultural senses in the conception „language as a home of objective reality” (Martin Heidegger) and through spontaneous poetic creativity (Maximilian Kirienko-Voloshyn). Then the process of creation of a piece of writing (on example of a short story) is investigated and it is offered to consider it as a fluent creative synthesis of universal-cultural connections of actants. The development of heuristic potentialities of critically reconsidered concept of O.Frejdenberg has finally fixed the results received in the previous sections. It was realized by a demonstrative explication of the fact that owing to a projection of the human CUB-senses which are available in structure of independent consciousness, to an objective reality, there takes place a universally-cultural semeiotization of the entire reality and its separate fragments and objects. But as both this semeiotization, and objects and fragments of reality are a mobile objective structure of the contents of world outlook consciousness then we have carried out a restoration of the invariant cultural-world outlook contents in stage evolution of objectively- figurative bearers of is universal-cultural meaning (a totem - tsar - slave-clown).
Examination of a conceptual part of work of O.Frejdenberg has shown that under "metaphors" she has presented a full set of categories of ultimate bases and world outlook codes, including their formula sheaf. Along with this, it is necessary to accept, that the classification of "metaphors" developed by her, is extremely inconsequent and incorrect, in particular in view of their universal-cultural sub-base.
Thus, the mortal CUB, represented in „metaphor” "Death", serves not only as a rubricator for a range of some other metaphors. This category is considering by O.Frejdenberg in itself also, as the subject of classification, being included in other headings, particularly, in the group of „metaphors” "Meal".
The second reproach consists in the following. Declaring, that the subject of her analysis should be initial formations of before-logical and before-world outlook consciousnesses, O.Frejdenberg actually carries out a reconstruction of „metaphors of primitive consciousness” on the basis of the analysis of late, derivative forms of logically structured and Weltanschauung, ideologically oriented consciousness (specifically, myths).
At the same time, O. Frejdenberg's doubtless merit is that she tried to find a source of structural invariants of texts in archaic formations of consciousness, though she did not reject the idea of their borrowing and „migrations”. Initial ceremony „reality”, the structure of which is usually considered as a source of structurization of the text of culture „derived” from it, is only a field of demonstration, but by no means the source of this structure origin.
The invariant universal-cultural structure of the text of culture lies in the depths of human subjectivity, on what O.Frejdenberg, neglecting serious enough for those times possible accusations in idealism, sagaciously indicated in her works.
In my opinion, the given structurization-forming subjectivity does not belong only to the "primitive" consciousness as O.Frejdenberg considered. The invariant of cultural consciousness in the same measure, as in remote times, lives and acts at present and will act in the future. Therefore, it is incorrect to consider this primitive consciousness and its "metaphors" as that source from which the stereotyped "patterns" of the subsequent cultural forms have originated.
What O.Frejdenberg considers as metaphors of primitive consciousness is not something forgotten in the far passed times. Their senses are always relevant, in any epoch. Taking into account a continuous action of eternal the existential factors, defining the stereotype of key parameters of human attitude to the world, these coincidences are caused by the fact that people of all times and nations certainly reflect on eternal philosophical questions and reconstruct the immortal themes in the literature. Owing to this deep identity of texts at level of CUB and codes, it becomes possible to observe the typological coincidences, identities and parallels in different cultural texts, but already at a level of their external displays (motives, plots, themes, figures, characters).
If we meet identical texts in different cultures it is impossible to deny the fact of any borrowing, migration or reproduction. But there is a question - what is the reason of borrowing of that by one culture from another? The reason of this, most likely, is that in each culture some "eternal" problems continue to remain relevant at all times. Therefore here it is necessary to speak not about simple mechanical borrowing, but about actualization of existential senses in texts of culture at a level of their inner structure. For each person who has come to this world, the questions of his own life and death will be always important and actual.
Caused by patrimonial unity of the person, the identity of notional and vital searches of people dictates the presence of the given identity also in these answers offered in different cultures, which as a result are reduced to a universal-cultural invariant of the persevering strengthening of a life, a passionate desire to overcome death and to reach if not eternal, but a long life. Ancient texts, which did not have any existential meanings (for example, inventory tablets from Mesopotamia), are interesting today only to experts of particular speciality, whereas the myth of Hilgamesh, of searches for immortality, excites imagination of our contemporaries.
