Genre of fantasy in novel Joanne Rowling "Harry Potter"
The concept of fantasy genre. Istoriya novel "Harry Potter." Signs of the fantasy genre. The basic principles of literary fairy tales. Analysis and Short-term portion of a series of novels by Rowling. Signs of fantasy and literary narrative in the novel.
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РЕСПУБЛИКАНСКОЕ ВЫСШЕЕ УЧЕБНОЕ ЗАВЕДЕНИЕ
«КРЫМСКИЙ ИНЖЕНЕРНО-ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Genre of fantasy in novel Joanne Rowling «Harry Potter»
1. The concept the fantasy genre
1.1 Signs of genre of fantasy
2. The history of the novel "Harry Potter"
3. Analysis and short the plot series of novels J. Rowling "Harry Potter
4. Signs of fantasy and literary tale in the novel J. Rowling "Harry Potter
List of references
Harry Potter. It is hard to imagine that someone had heard nothing about it. Has no idea about the book or the movie. On the contrary, this novel Joanne Kathleen Rowling filled book shelves and the hearts of the people.
Statistics 1996 showed that people and especially children stopped reading. Read only books that pupils have studied or in the case of youth and adult books that are needed for work and study. After "Harry Potter and the philosopher's stone" in 1997 was published, the statistics significantly decreased, children began to read. And not only they, Harry Potter has become an epoch, adults are also fans of this fantasy - literary fairy tale. Series of novels includes seven books that have become bestseller.
1. The concept the fantasy genre
Genre (from Fr. Genre - genus), historically established tradition certified and thus inherited the collection of certain themes and motifs that are assigned to a particular art form, connecting them to each other recognizable feelings and thoughts. The concept genre implies continuity of perception: the reader, finding work in this or that particular scene, the scene, the characters' behavior, relates it to any genre known to him, remembering old and learning a new familiar. In addition to sustainability and equity himself category genre has the opposite feature: it historically mobile, as well as the whole scale of artistic values. The boundaries separating literature from non-literature, as the boundary between the genre of genre, volatile, and the era of relative stability poetic systems alternate with periods decanonization to listeners. Any genre can borrow the specific features of other genres and significantly change its structure and appearance.
Fantasy - kind of fiction, based on the use of mythological and fairy-tale motifs. In modern form emerged in the early XX century. Great influence on shaping the face fantasy had John Ronald Ruel Tolkien, what is sometimes referred to as the Father of fantasy. Fantasy literature often resemble historical adventure novel, which takes place in a fictional world, close to real Middle Ages, whose heroes are faced with supernatural phenomena and beings. Often fantasy built on archetypal stories. [1,p.505]
Fantasy usually include general term "fiction", there also includes science fiction and other genres and trends (social science fiction, alternate history, etc.). Question the relationship between science fiction and fantasy is not resolved until now.
On the one hand, and then, and more combined into a single concept of "fiction" and is perceived as its modification. On the other hand, fantasy clearly opposed to that literature which conventionally designated "science fiction." Western researchers, and in recent years the majority of domestic and perceive fantasy as a special genre, separating it from the literature of dreams, literature horror, literary tales, mysticism.
Unlike science fiction, fantasy does not seek to explain the world in which the action occurs works, from the point of view of science. The world exists in the form of a certain assumptions (often its location relative to our reality does not discussed: whether it is a parallel world, or another planet), and its physical laws may differ from the realities of our world. In such a world can be real existence of the gods, magic, mythic creatures (dragons, gnomes, trolls), ghosts and any other fantastic entities. At the same time, the fundamental distinction of "miracles" fantasy from their fabulous counterparts is that they are the norm described the world and work systematically, as the laws of nature.
Nowadays fantasy - it's also a genre in film, painting, computer and board games. Such genre versatility especially distinguishes fantasy with elements of Chinese martial arts. [7,p.78]
1.1 Signs of genre of fantasy
Signs of genre of fantasy:
1.A world that does not exist; it has properties that are not possible in our reality. For example, the sorcerers world, created by J.K. Rowling's " Harry Potter" - school of witchcraft and wizardry "Hogwarts", " Diagon Alley"; village of wizards.
2. Magic and folk characters as necessary. For example, will suit almost any product of fantasy.
3. Adventure story (as a rule - search, journey, war and so on).
4. Medieval ambiance, although there are possible options: Ancient World (GL Oldie, "The hero must be one" where the action takes place in ancient Greece), modernity (Lukyanenko "Night Watch") or future (Christopher Stasheff, "The Enchanter Mr. Deeds "); This feature although there often, but not determinative.
