Сanada and Australia in Focus

Canadian and Australian Myths and Legends. The Snowy River is a major river in south-eastern Australia. The Blue Mountains is a region in New South Wales. Australian bush is a term used for rural, undeveloped land or country areas in certain countries.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид учебное пособие
Язык английский
Дата добавления 02.03.2011
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Сanada and Australia

in Focus

Навчальний посібник

із країнознавства

Навчальний посібник „Сanada and Australia in Focus” вміщує короткі відомості про Канаду й Австралію, міфи й легенди цих країн із прозорою фабулою, різноманітні за змістом, дібрані з урахуванням сфери інтересів і потреб учнів основної школи. Запропоновані тексти ілюструють особливості суспільного життя Канади й Австралії: соціальної, історичної, релігійної та культурної сфер. У навчальному посібнику пропонується список лексичних одиниць, глосарій та словник. До кожного з автентичних текстів додаються різноманітні вправи і завдання, що дозволяють зацікавити учнів / студентів, забезпечити їхню комунікативну активність, здійснювати контроль рівня сформованості їхніх іншомовних комунікативних навичок і вмінь, надати учням / студентам можливість самостійно себе оцінити, порівняти власні навчальні досягнення.

Посібник може бути корисним для учнів загальноосвітніх навчальних закладів, студентів педагогічних факультетів університетів, вчителів і викладачів, а також для усіх тих, хто вивчає англійську мову самостійно.

Canadian and Australian Myths and Legends

The Monkey and the Crocodile

Key words and expressions:

to yell

to slap

to come up with a plan

to be greedy

to be sad and miserable

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

1. How do you think? Is it possible for monkey and crocodile to be good friends?

2. Divide into two groups. Make up a list of advantages and disadvantages to be a monkey and a crocodile. Share your ideas.

Reading

A long time ago a monkey lived in a great fig tree on the riverbank. Life was good for him. He grew big and strong eating the tree's fruit. A lot of crocodiles lived in the river and one of them watched the monkey for a long time as he ate and slept in the tree.

“That monkey's heart must taste so sweet from all the fruit he eats” the crocodile thought to herself. “I want to eat it”.

She turned to her husband and said “See the big monkey up there in that tree. Bring me his heart, I want to eat it”.

Her husband looked up at the monkey in the tree and then looked at his wife.

“But the monkey lives high in the tree and I'm here in the river. How can I catch him?”

“I don't care how you do it, just bring me his heart” yelled his wife, slapping the water angrily with her tail.

Her husband knew there was no way of talking her out of something, once she had made up her mind. She wouldn't talk to him again until he brought her the monkey's heart.

“Ok, Ok, calm down, I'll think of something, dearest” he said.

The crocodile thought and thought and finally came up with a plan.

“I know what I'll do” he said to himself. “I'll trick the monkey into riding on my back”.

The crocodile swam closer to the tree.

“Hello Mr Monkey. How are you today?” he called out, smiling and trying to sound friendly. He wasn't too bright. When he smiled he showed all his big teeth.

“I'm fine, thank you” said the monkey, trying not to look scared as he stared down from the tree at the open mouth with all those big sharp teeth.

“Mr Monkey, why do you only eat the fruit from that fig tree when there are so many juicy mangoes on trees on the island in the middle of the river?” asked the crocodile.

“Because I can't get across the river, the water is too deep” answered the monkey.

“No problem, you can ride on my back and I'll take you over there” said the crocodile.

The monkey didn't trust the crocodile completely, but he was greedy and he wanted to taste all those juicy mangoes on the island. So he jumped down onto the crocodile's back.

“Hold on tight and off we go” said the crocodile.

The crocodile had only swum a little way when he dived under the water.

“Why did you do that?” said the monkey, spluttering and spitting out water. “I could have drowned”.

“You are going to drown” said the crocodile. “I'm going to hold you under the water and kill you. My wife wants me to bring her your heart so she can eat it.”

“Ah, you should have told me before we left” said the monkey. “I didn't bring my heart with me. I don't keep it inside me all the time because it could get knocked to pieces from all that jumping around in the tree” he said. "Take me over to the island and after I've eaten some mangoes, we'll go back to my tree and I'll get my heart for you” said the monkey.

“No way, monkey” said the crocodile. "We're going back for your heart first and then we'll see about the mangoes.”

“Fair enough, you're the boss” said the monkey.

When they got back to the tree the monkey jumped off the crocodile's back and ran up high into the tree.

The monkey yelled down at the crocodile “You dumb crocodile, who ever heard of anyone keeping their heart up a tree. You may be bigger than me and have lots of sharp teeth but you're not smarter than me. My heart is inside me, come up here and get it if you can”.

The crocodile realised he'd been tricked. He was sad and miserable. “This is not good. How am I ever going to explain this to my wife?” the crocodile thought to himself. “She so wanted to taste that monkey's heart”. A tear fell down his cheek as he swam back to his wife.

Comprehension check

Put the following events (A-F) in the right order. Number them (1-6).

a. The crocodile thought and thought and finally came up with a plan.

b. The crocodile realised he'd been tricked.

c. A long time ago a monkey lived in a great fig tree on the riverbank.

d. When they got back to the tree the monkey jumped off the crocodile's back and ran up high into the tree.

e. The monkey didn't trust the crocodile completely, but he was greedy and he wanted to taste all those juicy mangoes on the island.

f. Her husband looked up at the monkey in the tree and then looked at his wife.

a

b

c

d

e

f

1

WRITIHG

Write an article of about 100-120 words to a school newspaper. Express your point of view on the legend.