C. Jung and S. Grof in a certain sense were inspired with a search of culture universalias as they, basing on the concept of subconscious, put before themselves the purpose to trace how these inborn elements of human subconsciousness determine the contents and structure of mythological legends, images, dreams and cultural texts in general. C. Jung considered these factors as archetypes, and S.Grof - as the so-called basic perinatal matrixes (BPM). Both the archetypes, and BPM, examined from my point of view, have easily opened their universal-cultural contents. And it concerns not only such obviously expressed CUB-archetypes, as blood or the murderer of the father (an aggressive code), but also some archetypes of erotic code, shadows (the latent negative features of the person as a result having mortality in their basis), "egoism" (Selbst) (a heart of personal consciousness as expression of completeness of vital forces, vitality), etc.
Eventually, as the base of vitally-important directives C. Jung points out the poles of a life - birth and death referred to the sphere collective subconscious. As the certain measure this circumstance was accepted also by C. Jung, speaking that archetype constituents of dreams of the little girl, which he has selected for a substantiation of his viewpoint, are reduced to ideas of destruction (aggression as destruction) and restoration (restoration as revival). The general limit of this phenomenon was pubertal age of the girl (erotic coding of life as continuation of a clan, as clan immortality) and the presentiments of her life premature ending (mortality).
Achievements of immortality through overcoming of threat of death as a formula invariant of all archetype motives is indirectly accepted by C. Jung as he draws a parallel between dreams of the girl and ceremonies of initiation (confirmation) which have such invariant structure (life - death - revival). From these important remarks of C. Jung it is possible to draw a conclusion, that he accepts, that in a basis of archetypes there are some wider world outlook structures which are the categories ultimate bases.
S. Grof, known as the initiator of transpersonal psychology, having investigated a huge file of texts of culture, has put forward an idea according to which the invariant constituents of the mentioned texts are determined by that they are structured according to certain schemes reflecting the stages of childbirth. One's own birth does not pass for the person without leaving a trace, and in its key stages is fixed in „perinatal” to sphere of subconsciousness, determining to a great extent the following postnatal conscious experiences of many life circumstances within the limits of psychological structure of the person generated under influence of these matrixes. He declares that connection of biological experience of a person own birth with experience of dying and a new birth, which is shown in imaginations, dreams, works of art, etc. is rather deep and specific.
As after the analysis carried out by us it was found out, that BPM of S.Grof on the whole are the original expression of a basic triad "life - death - revival" experienced by the person during the process of her birth, then we can draw a conclusion, that if this memory of one's own birth sets the structure of personal consciousnesses, then its structure also should correspond with this triad. That is, an invariant of the derived from these BPM substantial layers of consciousness are the categories of ultimate bases.
H. Olker's leading ideas are close to my opinions. His analysis essentially differs from all previous attempts to throw light on the origin and essence of invariant constituents of texts of culture. The main point of his idea consists in the statement of generating of culture invariants in depths of our consciousness owing to that a text of culture appears not so much as reflection of "reality" by our consciousness, but as a product of active designing by our consciousness of universal senses which are introduced in this "reality". He has carried out the proof of this thought by demonstration of identity of fairy tale texts with historical and political ones. Besides it turned out, that the American test for the best memorizing of the text by children shows, that such text is the fairy tale, defined by V. Propp as the basic (Àô131) at the heart of which, as well as in historical works (Arnold J. Toynbee), there lays the basic world outlook formula.
So, each of these scientists following their own way, actually came to conclusion, that the structure of consciousness is determined by categories of ultimate bases, which during their autogeneration and filling with the concrete contents form an authentic CUB-structure of all texts of culture.
From the point of view of a substantiation of idea of autogenerating of universal-cultural structures and one of the variants of the basic world outlook formula there are interesting examples of spontaneous children's creativity which are accompanied by introduction in the texts of the certain threat with the purpose of reproduction of the full basic formula „life - death - immortality” in the variant „life - a fatal threat - removal of the threat”. Giving children a task of creation of their own fairy tale, J. Rodari has found out, that all of them do not fall outside the limits of a drama of life and death. That is, the productive childish consciousness spontaneously generates such structures that base on categories of ultimate bases and the basic vital purpose.
Something similar was found out by another children's writer, N.Nosov during introspection of his creative work when he found out, that in a basis of the plot of the story (touching contemporary themes) written by him there has laid down an archaic, though weakened and transformed motive of occurrence of threat and its avoidance. Determined by stage and age-specific and sociohistorical factors the forms of representation of the given intention in the structure of subconsciousness of children, and, by the way, of adults, cannot be denied. There will be no greater exaggeration to state, that the basic intention of our consciousness, initially programmed on avoidance of danger and on a survival, is always turned up to overcoming of a fatal threat. For these reasons, the person, young or adult, during realization of his mysterious productive ability of imagination (I.Kant) and creative imagination from any offered objective material, certainly synthesizes such texts, which will be structurally organized on the basis of this fundamental intention.