5. Latent opposition of technology and magic in favor of the latter.
6. At the forefront of the characters, their actions and experiences, magical and fantastic plays a supporting, but not a secondary role.
7. Confrontation between good and evil as the main plot-rod "for fantasy required a struggle between good and evil - because this struggle, like a fairy tale, is epic structure." Fantasy is different from a fairy tale. Good and evil are equal in it, and in the tale good wins without a loss.
8. Presence the other world and its manifestations.
9. Complete freedom of the author: he can turn the plot in unexpected ways, as the magical world of fantasy suggests that it may all .. This last feature - one of the most important determinants. He clearly distinguishes fantasy and science fiction because science fiction describes probable, and constrained by certain limits. He is forced to explain the incredible, justify scientific or pseudoscientific (which often happens). [7,p.80]
2. The history of the novel "Harry Potter"
The main part series about Harry Potter is a set of seven books. Books from the first to the sixth talk about each respective year of study Harry Potter magic school Hogwarts and what is happening in the course of training combat awakening magician-villain Volan - de - Mort and his henchmen. In the seventh book learning magic it entirely devoted to the preparation of Harry and his friends to the final battle with Volan - de - Mort and most of this battle.
Series of novels consists:
1. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's stone - 1997
2. Harry Potter and the Chamber of secrets - 1998
3. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban - 1999
4. Harry Potter and the Goblet of fire - 2000
5. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix - 2003
6. Harry Potter and the Half blood Prince - 2005
7. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows - 2007
In 1990, J.K. Rowling was on a crowded train from Manchester to London when the idea of the Harry Potter series, according to the writer, suddenly "fell on his head." Rowling later told about it on your website:
"I wrote almost continuously since six years, but I've never been so excited about an idea before. I just sat and thought for four hours (due to tardy trains), and all the details were seething in my brain, and this thin, dark-haired boy with glasses who did not know he was a wizard, became for me more and more real. "
Immediately upon arrival, Rowling began to write the book. Most often she did it in her favorite cafe in Edinburgh. Rowling completed "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" in 1995 and sent the manuscript to several promising literary agents. Her interests began to represent agent Christopher Little, he sent the manuscript to the publisher «Bloomsbury». After eight other publishers had rejected "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone», «Bloomsbury» offered Rowling a Ј 2,500 advance for the publication of the novel. Despite Rowling statement that she did not have in mind any particular age group, when she started writing the Harry Potter books, the publisher initially hoped for a children's audience aged from nine to eleven years. In anticipation of the publication of Rowling's publishers asked her to put on the cover of more gender-neutral nickname, fearing that the male members of this age group will not be interesting to read a novel, if they know that it is written by a woman. The writer decided to use the name Joanne Kathleen Rowling (born Joanne Kathleen Rowling), using her grandmother's name as a middle name. Because Rowling has no second name.
The novel "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's stone was published on 30 June 1997, the publishing house "Bloomsbury", which released later on all the books in the series in the United Kingdom. The output of the second book, "Harry Potter and the Chamber of secrets", was held on 2 July 1998. "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban" was published a year later in the UK on 8 July 1999. "Harry Potter and the goblet of fire was published on 8 July 2000 "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix" was published in English around the world on June 21, 2003[. 9 million copies of the sixth book, "Harry Potter and the Half blood Prince, released on July 16, 2005, were sold worldwide in the first 24 hours after its publication. The seventh and final novel, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, was published 21 July 2007. 11 million copies were sold in the first 24 hours after the release of the novel.
In December 2005, Rowling announced on its website that "2006 will be the year that will be written the last book in the series of Harry Potter". The book was completed at the Balmoral hotel in Edinburgh, where the author left a message on the back of the bust of Hermes: "J.. K. Rowling finished writing Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows" in room 552 11 January 2007".
3. Analysis and short the plot series of novels J. Rowling "Harry Potter
The action takes place in the world, is largely similar to the real, in England, in the 1990s. Unlike the real world into the world of Harry Potter among ordinary people live wizards who have the ability to use magic. Ordinary people (Muggles call them wizards) do not know about the existence of wizards, as the latter carefully masked. Community magicians closed and self-sufficient, living among muggles, but does not depend on them, and trying not to touch.