The River Snake

Key words and expressions:

distant

to stand in doubt

years passed away

an oath

brother-in-law

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

1. Work in small groups. Make a list of words and word combinations which can characterize a snake. Compare your list with other groups.

Reading

Once upon a time a certain woman had been on a visit to a distant village. As she was going home she reached the bank of a flooded river. She tried to wade across but soon found that the water was too deep and the current too strong. She looked about but could see no signs of a boat or any means of crossing. It began to grow dark, and the woman was in great distress at the thought that she would not be able to reach her home. While she thus stood in doubt, suddenly out of the river came a great snake and said to her, "Woman, what will you give me if I ferry you across the river?" She answered, "Snake, I have nothing to give you."

The snake said, "I cannot take you across the river unless you promise to give me something." Now the woman at the time was pregnant and not knowing what else to do, she promised that when her child was born, if it were a daughter she would marry her to the river snake, and if it were a son that, when the boy grew up he should become the name friend of the snake. The woman swore to do this with an oath, and the snake took her on his back and bore her safely across the flooded stream. The woman safely reached her home, and in a little time a daughter was born to her.

Years passed away, and the woman forgot all about the snake and her oath. One day she went to the river to fetch water, and the snake came out of the stream and said to her, "Woman, where is the wife whom you promised to me?" The woman then remembered her oath, and going back to her house she returned to the river with her daughter. When the girl came to the bank of the river, the snake seized her and drew her underneath the water, and her mother saw her no more.

The girl lived with the snake at the bottom of the river, and in the course of years bore him four snake sons. Afterwards the girl remembered her home, and one day she went to visit her mother. Her brothers when they came home were astonished to see her and said, "Sister, we thought that you were drowned in the river." She answered, "No, I was not drowned, but I am married and have children." The brothers said, "Where is this brother-in-law of ours?" Their sister said, "Go to the river and call him." So they went to the river and called, and the snake came up out of the water and went to their house with them. Then they welcomed the snake and gave him great quantities of rice beer to drink. After drinking this the snake became sleepy and went to sleep. Then the brothers who did not like a snake brother-in-law took their axes and cut off the head of the snake while he slept, and afterwards their sister lived in their house.

Comprehension check

Read the statements (1-8) that follow the text and decide if they are TRUE or FALSE according to what the text says. Mark your answers (x) in the table after the statements. An example has already been given for you.

Statements

TRUE

FALSE

Once upon a time a certain man had been on a visit to a distant village.

x

The woman promised that when her child was born, if it were a daughter she would become a sister to the river snake.

The woman was in great distress at the thought that she would not be able to reach her home.

One day the women went to the river to swim, and the snake came out of the stream.

Years passed away, and the woman forgot all about the snake and her oath.

The woman safely reached her home, and in a little time a daughter and a son were born to her.

The girl lived with the snake near the river.

The brothers welcomed the snake and gave him great quantities of wine to drink.

WRITIHG

Write what happened after the following:

a. It began to grow dark, and the woman was in great distress at the thought that she would not be able to reach her home.

b. Years passed away, and the woman forgot all about the snake and her oath.

c. The girl lived with the snake at the bottom of the river, and in the course of years bore him four snake sons.

Coyote and the Rock

Key words and expressions:

a blanket

to rumble

to stretch out

to squash

to howl

a witch

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

1. Tell what do you know about coyotes. Where do they live? How do they look like?

2. What are the differences between coyotes and wolves?

Reading

One sunny day Coyote and Fox were out walking up a hill together. They were warm and decided to stop for a rest. Coyote pointed to a large smooth rock in front of them and said, "that's a good looking rock. Let's rest there." He spread his blanket over the rock and they lay down. When they were ready to move on again, Coyote decided he was tired of carrying his blanket. It was too heavy on this fine day.

He spoke to the rock. "Thank you for letting us rest on you Rock. I'm leaving my blanket as a present, to protect you from the rain and the snow".

Coyote and Fox set off down the hill on the other side. They hadn't gone far when the Sun hid behind the clouds and large drops of rain fell.

Coyote said "Fox, go and get my blanket back from Rock. We need it now". Fox went back to Rock and asked for the blanket. "No!" said Rock in his deep voice. "This was a present and I need it to protect me from the rain".

Coyote was angry when Fox told him what Rock had said. He ran back up the hill.

"Rock, you are ungrateful and selfish. All these years you've been lying here with nothing to protect you - a few more drops of rain won't harm you. I am cold and getting wet and I need this blanket." And he snatched it back. Coyote and Fox sat under the blanket, keeping warm and dry. Rock was cold and wet. When the rain stopped, Sun peeked out from behind the clouds to see if anyone had missed him. Then the ground began to rumble and a crashing sound came from over the top of the hill.

"Fox, go and see what is making the ground rumble" said Coyote.

Fox rushed up to the top of the hill, then ran back down screaming "Coyote! Quick run! Run! Rock is coming to take back the blanket".

