Gender discourse in modern English and Russian belles-letters

Theories of discourse as theories of gender: discourse analysis in language and gender studies. Belles-letters style as one of the functional styles of literary standard of the English language. Gender discourse in the tales of the three languages.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид дипломная работа
Язык английский
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Aul, palaces, woods, cemetery, a tomb, a sea

Alertness and courage are life's shield. (Filipino) Courage conquers all things; it even gives strength to the body. (Roman) - though the father did not believe in his sons, they reached the highest of what they could and did.

Table 12. Kazakh folktales «Magic Garden» - «Чудесный сад» [43, 128-133]


Story development





Asan, Khasen, the fourth apprentice

Asan's daughter, Khasen's son, a wise man and his first three apprentices, birds

Asan and Khasen lived nearby and when misfortune happened to Khasen, Asan accepted him as a brother. Khasen finds a pot of gold in the field that had been given by Asan and he wants Asan to tale it, but Asan denies. After long discussions they decide to marry their children and give them the gold. But the newly-married couple also refuses to take it; finally they go to a wise man. The wise man first addresses to his apprentices and the first three answers were not approved. The youngest apprentice offered to spend the gold for buying seeds and create a garden for the poor. Everybody liked that idea and the youngest apprentice went to the market; on his way he met a caravan loaded with beautiful birds who were obviously suffering. The caravan leader told those were birds were for khan's kitchen and the apprentice pays twice more to the caravan leader and sets the birds free. After a while he realizes what he did and falls into despair but when he opens his eyes he sees those birds planting the seeds and the trees immediately growing and covering with leaves and fruits. So there appears a magic garden; and when the rich want to enter try the fruits - they fall dead; and when the poor want to enter the garden and eat fruits - they were welcomed.

So that the place for all the poor to feel happy.

Farm, field, market, steppe.

A good deed is never lost - golden words to finish the tale!

Now we will analyze gender discourse reflected in the tales in English.

1. «The Pottle of Brains»

In the following diagram we offer comparison and description of gender use in the tale.

Graph 1.

From these tables we see that female gender characters have more solid status in the family and, therefore, in the society. Though, we know that women, for Jack's period and place, were acclaimed as long as they the source of warm, ready hot food, a nice shoulder to lean on and a house keeper. Jack's mother is the example of how women started to demand equality between men and women - these are the veiled samples of how relations of between the sexes were changing from generation to generation.

Speaking about Henwife and the young lady, we can state now, that these kind of women - witches or simply women who turned out to (eventually) know more than men were considered to be sorceress and were the subject of persecutions. We can state that the Henwife was a witch or something - she was strange and she knew things women should not know probably. By the next diagram we want to show the size genders activity, therefore, usefulness and sufficiency as a personality: Jack's figure is at front as women, all the same, could not do without men mostly.

Graph 2.

2. «The Old Woman and her Pig»

This tale is picture of what a woman becomes after the life full of labor and cares.

Graph 3.

This tale might seem funny and weird if not sad and tear-provoking. We see a series of actions when the old woman is trying to solve such a tiny problem, which actually is vitally important to her. The actors of the process (a dog, a stick, water, an ox, a butcher, a rope, a rat, a cat, a cow) represent the levels of authorities where old people usually address to when having some problems that they cannot solve themselves. Those problems might seem unimportant to those authorities but in reality, these problems do mean much to the old people as to this old woman. Facing indifference and desire to earn something even from the old woman, she keeps going hoping to reach the goal and she does!

3. «The Farmer and the Cheeses» and «Jack Turnip»,

These are the illustrations of men's self-reliance and extremely high self-confidence. These men were absolutely sure they are right and the others (the cheeses and the ice).

Graph 4.

The cheeses that fell out from the pack embody the dreams or desired plans of a man and they, dreams-cheeses, started to roll away from the cheese-maker. His stubbornness exceeds his ignorance and sometimes it is hard to distinguish when he is a reasonable person and when he is …not! The same is with Jack Turnip as he quite seriously questions the things a grown up person would never do. Ice, the sun, a cloud, the wind, a mountain, a tree and Jack himself were the objects to be compared for having more power than the previous one; moving from one object to another he was becoming more and more confident about his view on this «issue».

One more common feature is that they two remind of children - naпve and immediate that in the end it all causes smiles to say - wise fools!