History of Harry Potter begins with celebration in the magical world - the death of Lord Volan - de - Mort (Lord Voldemort), a powerful dark wizard. After the murder of James and Lily Potter, Volan - de - Mort tried to kill Harry Potter, who was only one year old, but the curse instead ricocheted and that would kill the boy killed Voldemort, and Harry on the forehead left a scar in the form of lightning. Professor Dumbledore and MakGonnal and Keymaster Rubeus Hargrid leave Harry on the doorstep of his aunt and uncle.
We meet him again at the age of 11 in a closet under the stairs in his house " unfriendly " family Mr. and Mrs. Dursley (city Little Whinging , 4 Privet Drive , Surrey ) . Before us - skinny boy in a shabby , ridiculous clothes , inherited from the older cousin , with bright green eyes and tousled black hair, round glasses and a scar on his forehead in the form of lightning. Harry Potter's life was not a happy uncle, aunt and cousin did not like the boy and otherwise spoiled his life.
On its 11th anniversary, Harry receives a letter addressed to him from the school of Witchcraft and Wizardry Hogwarts. Later it is revealed that Harry - the magician, the magician with his birth, as "held back" Vernon and Petunia Dursley. He learns from Hagrid that there is another world - a world of magic, he is very different from the Muggle world, simpletons (ordinary people).
Harry also becomes aware about his parents and their death, before he had been told that Lily and James were killed in a car accident. In fact, they killed dark wizard Lord Volan - de - Mort (One Who Can Not be Called). Harry goes to Hogwarts at the Faculty of brave Gryffindor, at school he learns magic gains loyal friends Ron Weasley, Hermione Granger as well as other Gryffindors and becomes a catcher Gryffindor Quidditch team. He finds new friends and enemies - Malfloy Draco and his comrades. At Hogwarts hero and his friends are waiting for exciting and dangerous adventures, mostly they are all connected with Voldemort. Over 6 years of study at Hogwarts, Harry finds and loses the godfather, falls in love, opposed Him Who Can not be Called and his followers - the Death Eaters.
In the last book of Harry, Ron and Hermione leave school. Magical world encompasses war with Voldemort, all year guys do their best to destroy it. The book ends with the victory of the Boy Who Survived, and further a happy life heroes. [2, p.3]
The main theme of the novel serves the theme of struggle between good and evil but the meaning Rowling books, not just this fight, but the struggle against evil within himself, self-identity, which synthesizes in itself all possible measure mental, including evil.
Philosophical ideas are included in the movement of the plot, are the basis of imagery and sense of fullness style, play a significant role in determining the fantastic reality. Christian themes of love and sacrifice are key for all books about Harry Potter. Also, it should be noted humor that gives novels ease of perception. In the books also clearly expressed symbolism, it is particularly important.
Symbol in the product are not just animals , phenomena , objects, secondary world , but also play Quidditch ( Quidditch ) . Name of the game consists of some letters four goals : (Qu) affle + Blu (d) ger + Blu (d) ger + Sn (itch); maybe there is some connection with the word "quiddity", ie "the essence or real nature of a thing" ( Eng. essence , the essence ) . Not by chance that Professor Minerva McGonagall (cf. Roman . Mythology . Minerva, or Greek. Athena, goddess of wisdom and war ) led Harry to the game " Quidditch ", thus helping him to go to a symbolic quest. Taking the quest , the hero inevitably comes in a fair fight , war resistance. 
The theme of love, friendship, loyalty, and family can be traced throughout the entire cycle. For, example, Harry's dearest wish that he saw in the mirror of Erised (Desire), was to have a family. Magic Power of Love leads Harry to win, this force is neglected Voldemord, relying on the power of dark magic. Books teach goodness, devotion and loyalty.
Series of novels is a combination of many genres, including fantasy and teenage romance with elements of adventure, detective, thriller and romance, as well as includes many cultural references. According to Rowling, the main theme of the novel is death, although they are considered primarily as children's literature. In addition, the series covered such topics as prejudice and corruption. 
4. Signs of fantasy and literary tale in the novel J. Rowling "Harry Potter"
"Harry Potter" in terms of its genre structure has features not only fantasy and literature, folklore (magic) tales and myth .
Literary fairy tale - copyright, artistic, poetic or prosaic work based either on folk literature or purely original; work mostly fantastic, magical, wonderful adventure that paints fairy tale characters. The main features of the literary fairy tale - it has a particular author, unchanging text, recorded in writing, and most often it is larger in volume.
Signs of literary fairy-tales:
1). The presence of the author (characteristic differences between literary and folk fairy tale)
2). Installation on fiction (the author and the readers are sure that it refers to a fictional country, to the fictitious time).