Fox leapt into a nearby Badger hole. But it was to small and the tip of his tail stuck out. Rock rolled over the hole and squashed the furry tip, turning it white. Even today Fox's tail still has a white tip. Coyote ran as fast as he could, his tail stretched out behind him. Reaching the river, he swam to the other side. "I'm safe now" he said. "Rock can't swim. He'll sink to the bottom if he follows me".

Rock rolled into the river and started swimming. Coyote's jaw dropped open in surprise. He scrambled up the bank and ran off again, heading for the forest.

"These big trees will protect me" he panted.

Rock smashed and crashed his way through the forest, knocking down trees in his path.

"Go away Coyote, before Rock kills us all," shouted the trees.

Coyote ran from the forest, down onto the prairie where he saw two bears.

"Help me! Help me!" he howled. "Rock is chasing me."

"We will stop him" growled the Bears.

The first Bear put out one paw to stop Rock, and his paw was broken.

"Yeeoow!" he cried in pain.

The second Bear put out both paws but Rock rolled right over him, squashing him as thin as a pancake. Coyote ran on until he saw some Buffalo grazing.

"Help me!" he howled. "Rock is chasing me".

The Buffalo lowered their horns and charged at Rock. Rock cracked their heads and kept rolling.

"Oooh! My head hurts" moaned one of the Buffalo. Coyote ran on until he saw two old women talking outside their lodge. They were holding stone hatchets.

"Help me!" he howled. "Rock is chasing me".

He ran up and hid behind the women and when Rock reached them they hit him with their hatchets, shattering Rock into thousands of tiny pieces. Coyote fell on the ground, exhausted. The two women started whispering, but he could hear what they said.

"Coyote is so plump and juicy, he will go well in our cooking pot".

Frightened, Coyote realised they were witches. He had to do something fast or they would eat him for dinner that night! Thinking that he was too tired to run again, the witches went inside their lodge to get their cooking pot.

Coyote noticed their water jugs outside the door. He jumped up, emptied the water out, then lay down again. When the witches came out again he said "I need a drink of water after all that running".

The witches pointed to the jugs.

"There's plenty there Coyote. Help yourself".

He turned one of the jugs upside down.

"They're empty. I'll go down to the river and fill them for you".

The witches believed him. When he was out of sight, Coyote laughed, dropped the jugs and ran away as fast as he could. When the witches realised they had been tricked, they became angry and blamed each other. They shouted louder and louder and finally hit each other on the head with their stone hatchets. They dropped down dead and that was the end of the witches.

Comprehension check

Some words are missing from the text. Choose the most appropriate answer from the box for each gap (1-6) in the text. Do not change the words. There is one word which you do not need to use.

large, on, out, heavy, rock, warm

One sunny day Coyote and Fox were _____ walking up a hill together. They were ______ and decided to stop for a rest. Coyote pointed to a _____ smooth rock in front of them and said, "that's a good looking rock. Let's rest there." He spread his blanket over the _____ and they lay down. When they were ready to move ______ again, Coyote decided he was tired of carrying his blanket. It was too ______ on this fine day.

WRITIHG

Into the box below write the words and word combinations which can characterize a rock and a coyote.

a rock

a coyote

Coyote Brings Fire

Key words and expressions:

to guard

to share

a fire being

a cunning smile

slyly

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

What legends about fire and Fire Beings do you know? Relate them to your classmates.

Reading

Long ago, the Fire Beings were the only people who had fire. They guarded it closely and wouldn't share it with other tribes or animals. This didn't matter so much in spring and summer, but in winter many young children and old people died from the icy cold. Just before the next winter, some of the animals called a meeting.

"We can't let our children and grandparents die from the cold this year," said Squirrel.

"We have to get fire from the Fire Beings to keep warm."

"How can we do that?" asked Chipmunk. "The Fire Beings won't share it with us".

"Let's ask Coyote for help" said Frog. "He's crafty and cunning, and he'll know how to get fire".

Coyote listened and thought about the problem. Then he smiled a cunning smile.

"There is a way to get fire from the selfish Fire Beings" he said.

"How? How can we do that?" asked Chipmunk

"We'll take it!" answered Coyote slyly. "I have a plan. Follow me!"

Coyote lead the animals to the Fire Beings' camp on top of the mountain. The others hid in the bushes while Coyote walked into the camp.

"Who's there?" screeched one of the Beings. "Someone's trying to steal our fire".

"It's all right," hissed another. "It's only an old moth eaten coyote".

"Huummph! Moth eaten indeed," thought Coyote, but he didn't say anything.

He lay down by the fire and pretended to go to sleep, keeping one eye half open. Three Fire Beings sat nearby. One was huge and ugly - with a small bald head and big rolls of fat around his stomach. Snot dripped in long slimy strands from his nose. The other two were old hags, with eyes like red stones and clawed hands like a vulture.

After a few minutes, a banging noise started in the bushes. It was Coyote's friends.

"What's that horrible noise?" cried the fat ugly Fire Being. "Who's there?"

The three of them went to investigate. Seeing his chance, Coyote snatched up a glowing piece of fire and ran off down the mountain as fast as he could. Realising they had been tricked, the two hags screamed and chased after him. The big fat bald Fire Being just stood there, with more snot dripping from his nose. The hags were old, but they could run like the wind. They nearly caught Coyote. One of them stretched out her claws and touched the tip of his tail. The heat turned the hairs white. Coyote threw the fire into the air towards Squirrel. She caught it in her tail and scampered off over stumps and boulders. The fire scorched her so badly, that her tail curled up over her back. She was almost caught, until Chipmunk bounded up beside her.