4. «Lazy Jack»

This tale is a good example of an honest fool! Jack, in this tale, is also a lazy lad whose mother is as industrious as Jack is a lazy-bone. He is also driven by his mother to get a job. Jack is a very strong lad and seeing that work is no worse than idleness, he starts to work hard. His devotion and honest work touches the farmer and the farmer pays each time more and more. There is also a princess, a girl who never ever smiled.

Graph 5.

There are some opposite parallels between the female characters; for example Jack's mother and the princess: they both never did something that is the mother never idled and princess never smiled and they both get centered around Jack - just as Jack started to work the change in the life of the both began.

We could also trace similarities about the farmer and Jack: they worked hard (when worked!), they asked no extra questions and knew how to be grateful. Men do understand each other without words very often.

One more thing is classical exception - when two opposites: in gender and in character as well as general worldview get attracted by each other. Some will say it's a fate, but we consider it to be concurrence of circumstances: the way Jack was carrying the donkey over the bridge and that process was witnessed by the princess, also that scene only made her laugh - all is the way how things come out. In this situation it is a non-verbal correlation of the two sexes.

Now we will analyze gender discourse reflected in the tales in Russian.

5. «Awake Eye» - «Недреманное око»

The tales by Saltykov-Shedrin are the literary works containing historical trends, so it is very easy to follow the changes in the social roles of genders in different periods. For example, under the aegis of Empress Catherine the Great (XVIIIc), European culture was a dominant influence among the Russian aristocracy, particularly in the years prior to the destruction of the monarchy in the French Revolution. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Western ideas and the beginnings of modernization spread through the huge Russian empire. Political evolution, however, failed to keep pace. And this tale is a vivid example for that. The males were privileged to occupy state positions - governing positions, places in local authorities, different officials. The fact of having queens on the head of the empire was always discussed and accompanied by different legends, as for example, all queens had favorite men (фавориты), who used to take the initiatives in their hands, as women are such «fragile and indecisive creatures».

Graph 6.

Men are decisive and problem solving when at work but quite at a loss when at home. The attorney could do nothing with his wife though knowing she was also a law-breaker - because at home he is no attorney, just a husband to a woman who rules at home.

6. «An Uncouth landowner» - «Дикий помещик»

This tale is pure description of a male. The landowner was not at once uncouth - wild, living non-washed, eat cooked food; he became that state of wildness on his own will, thinking that he is showing endurance of his inner world, trying to prove everyone he can live without «those stinky, improper `muzhiki', who became quite `widespread' in the region». This is typical consideration of men upon the other people whom they consider to be not equals; women would not consider that in the same way, at least understanding that the help of `muzhiki' is indispensable.

Graph 7.

7. «An oblivious ram» - «Баран непомнящий»

The ram is a male. The tale speaks of the cases when a person forgets about his destination. What we know is that men are vulnerable to different types of obsession. The «civilizing process» of cultural modernization and secularization in Russia was also somewhat different from early modern Western Europe. (Graph 8. - below)

Graph 8.

Insofar as it was related to and associated with the development of capitalism, urbanization, and the emergence of the middle classes, the «civilizing process» in Russia was belated and labeled as «Westernization.»

8. «A tale of one man who fed two generals» - «Повесть о том, как один мужик двух генералов прокормил»

Because of the peculiar strength of Russian absolutism, new forms of socializing and etiquette were often introduced from above, by the Imperial court, not as mere examples for more or less voluntary imitation, but as arbitrary and compulsory prescriptions, to be carried out under close administrative supervision, and with the utmost contempt and disregard for individual preferences and tastes.

This is what we see in the tale. The two generals were grown, brought up and taken care of as it was prescribed by the higher authorities. As the result we see that the part of the brain, responsible for the knowledge of surviving, became atrophied - they know nothing of how to help to themselves. (Graph 9. - below)

Graph 9.

There is a sort of continuity between Peter the Great's masquerades and compulsory shaving of the boyars and the Communist party's crusade against long hair, beards, miniskirts, wide or narrow pants, and so on. Ideologically, these policies were quite opposed-in the first case, this was compulsory Westernization, and in the second-anti-Westernization, but the compulsory administrative methods and social-psychological consequences of both policies were similar. Since it was introduced mainly through external and repressive means, the civilizing process in Russia tended more to rigid conformity and uniformity than to pluralism and diversity.

Now we will analyze gender discourse reflected in the tales in Kazakh.

9. «Beauty Kunkey» - «Красавица Кункей»

All the literary works - oral and written are the representatives of Kazakh traditions, Kazakh wisdom, in general the Kazakh worldview. Speaking about traditions and wisdom we do not necessarily mean only positive sides, not at all. There are surely such things as vice, sin, fault and so on, but there are always better people to overcome that entire negative. (Graph 10 - below)

Graph 10.