3). The presence of the number 3, connection with it (in the "Harry Potter" this Tournament Three Wizards, three gift of Death).
4). Miracles, magic. fantasy harry potter fairy tale
From the fantasy genre works of J.K. Rowling inherited epic narrative and some initial tragedy (in the beginning Harry Potter is an orphan, he was forced to suffer, while living in his native home of Aunt). Fantasy hero must fulfill its mission, whatever it takes, but he is given the right to choose that generates contradictory, live human images. For example , the mission of the protagonist Harry Potter is to destroy dangerous and evil wizard , yet he did not succeed , and people will be in a state of constant threat to their lives . But as mentioned above , our hero can stay away and do not realize that it is destined , and may choose a different path and fight against evil. In his work on the Harry Potter we can observe one of the features of the fantasy genre , such as the possession of the protagonist honor , valor and justice, he even studying at the Faculty known for its brave students. J.K. Rowling Mixed reality and fiction - through the fairy veil discernible real country place. But due to the distortion of the fantasy they acquire a kind of mysterious color ( for example , the entrance to the magical Diagon Alley is located in the heart of London in the backyard of a small bar , and to enter the Ministry of Magic need to use ordinary , unremarkable phone booth, which functions as an underground elevator ) . And the last thing that unites fantasy genre with the work of J.K. Rowling - is the world's diversity of fantastic creatures encountered throughout the narrative ( elves , centaurs , winged horses, hippogriffs , grindilou etc.).
Harry Potter, as mentioned earlier, is not only a fantasy, but a fairy tale. Availability of specialized magical miracles that occur wonderful objects and helpers hero - a characteristic feature is a fairy tale, and in accordance with the already given us examples of magic objects are an integral part of the work, "Harry Potter."
As the main factor in the plot - a fairy tale plays miracle. "Harry Potter" completely permeated wonders - that turn people into animals (Transfiguration), and the movement of people in space (transgression), and enchanted items themselves to perform certain actions, and those who go to each other's people depicted in portraits Hogwarts and many others.
Consideration of the genre as a kind of fairy tale fairy tales included in the genus epic, can more fully understand the mechanism of interaction of folklore and literary tales. Folk tale corresponds to a simple genre, literary - complex. Folk tale is a prototype, and the images that are present in it - the prototypical. It can serve as the basis of the literary fairy tale which, in turn, for its creation borrows funds set genre of folk tales (theme, plot, theme, image). For example, the Harry Potter tale includes elements of folk tales, such as the availability of magic items, magic animals, good and evil wizards, etc. J.K. Rowling uses a specific geographical space to emphasize the reality of what is happening.
She shuffles the world of reality and the world of magic to convince the reader that the events depicted in her work, is really happening around us. Through the main character - an ordinary boy living near London - we are immersed in the magical world, and with it come to believe in the reality of what at first glance seems incredible.
Thus, the product of a fantasy "Harry Potter" includes topics such as the myth: the birth of the hero (the miraculous rescue Harry as his second birth), his childhood (Harry brought up in a family of Dursley), refusal to return to the real world (Harry reluctantly returns to the Dursleys) .
As in mythology, to fight against the dark forces of the universe, heroes JK Rowling have to meet face to face with the dark forces within him. Each new adventure shows them that they deserve to win.
Based on the above said "Harry Potter" is a synthesis of a fairy tale and myth in the structure of fantasy works. [7, p.81]
Series of novels by Joan Kathleen Rowling "Harry Potter", consists of seven books, and was currently bestseller of children's literature. Books are chronicling the adventures of young wizard Harry Potter and his friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger, enrolled in the School of Witchcraft and Wizardry Hogwarts. The main plot is devoted to countering Harry and the dark wizard Lord Volan de Mort, whose objectives include the acquisition of immortality and the enslavement of the wizard world.
Series is a combination of many genres, including fantasy, literary fairy tale, myth, and teenage romance with elements of adventure, detective, thriller and romance novel, "Harry Potter" is a synthesis of a fairy tale and myth in the structure of fantasy works. Also novel is full of simple symbolism and mythological foundation hidden subtext.
The main theme of "Harry Potter" acts struggle between good and evil, but this fight is not just between enemies, but also a struggle within himself. The book reveals the themes of love and sacrifice, loyalty, and wisdom.
Joanne Kathleen Rowling opened the universal secret of the popularity of the novel - a symbiosis of quality written work, advertising campaigns and the factors that make heroes close to the reader. As a result, we got "The era of Harry Potter", which not only attracted to children but also adults.
List of references
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