"Me! Me! Throw it to me!"

Catching the fire, Chipmunk turned to run. One of the hags clawed her back leaving three stripes down it. Chipmunk threw the fire to Frog, but one of the Beings grabbed his tail.

"Let me go!" yelled Frog.

He squirmed and struggled so much that his eyeballs bulged and he thought his heart would burst. With one last mighty leap he tore himself free, leaving his beautiful long tail behind, still wriggling in the hag's claw. Frog threw the fire to Wood and Wood swallowed it. The Fire Beings hit Wood and kicked him and cut him with their knives, but still Wood didn't spit out the fire. At last the hags gave up and went home, mumbling to themselves: "Oh dear, I think I broke a nail". "Never mind. We'll have frog's tail soup tonight." "Mmm! That sounds nice".

Coyote called all the animals together to teach them how to get the fire from Wood.

"Fire is a gift for everyone. If you rub two dry sticks of Wood together very fast Wood will get itchy and give you some fire. From now on you will be warm in winter".

"I told you Coyote was cunning" said Frog.

"Yes, but I wonder what frog's tail soup tastes like?" asked Squirrel.

And that is why today, Coyote's tail has a white tip, squirrel's tail curls around over her back, chipmunk's coat has white stripes and frog has no tail. But everyone is warm in winter.

Comprehension check

Some words are missing from the text. Choose the most appropriate answer from the box for each gap (1-8) in the text. Do not change the words. There is one word which you do not need to use.

Chipmunk, fat, tricked, Squirrel, investigate, old, Coyote, claws

The three of them went to ________. Seeing his chance, Coyote snatched up a glowing piece of fire and ran off down the mountain as fast as he could. Realising they had been _______, the two hags screamed and chased after him. The big ______ bald Fire Being just stood there, with more snot dripping from his nose. The hags were ______, but they could run like the wind. They nearly caught ________. One of them stretched out her ______ and touched the tip of his tail. The heat turned the hairs white. Coyote threw the fire into the air towards ________. She caught it in her tail and scampered off over stumps and boulders. The fire scorched her so badly, that her tail curled up over her back. She was almost caught, until _____ bounded up beside her.

WRITIHG

Work in pairs. Compose 10 questions on the text and ask your partner.

Why Bat Has no Friends

Key words and expressions:

a claw

a beak

vigorously

to hold a council

to nod in agreement

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

How do you think? What shall we do to have a lot of friends? Do you have friends? How to be a good friend? Share your ideas.

Reading

Many years ago there was a great war between the birds and the animals. No-one knows why. It just happened. The creatures with wings flew to the battle site and made their camp. Those who had legs, walked there. Bat joined the birds.

"Hey, I've got wings. So I must be a bird. And there are more of us, so we should win!" The first battle was long and hard, but gradually slashing claws and tearing teeth began to win over beaks and wings. Bat could see that the birds were losing so he hid behind a bush. When the battle was over the animals walked back towards their camp.

"Man, did we kick those birds' butts or what?" said Buffalo, spitting out a few feathers.

"Yeah! We kicked their butts" cried Bat in his high pitched voice.

The animals stopped. "What are you doing with us?" shouted Beaver, slapping the ground hard with his big, flat tail. "You've got wings. You're with the other side."

"Yeah, that's right" growled Bear. "And I'm going to eat you!"

"Guys! Guys! Get Real!" said Bat, pointing into his mouth. "When have you ever seen a bird with teeth? Of course I'm one of you!"

"I suppose so," grumbled Bear.

The next day there was to be another battle and Bat walked to the site with the animals.

"Let's rip their beaks off!" he yelled.

This time the birds flew as an army with the sun behind them, its bright light blinding the animals. Tearing talons and flapping wings tore into furry bodies. The birds were winning. Again Bat hid behind a bush. When it was all over and the birds started to fly back to their camp, Bat silently joined them.

"That was a good victory today", said Eagle.

"Yeah! We kicked their butts" shouted Bat.

"Hold on" said Crow. "You were with the other side."

"Guys! Guys! Get Real" said Bat. "When have you ever seen an animal with wings like mine? Of course I'm one of you." He flapped his wings vigorously.

"I suppose so", said Eagle.

And that's how it was in each battle. When Bat saw that the side he was on was going to lose, he pretended he was on the other side. Eventually the birds and animals got tired of fighting each other. They all came together while their Chiefs held a council of truce to decide how things would be settled. It was very difficult for Bat to pretend that he belonged to both sides. The Chiefs knew what he had done.

"Friends should always help each other and not pretend to be one thing when they are another" they said. "Bat has wings, but he is not a bird. He has teeth, but he is not an animal. From now on, Bat will only fly at night when other birds are asleep and the animals are hunting."

All the creatures nodded in agreement.

"You will always be alone, Bat. You will never have a friend among the creatures that fly or from those that walk!"

And that's why Bat always flies at night and doesn't have any friends.