The Kazakh wealthier layer of population considered being quite rightful to keep the lower layer down and the poor used to obey. In this tale we see that in full size but one more thing is so called «Асар» - «All people together» when the batyrs support the young man. The vizier, well aware of impunity and khan's support, planned to smash the young man and using him get Kunkey. The young man, thinking that he was fulfilling the orders, did his best and he brought Kunkey to Khan. But woman's wisdom serves no good to vizier and it is quite favorable towards the young man. Though the men have decided everything for her - the last word is left for her.

10. «Three sons of the poor» - «Три сына бедняка»

The tale has some traces of classical Russian tales about three brothers. But the beginning is the trace of fear before new and unfamiliar: when the father sees his sons greeting him - that's like a signal for him that that new and unfamiliar is already here and very close to him. `No man - no problem' and the father sends the sons away like getting rid of a problem; why did the sons obey so easily - because it is a tradition to obey to father.

Unlike the Russian analogs, in the Kazakh version the elder brothers are no mean or jealous. The men living on the steppes tried to stick to each other rather than compete and demolish each other; sure enough the cases of vice and sin also took place on the steppes of Kazakhstan, but friendship and mutual help prevailed as many Kazakhs were united by «Асар» - «All people together»!

The tale demonstrates intersexual relations: respect of young males to older females and males, endless care to young males by older females; concupiscent of old men to young beauties - the dreadful sin of all that drives men to do bad things to reach their vile passions.

The title of the tale is promising and raises different ideas about the content of the tale: people expect to find some traits alike to familiar tales. But a reader finds and what we found is quite different - magic goes hand in hand with real virtues and common beliefs.

11. «Magic Garden» - «Чудесный сад»

The tale is a pleasant story to dwell upon. We see people, who really respect and love each other, take care and try to protect each other. Asan and Khasen represent the common people from the steppes, who used to work hard to earn the piece of bread and finding a pot of gold spoiled no spirit of the men. Instead, they decide to share it with their children, in their turn, the children decide to let the wise solve the destiny of the gold. When the gold is out of the hands of these people of holy simplicity, another kind of people try to manage its fate.

A good deed is never lost - for the boy, whose heart was as pure as a tear!

These are no innocent, no unideological tales, just as they are no «natural» myths. Every tale is a manufactured object, and it is the inherent bad faith of a tale to seem, or rather to pretend, to be a fact. Similarly, such tales seem to be especially potent narrative forms of rhetoric. Such tales «legitimate so effectively because it relates the precarious reality constructions of empirical societies with ultimate reality.»

Considerations on the tales of the three languages.

Tracing the tales, we can distinguish two stages in our gender research: biological determinism and gender research proper. There are facts which questioned the dependence of gender category on biological peculiarities of the sexes.

A specific feature - biological determinism - is the recognition of the fact that psychological, cultural, behavioral and intellectual differences between men and women as well as peculiarities of their speech behavior were determined by their biological sex. But such factors as sex correlation, age, education and culture were are not sufficient as we could notice in our analyses.

In our work we also researched peculiarities of communication in various social strata and can conclude that existing gender differences in language are determined by social and historical causes.

Men's speech is characterized by a great number of deviations from standard language due to their masculine type of behavior. We think that Individual speech code developed under the influence of a number of factors, for instance social, cultural, and economic and many others.

Investigating gender peculiarities of dialogue discourse, we paid attention, in the first place, to communicative behavior strategy. We noticed that the male type of speech behavior is «competitive», and it assumes competitiveness, autonomy, striving for possession as we demonstrated by the tales. The female strategy of communicative behavior assumes interpersonal interaction, sociability and expression of feelings («cooperative» type). «Male» communication is less interlocutor-oriented; it is aimed at expressing one's own principles as in «Uncouth landowner».

«Female» communication is directed towards the interlocutor, mutual understanding and dialogue. It is admitted in any culture that woman's social status is less significant in comparison with the man's because man's activity in social sphere is viewed as more socially significant as opposed to woman's activity which is less productive as in «Uncouth landowner», «Beauty Kunkey», «Lazy Jack».

Our studies confirm the existence of differences in men's and women's speech behavior. Gender-sensitive models of speech behavior are not assigned by nature; they are «constructed» by society, determined by institutions of social control and cultural traditions.