The analysis of game behaviour of children, ideas on „an instinct of immortality” by Jacob Golosovker, Elena Ulybina's psychoanalytic reconstruction of psychology of the girl-teenager in A.Ostrovsky's play Snow Maiden, show, that corresponding universally-cultural intentions of consciousnesses can invariantly structure a fairy tale (and any other text) directly during their generation. Plots with the CUB-structural core become "eternal" not owing to presence in them of any images already known before, characters or motives, but owing to "eternity" (topicality for each generation) of their invariant universal-cultural contents. The Last one is independently generated (self-generated) by modern sub/consciousness, originating as a result of working of cognitive creative mechanisms.
It is well known, that M. Heidegger defines language as the Home of Being, which proclaims itself to us through poets. The poetry is understood by him as formation of Being by means of a word. In the work I was limited to consideration of a question on how the language of poetry correlates with Being (in all its meanings known to philosophy) which in this case is understood as the text, that is as totality of obvious or mysterious senses and as through language of poetry their possible revelation. I searched for the answer to it in works of M. of Kirienko-Voloshyn, the reference to whom has shown, that through spontaneous creativity of the poet the Being demonstrated itself as a certain text, which in its basis does not fall outside the limits of categories of ultimate bases and codes, and it was the result of spontaneous autogenerating of senses, instead of simple reflection of reality. M. Kirienko-Voloshyn describes this process in an image of a spider, which spins from itself a fabric of knowledge: „Where spun in smoky dreams the consciousness-spider / The living tissues bodies, but body was - a sound”.
One of the most interesting problems of the theory of creativity is a problem of spontaneous synthesis by story-tellers or writers of numerous plots. Here the most important for us was a substantiation of the statement about a certain "a priori" prediction of produced plots. The idea consists in development of that indisputable conclusion, that at a final set of constant structural elements of the text the number of their combinations is also final.
Reasoning from the results of my work on the structural analysis of a short story I have shown, that Marguerite de Navarre was free in her choice of characters and in representation of variations of relations between them, drawing them from their final register. But she was not free in a choice of most these very relations. As well as modern science fiction writers, she recreated these relations mainly in two of their four possible forms - erotic and aggressive though communications on the basis of alimentary, and in particular - informative code were also realized by her.
It is obvious, that their astonishing stable presence in works of different genres of different times can be explained only by autogeneration of the given types of relations, that testifies that exactly these intentional, spontaneous, immanent preferences of creators of the work of literature, which are at the bottom of their basic vital directives, make a basis of those humanly important senses which are shown during the work of their productive ability of imagination and can are realized in the results of their creative synthesis of texts.
As I already said, the world is a projection of humanly important senses on an objective reality. A fundamental feature of the substantial and structurally-formal side of these senses is their subordination to the universal-cultural meanings inserted in the general world outlook formula „strengthening of life, overcoming of death, aspiration to immortality”.
Having passed the theoretical "circle" and having critically reconsidered the concept of „metaphors of primitive consciousness” of O.Frejdenberg, we again, but already at higher, theoretically-based level, have approached the statement declared at the beginning of work that owing to this projecting feature of our consciousness both the world as a whole, and its separate fragments, are semiotized by us within the limits of our most fundamental vital aims.
At the same time, the acceptance that the mentioned "metaphors" are anything else but categories of ultimate bases and the world outlook codes connected in a formula sheaf „life - death - immortality”, allowed us to show, that the unusual meanings of habitual things reconstructed by O.Frejdenberg do not fall outside the limits of this formula. For example, it has been shown, that such „archetype” concepts as House, Field, Temple have exactly these meanings.
The temple appears as a special sacral place, where there is given a communion of “favour and life of a deity” to the believers. Its vertical and horizontal dimensions have strongly expressed CUB-semantics. It is clear from orientation of temples on a line „East - West” (life - death), that determines the position of altars only in its eastern part, and a front entrance - so that the movement to a temple was only from the West on the East, from death - to life.
Crowning of the dome-sky by the cross with its diasemantics „death-revival”, the peculiarities of the orthodox cross with slanting section of its bottom horizontal part which by its spatial orientation also symbolizes a victory over death and the strengthening of life - all this unconditionally points out to universal-cultural structuredness of a temple architectural text which is not limited only to these senses. „The temple” acts also as a high life ideal (an information code of vital universalia) to which should lead all the roads.