Comprehension check

1. Give an outline of the legend.

2. Retell the legend as if you were a bat.

WRITIHG

Write what happened after the following:

1. The next day there was to be another battle ... .

2. They all came together while their Chiefs held a council of truce ... .

3. From now on, Bat will only fly at night ... .

Spider, Hare and the Moon

Key words and expressions:

to be afraid

a moonbeam

a sunbeam

gloomily

a web

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

How do you think? What is the meaning of this sentence? «Spider is still carefully carrying Moon's message and spinning the web in the corner of our rooms - but how many of us listen?». Try to explain.

Reading

Moon was sad. She had spent many years looking at the people on Earth and she saw that they were afraid. They were afraid of dying. To make them feel better she decided to call on her friend Spider to take a message to them.

"Spider", She said, "The people of Earth are afraid of dying and that makes me very sad. Please tell them that they will all die sooner or later but it is nothing to be scared of."

So Spider slowly made his way back to Earth, carefully picking his way down on moonbeams and sunbeams. On his way he met Hare.

"Where are you going Spider?", said Hare.

"I am going to give the people of Earth a message from Moon.", he said.

"Oh, you'll be far too long. Tell me the message and I'll take it there for you", replied Hare.

"OK! Moon wants the people of Earth to know that they will all die......", Spider started.

"Right! Tell the people of Earth that they will all die", said Hare. And with that, Hare disappeared off to Earth.

Spider gloomily made his way back to Moon and told Her what had happened. Moon was very cross with Hare and when he came back to tell them that he had given them the message, she hit him on the nose! And that is why to this day, the Hare has a split lip.

"You had better take the message yourself", said Moon to Spider.

And to this day, Spider is still carefully carrying Moon's message and spinning the web in the corner of our rooms - but how many of us listen?

Comprehension check

1. Put the following events (A-D) in the right order/ Number them (1-4).

A. "Where are you going Spider?", said Hare.

B. Moon was sad.

C. And with that, Hare disappeared off to Earth.

D. She said, "The people of Earth are afraid of dying and that makes me very sad.

WRITIHG

Think a little and write your attitude to this myth.

The Crow and Its Ugly Fledglings

Key words and expressions:

a fledgling

a gift

one by one

a brood

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

How do you think what does it mean?

«Just so are all mothers. No other child is so beautiful in their eyes as their own».

Reading

Of all the birds the crow is considered the ugliest, especially its young fledglings. The legend tells that sometime after God had created all the living beings, he called everyone to see them and their offspring. He wanted to see how the young birds and animals looked, and then to give them suitable gifts, and food for their little ones.

They came one by one, and God looked at them, patted some and stroked others, and was very pleased with every one of them, for each one had something of beauty in it. And so he blessed them and gave them food by which to live. The last to come was the crow, bringing her little brood with her, very proud of them.

When God cast his eyes upon the young crows, he spat in astonishment, and said, "Surely these are not my creatures. I could not have made such ugly things. Every one of my creatures has such beautiful young ones that they are a pleasure to look at, but yours are so ugly that it makes one sick to look at them. Where did you get this one?"

"Where should I get them from?" replied the crow. "It is my very own young child," she added with pride.

"You had better go back and bring me another one. This is much too ugly. I cannot look at it."

Annoyed at the words of God, the crow went away and flew all over the earth to search for another young one that would be more beautiful than the one she had brought to God. But no other young bird appeared so beautiful in her eyes as her own. So she returned back to God and said, "I have been all over the world, and I have searched high and low, but young birds more beautiful and more dainty than mine I have not been able to find."

Then God smilingly replied, "Quite right. Just so are all mothers. No other child is so beautiful in their eyes as their own."

Then he blessed the little crows and sent them away into the world with his gifts.

Comprehension check AND WRITIHG

Making a spider. Find out as many words as you can to describe a crow and make the spider bigger.

Why Is there Enmity Between the Crow and the Hawk?

Key words and expressions:

to rear

a nest

to beg

woe

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Find out the differences between two words FRIENDSHIP and FELLOWSHIP. Try to explain them.

Reading

The crow was in very great distress, for however she tried and whatever she did, she could not rear a family. No sooner were the young hatched, than the hawk would come and pick them up. In vain did she try to hide her nest in the hollows of a tree or in the thickets of a bush. As sure as death would the hawk find them and eat them.

Not knowing what to do, she bethought herself and said, "How would it do if I try and get the hawk to be godmother? For then, being a near relation, she is sure to spare my little ones."

Said and done. She went out of her place to search for the hawk, and finding her, she said, "Good morning, sister."

"Good morning," replied the hawk.

"How pleased I should feel," said the crow, "if you would become godmother to my children."

"With pleasure," replied the hawk. "Why not?" And so they made up a covenant of friendship and of good fellowship between them.

Before leaving the hawk, the crow said to her, "Now, sister, I have one request to make."

"Granted," replied the hawk. "What is it?"

"I only beg of you to spare my children. Do not eat them when you have found them."

"All right," replied the hawk. "I shall certainly not touch them. But tell me how they look, so that in case I meet them, I may spare them."

"Oh," replied the crow, "mine are the most beautiful creatures in the world. They are more lovely than any other bird can boast of."

"Very well. Rest assured. Go in peace." And they parted.