The assumption of men and women being different or alike is incorrect. Each person regardless of his/her sex assignment is an individual with equal opportunities. Various character peculiarities of men and women are caused not by their biological assignment to this or that sex. And these peculiarities (physiology and spiritual state) are best reflected in the English words «sex» and «gender».

We see that characters' speech is directly related to communication. Thus, considerable differences of men's and women's worldview influence communication. Communication cannot be viewed disjointed from language as it is through language and other sign systems that worldview and, accordingly, gender peculiarities are expressed.

In our research, we view a communicative strategy as a part of communicative behavior or communicative interaction, where a number of verbal and non-verbal means are used for achieving a specific communicative aim, communicants' personalities and communication setting being taken into account; as in «Pottle of brains» and «Lazy Jack» - mother positioning herself in a martial pose to show how determined she is. So, communicative tactics fulfill the function of the means of communicative strategy realization and correlate with individual communicative intentions.

We can now single out two types of influence: verbal and communicative. The key factors determining the possibility and effectiveness of verbal influence are:

ь Linguistic - the interpretive factor of variational reflection of reality appears in the lexical sphere. It is based on the mechanisms of verbal influence on consciousness.

ь Extra-linguistic - the factor of social demand for information with all its semiotic, psychic, ethno-cultural, social, cognitive and other characteristics of a person's life.

ь Semiotic - an idea about the meaningful variety of linguistic expressions in accordance with objectives, goals, match or mismatch of ideas about linguistic variants of denoting an object or phenomenon, communicants' understanding and correction of choice.

ь Social - selection and batching of information, correlation of negative and positive details (for instance, praise of feasible elements of criticism, criticism of positive assessment), knowledge and consideration of stereotypes and tales of mass consciousness, authoritative statements.

ь Cognitive - a person's processing of information: inert perception, misinterpretation of evidence, perception of false casual connections leading to inadequate reflection of reality.

ь Psychological - emotional verbal influence on the addressee: a) persuasion (logical arguments) - reliance on consciousness, intellect; b) suggestion (emotional arguments) - appeals to emotions and putting the addressee into the psychological state necessary for the addresser's aims. Communicative influence assumes influence on the addressee's knowledge (cognitive level), relations (affective level) and intentions (connotative level) in the direction necessary for the addresser.

Influence on the addressee's consciousness assumes presence of the subject and object of influence and represents an action aimed at someone or something in order to achieve or infuse something.

Research and analysis of communicative strategies and tactics men's and women's speech behavior has shown that it is rather difficult to speak about working out a single classification because people's communicative behavior is determined by a great number of factors. We can distinguish «general» and «particular» strategies, classification of particular strategies being rather complicated due to the variety and instability of communicative situations described in the tales.

In the course of studying gender differences in tales texts, communicative behavior strategies were brought to the forefront. Social conditions being equal social and professional status, age, communicative role etc.), men and women have different strategies of speech behavior. Gender roles vary according to the communicative situation and the speaker's intention. Gender is a «floating» parameter which influences a person's communicative behavior.

The strategy of male communicative behavior assumes competitiveness, autonomy, striving for possession of control (competitive type). The female strategy of communicative behavior assumes interpersonal interaction, sociability and expression of feelings (cooperative type).

«Male» communication is less interlocutor-oriented; it is aimed at expressing one's own principles. «Female» communication is directed towards the interlocutor, mutual understanding and dialogue.

All these, we would argue, create a web of meaning, a socially constructed worldview that historically has excluded or made secondary the experience of certain groups of people. In addition, mass mediated messages offer the most contemporary, powerful, technologically and rhetorically sophisticated strategies for shaping cultural reality. The beauty, diet, and advertising industries are the most obvious, best researched examples of contemporary, self-conscious myth-makers who control cultural concepts (and acceptable images) of gender (of what it takes aj (-=nd means to be male or female, masculine or feminine).

Let us look at the comparative table of female gender discourse in the three languages represented in the tales.

Now let's see what the united analysis of the male discourse of the tales mentioned above is.

We meet a very active male character who is so occupied with his own problems and feelings that he doesn't even notice the woman who lives at his side and is selflessly devoted to him, taking good care. This scheme is painfully well known, and the sexual roles are traditional; the man is the hero and the woman is his humble servant, be she is a mother or a lady. It is only the experience of an outbreak, which opens the eyes of the hero and allows him to see the virtues of a mother or a girl.

We have carried out studies in an experimental paradigm in order to quantify features of women's and men's speech. This research is not intended to provide a cross section of research. Rather, it presents a broad and in-depth sociolinguistic, linguistic, and ethnographically oriented discourse analysis.