According to O.Frejdenberg, the matter concerns a certain complex of senses which was developed during a semiotized consumption of food, copulations and funeral actions during initial, before-ceremonial periods of their display. The general "scheme" of its „construct” looked like a movement from occurrence and bloom to the decline, and that movement was carried out by an animal-totem, which was torn up and eaten up, managing certain ritualized actions. Later is the sun, leaders, emperors, gladiators, olympians, defendants and, finally, actors became its personification.
Consequently, these initial senses became inherent to all things and actions which surrounded these figures - actually to ceremonies and rituals, cities, Olympic and other games, constructions (to triumphal arches, pillars, to images of lions, to gates, doors, to wreaths on them, to windows), to things of the daily use (to a table, a cloth, a chair, awnings, marquees, to a veil, to a carousel), to a theatre (comedy and tragedy, stage, orchestra), to literary genres and other texts of culture, inclusive with ritual food (sausage, pies, forcemeat and peas). E.g., such traditional elements of Olympic Games, as letting out of an eagle before their opening (now - pigeons) and crowning the winner with a laurel wreath have the meaning of a victory over forces of death (immortality).
In antiquity Olympic struggle was a real hand-to-hand fighting, and it continued until one of the opponents was not killed. Since those times when these games still were a fatal competition, the one who after games remained alive, was crowned with a wreath as a token of a victory over death.
The initial meanings of peas are also unusual for us. Special ritual semiotization of food has led to transferring of "food" semantics to things and phenomena entirely different from food. It is well know, that the clown is often given an epithet "pea fool", as well as the expression "under the tsar Pea" (in days of yore).
Exactly from farces of beans and lentil there was originated a stereotypic expression "a pea clown". In general, both the clown, and tsar once directly personified the universal-cultural basic formula life - death - revival, and peas (lentil) became associated with them for the reason, that before ritual killing of princeling (and then - his substitute, the slave), they were crowned with a pea straw, echoes of that have reached in some ceremonies almost up to present times.
„Storm of applause turning into ovation” now is a sign of approval by a public of performance of an actor or report of a speaker. But their original meaning was differed from the modern one. The main character of an ancient theatre was the god of death and revival Dionysius. In a theatrical drama it was the Dionysius-bull or the Dionysius-goat.
If this goat partially denominates two drama genres, then the sheep denominates a drama of a victory, an ovation. Ovation is a pleasure, a celebration, a wreath that was put on a head of commander which assimilated to a victorious animal (Dionysius-ram-goat) which revives for life during the moment of passage under a triumphal arch. Here we also see a full development of basic formula.
Similar semantics had also the triumphal arches which are present in many cities of the world. According to O. Frejdenberg, a triumphal arch was a celestial horizon and consequently they had a semicircular arch. The victory of the sun, the occurrence of totem coincides with entrance through a heavenly- afterlife gate, through a triumphal arch which divided the two worlds. The semantics of a triumphal arch as means of overcoming death is better expressed by the fact that sometimes it was constructed for prevention of danger that in itself guaranteed rescue from death. Emperor, solemnly passing under the arch to a circus, appeared as the winner-sun. By this he expressed the idea of overcoming of death, the establishing of life. Here it is easy to see the presence of the basic world outlook formula.
Often near a gate, doors or on the walls there are represented lions (the so-called „lion's gate”). In their image there was fixed a crossing of "border" between two worlds, light and darkness. So, stone lions, which are half put out from the house, or just simple images of their muzzles on the walls is the transformed image of an archaic totem which has died and has revived. The universal-cultural formula is also totally presented here.
A bright erotic-genetic semantics have the doors of houses or gates which indicated a maternal womb. Giving birth, continues O.Frejdenberg, the woman opens and closes the celestial doors. Therefore Janus, the god of door, was called at childbirth. Except the mentioned CUB-semantics the door had also additional meaning which originated from a custom to copulate on a threshold and to hang up a wreath on a door as modern Americans like.
Traditional night or evening songs (serenades) of an enamoured man under a window (balcony) of his beloved originate from that tradition when a drunk reveller in a “komos” (a night procession) in the end of procession addressed not a woman, and a door (later - a window), and then publicly laid down with a woman directly on a threshold. From the same sources, considers O.Frejdenberg, there is a tradition to hang up a wreath on a door. In fact „komos” is a variant of a carol which name originates from the name of a branch of laurel or an olive in skeins of wool which was left on a door as a sign of fertility (erotically coded genitive).
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