The crow, being quite satisfied with the hawk's promise, began flying about the next day trying to find something with which to feed her children. The hawk the next morning went about her own business and tried to find some nice little young ones to eat. Flying about, she saw the young ones of the thrush, the blackbird, and of other beautiful birds, and she said to herself, "Surely these are the children of the crow. Look how lovely and beautiful they are. I am not going to touch them."

She went all day without finding any little birds but these. And she said to herself, "I must keep my word to my sister. I am not going to touch them." And she went to bed hungry. The next day the same thing happened, and still the hawk kept her word and would not touch them.

On the third day she was so hungry that she could scarcely see out of her eyes. Roaming about, the hawk suddenly lighted upon the nest of the crow. Seeing the little, miserable, ugly things in the nest, the hawk at first would not touch them, although she never dreamt that these ugly things were the children of the crow, so much praised by her for their beauty, and thought they must belong to some hideous bird. But what is one to do when one is hungry? One eats what one gets, and not finding anything better, she sat down and gobbled them up one by one, and then flew away.

Not long after the hawk had left, the crow came in, feeling sure this time to find her little ones unhurt. But how great was her dismay when she found the nest empty! First she thought the little birds had tried their wings and were flying about in the neighbourhood, and she went in search of them. Not finding them, she began to be a little more anxious, and hunting a little more closely, found on the ground near some rushes some tufts of feathers with little bones and blood. She knew at once that the hawk had again been there, feeding on her children.

Full of wrath and fury, she went to find the hawk. Meeting her, she said, "A nice sister and godmother you are! After you had promised most faithfully not to touch my children, no sooner had I turned my back on them, then you come again and eat them."

"I do not understand what you are saying," replied the hawk. "It is your own fault. You told me your children were the most beautiful in the world, and those which I have eaten were monsters of hideousness. If I had not felt the pinch of hunger so strong, I would not have touched them, not for anything, such ugly things they were! They nearly made me sick."

"Is that the way you keep your promise?" replied the angry crow. "After having eaten them, you even have the impudence to tell lies and insult me. Off with you! And woe betide you if I ever catch you, I will teach you to behave properly."

From that day on, the hawk, if it gets near the crows, attacks them. And from that day on there is implacable hatred between the crows and the hawks.

Comprehension check

Work in pairs. Retell the legend as if you were the crow and your partner as a hawk.

WRITIHG

Put 10 different questions on the text.

The Coffee Mill which Grinds Salt

Key words and expressions:

to be about to die

to grind a wish

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

How do you think? Why does the water in seas and in oceans have a salt taste? Try to explain.

Reading

There was once a little boy by the name of Dan. As his parents died while he was very young, his grandmother took care of him and taught him reading and writing, and to be a good boy.

When she became very old, and thought she was about to die, she called the little boy to her and said, "I am old, Dan, and may not live long. You were always a good boy, and therefore you shall have my only treasure, a coffee mill which I have always kept at the bottom of my old chest. This coffee mill will grind all that you wish. If you say to it, 'Grind a house, little mill,' it will work away, and there the house will stand. When you say, 'Stop, little mill,' it will cease to grind."

Dan thanked his grandmother kindly, and when she died, and he was alone in the world, he opened the chest, took the coffee mill, and went out into the world.

When he had walked a long distance, and needed something to eat, he placed the mill on the grass and said, "Grind some bread and butter, little mill." Very soon Dan had all that he needed, and then he bid the mill to stop.

The next day he came to a large seaport, and when he saw the many vessels, he thought it would be pleasant to see more of the great world. He therefore boarded one of the ships and offered his service to the sailors. As it just happened that the captain needed a boy of Dan's age, he told him to stay.

As soon as the ship was out of port, the sailors commenced abusing Dan. He bore the harsh treatment as well as he could, and when he had nothing to eat the mill ground all that he wished. The bad men wondered how he could always be contented, although they gave him but little to eat. One day one of them peeped through a hole in the cabin door and discovered how the coffee mill served him.

Now the sailors offered a large sum of money to Dan if he would sell his treasure. He refused, however, saying that it was all that his good old grandmother had left him. So one day these wicked men threw Dan overboard and seized the mill. As they were in need of some salt, they bid it grind for them. The mill immediately began its work, and soon they had enough. Now they asked it to stop, but as the one who had peeped through the hole into the boy's cabin had not learned the exact command, the mill refused to obey, and before long the ship was filled with salt.

The men grew desperate, but none of them was able to find a way out of the difficulty. So at length the ship sank down with the mill, the salt, and all the wicked men. The men were drowned, but the mill is yet standing at the bottom of the sea, grinding away, and for this reason the water in the ocean has and always will have a salt taste.

Comprehension check

Read the statements (1-5) that follow the text and decide if they are TRUE or FALSE according to what the text says. Mark your answers (x) in the table after the statements.

Statements

TRUE

FALSE

There was once a little boy by the name of Dan.

Dan's grandfather took care of him and taught him reading and writing, and to be a good boy.

He opened the chest, took the coffee mill, and went out into the world.

One day the captain through a hole in the cabin door and discovered how the coffee mill served him.

The mill is yet standing at the bottom of the sea, grinding away, and for this reason the water in the ocean has and always will have a salt taste.

WRITIHG

Write an article of about 80-100 words to express your point of view on the legend.

Why Sea Water Is Salty

Key words and expressions:

to limp

misfortune

fare well

a comrade

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

What do you think are the best and the worst things to have a magic mill which can grind all you ever wish?