A reader can also trace tendency to separate the gender and language field into two camps, roughly conceived as the «dominance» approach and the «cultural» approach. The «cultural» approach can be traced in the work also. But we want to warn that such vision-separation - is unfortunate because, like most bipolar representations, it belies the complexity of the issues and the subtlety of the research. We hope that the analyses and arguments contained in this volume will serve to obliterate this dichotomy.

We do not deny the existence of dominance relations in general or the dominance of women by men in particular. Likewise, recognizing that men dominate women in one culture does not preclude the existence of patterns of communication that tend to typify women and men; as we see from the tales patterns can be interchangeable.

Our practical part is a better understanding of the complex relationship between the cultural patterning of linguistic behavior and that of gender relations. We tried to demonstrate that «cultural» approach to gender refers to the proposal that males and females can be thought of as belonging to two different cultural groups since they tend to socialize in primarily sex-separate peer interaction.

Another aspect of cultural patterning that bears on gender and language is the recognition that gender is only one of many cultural influences affecting linguistic behavior. Analyzing the tales in the three languages we made an attempt to

This research provides an in-depth introduction to research on gender and language that has been carried out in the tradition that might be called ethnographically oriented discourse analysis or interactional sociolin


The study of language and gender has increasingly become the study of discourse and gender.

As we could see during the research, while phonological, lexical, and other kinds of linguistic analysis continue to be influential, the interdisciplinary investigation of discourse-level phenomena, always a robust area of language and gender scholarship, has become the central approach of the field.

We also can conclude that there plenty of books, articles, and dissertations in numerous disciplines examine the intersection between discourse and gender from a variety of analytic perspectives. This proliferation of research presents problems for any attempt at a comprehensive overview, for although many of these studies are explicitly framed as drawing on the insights of discourse analysis, their approaches are so different that it is impossible to offer a unified treatment of discourse analysis as a tool for the study of language and gender.

We can also state that there is no well-defined approach to discourse that can be labeled «feminist discourse analysis».

Our work focused on studying male and female communicative behavior in three languages - English, Russian and Kazakh - and research in realizing the rich potential of meanings developed in this form of belles-lettres as tales.

We managed to prove that tales bear the traces of belles-lettres: tales are also short stories as each tale has a fairy or mystic or magic but story with all its characteristics; any tale can contain piece of poetry (there are plenty of tales we know with verses, poems); a tale can be dramatic by content too; and moreover, we now face such situation when all the tales are recorded, digitized and available in any form a reader wishes. We can also state that the signs of mythological and belles-lettres experience are remained both in folklore and classical literature up to day. The mythology is not of systematic and full character in comparison with that of the ancient Greek or Rome or China. But it is possible to find out the traces of Russian and Kazakh mythology in correspondent folklore samples.

We have carried out analyses of the tales from the three languages stipulated in this research. The analysis was not only based on functional and pragmatic approach to language study but also centered on modern trends in cognitive linguistics, socio-cultural studies, cognitive, psychological and a number of other factors.

From the analysis and resuming the theoretical materials we can conclude that discourses regarding men and women still differ today. This was exemplified in every tale's consideration textually and graphically. For example, women are perceived as being subject to outside influences (to their detriment) - that they lack «agency», the power to initiate actions in their own lives - they are largely victims of external forces. Men, however, are seen as having power to choose, as being agents for their own actions, so that men live to create a persona. The result (power effects) of this type of discourse, which is common in many areas of men's and women's image, is that we attempt to change environments for women.

Our work has explored the relationship between gender and language through the analysis of discourse in interaction. Some chapters compare the discourse of females and males; others analyze interaction among females. All the analytic chapters both provide model analysis of conversational interaction and make significant theoretical contributions to the literature on gender and language. Of the many methodological and theoretical approaches to this topic currently being pursued, the one embodied in this collection can be thought of as ethnographically oriented discourse analysis or, alternatively, interactional sociolinguistics. The chapters provide context-sensitive microanalysis based on observation and critical perception of the tales. The time is ripe for this approach, as gender and language research nears the close of its second decade.

Finally, this work can be used as a kind of casebook for the field of interactional sociolinguistics since it demonstrates how work in the field addresses a particular sociolinguistic issue. The collection also sheds light on a central theoretical and methodological problem: comprehension of oral discourse. As discourse analysis has gained greater prominence, the complexity of comprehension has received increasing attention.


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