Reading

Once upon a time there was a dear, brave boy who had nothing on earth but a blind grandmother and a clear conscience. After finishing school he became a ship's boy and was about to begin his first journey. He saw that all his new comrades were gambling with good money, but he had nothing, not even a penny. This saddened him, and he complained to his grandmother. She thought for a while, then limped into her room and returned with a small mill, which she gave to the boy, saying, "If you say to the mill, 'Mill, mill, grind for me; grind this or that for me at once!' then it will grind for you whatever you want. And when you say, 'Mill, mill, stand still, for I want nothing more!' then it will stop grinding. But say nothing about this, or it will bring you misfortune!"

The boy thanked her, said farewell, and boarded his ship. When his comrades again began to gamble with their money, he took his mill into a dark corner and said, "Mill, mill, grind for me; grind golden ducats for me at once!" and the mill ground out ducats of pure gold that fell ringing into his leather cap.

When the cap was full he said, "Mill, mill, stand still, for I want nothing more!" and it stopped grinding. He was now the richest of all his comrades.

The ship's captain was very miserly, and whenever there was not enough to eat, the boy had only to say, "Mill, mill, grind for me; grind fresh bread for me at once!" and it would grind away until he said the other words. The mill ground out anything for him that he wanted.

His comrades often asked him how he got these good things, but he said only that he was not at liberty to tell them. However, they continued to press him, until at last he told them the whole story.

It was not long before the evil ship's captain got wind of this, and he immediately hatched a plot. One evening he called the boy into his cabin and said, "Fetch your mill and grind out some fresh chickens for me!"

The boy went and brought back a basket full of fresh chickens, but the godless man was not satisfied. He beat the poor boy until he brought the mill to him and told him what he had to say to make it grind. However, the boy did not tell him how to make it stop, and the captain did not think to ask him about this.

Afterward when the boy was standing alone on deck, the captain went to him and pushed him into the sea, not thinking at all about how much care and concern his father and mother had given for him, nor how his blind grandmother was hoping for his return. He pushed him into the sea, then said that he accidentally had fallen overboard, thinking that this was the end of the story.

Then he went into his cabin and said to the mill, "Mill, mill, grind for me; grind salt for me at once!" and the mill ground out grains of pure white salt.

When the bowl was full the ship's captain said, "That is enough!" but the mill continued to grind forth. Whatever the captain said or did, the mill ground away until the entire cabin was full. He took hold of the mill to throw it overboard, but received such a blow that he fell to the floor as though stunned. The mill continued to grind forth until the entire ship was full and was beginning to sink.

Finally the ship's captain grabbed his sword and chopped the mill into tiny pieces; but behold, every little piece became a little mill, and all the mills ground out grains of pure white salt.

It was soon over for the ship. It sank with man and mouse and all the mills. These are still grinding out grains of pure white salt at the bottom of the sea. And even if you were to shout out the correct command, they are so deep that they would not hear it. And that is why seawater is so salty.

Comprehension check

1. Give an outline of the legend.

2. Describe the boy. How does he look like? Is he greedy? Is he brave?

WRITIHG

Write who said the following

1. "If you say to the mill, 'Mill, mill, grind for me; grind this or that for me at once!' then it will grind for you whatever you want. (_______).

2. "Mill, mill, grind for me; grind golden ducats for me at once!" (_______).

3. "Mill, mill, grind for me; grind fresh bread for me at once!" (_______).

4. "Fetch your mill and grind out some fresh chickens for me!" (_______).

5. "That is enough!" (_______).

The Girl and the Snake

Key words and expressions:

a herd

to get lost

handsome

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Find out the words to describe your feeling if you ever met a huge snake. What would you do?

Reading

Once upon a time there was a girl who was supposed to go into the woods and bring home the cattle, but she could not find the herd. She got lost and came to a large mountain with gates and doors. She went inside. A table was standing there, set with all kinds of things to eat. There was also a bed there, and a large snake was lying on it. It said to the girl, "Have a seat, if you want to. Come and lie down in this bed, if you want to! But if you don't want to, it's all right!"

The girl did not do any of this.

Finally the snake said, "People are coming now who want to dance with you, but don't go with them."

Soon afterward people did come, and they wanted to dance with the girl, but she would have nothing to do with them. Then they began to eat and drink. The girl left the mountain and went home again.

The next day she went into the woods again to look for her herd, but she could not find what she was looking for. Instead, she got lost again and came to the same mountain. She went inside again and found everything the same as the first time: a set table and the bed with the snake. It said to her, as the time before, "Have a seat, if you want to! Eat, if you want to! Come and lie down in this bed, if you want to! But if you don't want to, it's all right. Now a lot more people are coming who want to dance with you, but do not go with them."

The snake had barely finished talking when a lot more people came, and they began to dance and to eat and drink. The girl had nothing to do with them, but instead left the mountain and went home.

On the third day she went into the woods again, and the same thing happened to her as on the previous days. The snake invited her to eat and drink, which she did with a good appetite. After that the snake asked her to lie down next to it, and the girl did that as well.

Then the snake said, "Hold me in your arm!" She did it. "Kiss me!" said the snake. "If you are afraid, just put your apron between us!"

The girl did it, and in that instant the snake turned into a handsome young man. In reality he was a prince who had been bewitched into this form through magic, but the girl's courage had saved him. Of course, the two of them went away, and since then they have never been heard from again.

Comprehension check

Complete the sentences

Once upon a time there was... .

There was also a bed there, and a large ... .

Finally the snake said, "People are coming now who want to dance with you... .

The snake had barely finished talking when a lot more people came ... .

The girl did it, and in that instant the snake turned into... .

WRITIHG

Make up a plan of the legend covering its main events.

Old Sultan

Key words and expressions:

to be no longer of any use

to fill pity

to be of good cheer

a scoundrel

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Discuss. What do you know about dogs and wolves?

Reading

A farmer had a faithful dog named Sultan, who had grown old and lost all his teeth, and could no longer hold onto anything. One day the farmer was standing with his wife before the house door, and said, "Tomorrow I intend to shoot Old Sultan. He is no longer of any use."

His wife, who felt pity for the faithful animal, answered, "He has served us so long, and been so faithful, that we might well give him his keep."

"What?" said the man. "You are not very bright. He doesn't have a tooth left in his mouth, and no thief is afraid of him. He can go now. If he has served us, he has eaten well for it."

The poor dog, who was lying stretched out in the sun not far off, heard everything, and was sorry that tomorrow was to be his last day. He had a good friend, the wolf, and he crept out in the evening into the forest to him, and complained of the fate that awaited him.

"Listen, kinsman," said the wolf, "be of good cheer. I will help you out of your trouble. I have thought of something. Tomorrow, early in the morning, your master is going with his wife to make hay, and they will take their little child with them, for no one will be left behind in the house. While they are at work they lay the child behind the hedge in the shade. You lie down there too, just as if you wanted to guard it. Then I will come out of the woods, and carry off the child. You must run swiftly after me, as if you would take it away from me. I will let it fall, and you will take it back to its parents, who will think that you have rescued it, and will be far too grateful to do you any harm. On the contrary, you will be treated royally, and they will never let you want for anything again."

This idea pleased the dog, and it was carried out just as planned. The father screamed when he saw the wolf running across the field with his child, but when Old Sultan brought it back, he was full of joy, and stroked him and said, "Not a hair of yours shall be hurt. You shall eat free bread as long as you live."

And to his wife he said, "Go home at once and make Old Sultan some bread soup that he will not have to bite. And bring the pillow from my bed. I will give it to him to lie on. From then on Old Sultan was as well off as he could possibly wish.

Soon afterwards the wolf visited him, and was pleased that everything had succeeded so well. "But, kinsman," he said, "you will just close one eye if, when I have a chance, I carry off one of your master's fat sheep."

"Don't count on that," answered the dog. "I will remain true to my master. I cannot agree to that."

The wolf thought that this was not spoken in earnest, and he crept up in the night to take away the sheep. But the farmer, to whom the faithful Sultan had told the wolf's plan, was waiting for him and combed his hair cruelly with a flail. The wolf had to flee, but he cried out to the dog, "Just wait, you scoundrel. You'll regret this."

The next morning the wolf sent the boar to challenge the dog to come out into the forest and settle the affair. Old Sultan could find no one to be his second but a cat with only three legs, and as they went out together the poor cat limped along, stretching its tail upward with pain.

The wolf and his friend were already at the appointed place, but when they saw their enemy coming, they thought that he was bringing a saber with him, for they mistook the cat's outstretched tail for one. And when the poor animal hopped on three legs, they thought that each time it was picking up a stone to throw at them. Then they took fright. The wild boar crept into the underbrush and the wolf jumped up a tree.

As the dog and the cat approached, they wondered why no one was to be seen. The wild boar, however, had not been able to hide himself completely in the leaves. His ears were still sticking out. While the cat was looking cautiously about, the boar wiggled his ears, and the cat, who thought it was a mouse, jumped on it and bit down hard. The boar jumped up screaming loudly, "The guilty one is up in the tree."

The dog and cat looked up and saw the wolf, who was ashamed for having shown such fear, and who then made peace with the dog.

Comprehension check

Say which of the characters of the story you like the best. Why?

WRITIHG

Making a spider. Find out as many words as you can to describe Old Sultan and make the spider bigger.

A Bird Legend

Key words and expressions:

a pet

a totem

a calamity

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

What do you know about totems? Can they protect us from a calamity. Do you have a totem or something like that?

Reading

The aborigines sometimes kept birds and animals as pets, but in all instances that may be enquired into it is found that the pet by some mischance or peculiar trait or impulse strayed into a camp and stayed there. However, this had nothing to do with the belief in an "affinity." Nor yet the belief in and recognition of a "totem." That possibly originated in a knowledge of evolution-in the settled idea that during the ages everything has changed in form and no outstanding fact of Nature escaped being considered the beginning or the dwelling-place of an ancestor or an originator.

But something of a parody of this fundamental belief is the acceptance of an affinity in the shape of a bird or an animal that knows of its being related to a human and who acts as a protector of those of whom it is a family part. In this way the last full-blooded woman of the Cammaray people believed in the snake. She says that the black snake always indicates to her whether or not an undertaking of hers is to be successful, when a calamity is about to happen or has just happened in her immediate family, when she is personally threatened with great loss and whether or not the time be propitious for the doing of any important thing.


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