Economic bases of innovative activity in public health services
Theoretical bases of the economic and legal substantiation of realization of innovative activity. The technique of the estimation of the innovative project in public health services. Personnel management in scientific organizations, and life safety.
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3. The estimation of efficiency of the innovative project in public health services
3.1 Estimation of efficiency of the innovative project by a standard technique
1) Calculation of factor of the pure resulted cost (NPV) For application of a standard technique of a case of the innovative project considered in the present degree work, all basic numerical data will undertake from point 3.2 of the present work. So the forecast, let us assume, becomes that the investment (IC) will generate within 3 years, revenues at a rate of CF1, CF2, CF.... The general saved up size of the discounted incomes (PV) (Present Value) and the pure resulted cost (NPV) (Net Present Value) Pays off.
Here n - quantity of the periods of time on which the investment is made, r - norm of profitableness (profitableness) from an investment. It is known that if: NPV> 0 the project should be accepted; NPV <0 the project should be rejected; NPV = 0, the project not profitable and not the unprofitable. For our project
Here and more low in work we will believe that 1 c.u. = 1$. We will notice also, what at the moment of 01.04.04 Central Bank rate of the Russian Federation of the American dollar made 28 rbl. 13 copeck Here in the first composed number 14011 of c.u. with a minus corresponds to the full cost price of the project, r=0,166, or, what the same, r=16,6 %? Level of profitability (profitableness) of the project. For our project the settlement size is more than zero, the project profitable means. 2) calculation of an index of profitability of investments (PI) Pays off a profitability index (Profitability Index) (PI) under the formula:
PI = ?k [Pk / (1 + r)k] / IC,
Let's remind that if: PI> 1 the project should be accepted; PI <1 the project should be rejected; PI = 1, the project neither profitable, nor unprofitable. For our project it is had:
Here 8721 c.u.? Net profit size. In brackets three composed as we investigate the project within three years? 2005, 2006 and 2007 whereas we begin project realisation in 2004. For the considered project this size is more than unit, hence, the project profitable. 3) calculation of internal rate of return or norm of profitability of the investment (IRR) (Internal Rate of Return) (IRR) understand value of factor of discounting As internal rate of return or norm of profitability of the investment r at which NPV the project it is equal to zero: IRR = r, at which NPV = f (r) = 0.
Where CFj - an entrance monetary stream during j th period, INV - value of the investment. Strictly speaking, this factor dismisses not so much, how many the equation, having solved which, we will find the norm of profitableness INN is minimum necessary for realisation of the project. For our project it is had a following equation:. We will notice that in the left member of equation three composed owing to that consideration is conducted for three years. A trial and error method we find that for performance of following equality it is necessary, that approximate equality was observed. It means that the norm of profitableness of 8,1 % whereas from following point it will be visible that norm of profitableness of our project of 16,6 % is necessary for a project recoupment. It means that it is necessary to recognise the project profitable. We will draw conclusions by results of calculations of the basic factors of model under the decision on acceptance or a project deviation is accepted after consideration of values resulted above factors. As we saw, all these factors have yielded that result that the project profitable and it should be accepted to realisation.
3.2 Estimation of efficiency of the innovative project by an offered technique
Industrial competitive advantages. For device manufacturing? The biotest? Components will be used inexpensive, not scarce, широкодоступные, but at the same time qualitative, basically import manufacture. In this connection the device will have high consumer properties at the low cost price. A market estimation. The market of the medical equipment in Russia is not sated enough by the equipment of the given direction  whereas the developed device has no strong contenders both on Russian, and in the foreign market. It promotes fast advancement of the device on the market of Russia and the near abroad. Changes in the given market can occur under the influence of following external factors: - occurring in the currency market - preference of consumers As it is necessary to pay attention of change to the internal factors influencing a condition of the given market: - a competition; - change of internal structure of participants of the market. All it leads to constant changes in the given market that and as consequence constant improvement and expansion of assortment of production, and as to expansion of a variety of the services given together with the offered goods constantly promotes qualitative improvement of structure of participants. Novosibirsk scientists carry out statistical researches, applicable for the marketing analysis of the market of medical services . On the spent statistical researches the schedule of distribution by consumers of given production on categories has been constructed:
15 % - the Doctors who are engaged in individual activity of 30 % - the Medical institutions applying non-standard methods of diagnostics and treatment of 55 % - the Medical institutions rendering additional paid services of a Fig. 3.1.? Distribution of consumers on categories From the resulted data we see, what more than half (55 %) consumers of medical services address in the establishments rendering additional paid services? But these establishments just also are potential buyers of production for which the investment project  is developed. That fact is interesting that in the Russian market at present there are all some competitors : * Peterlink Electronics. It is the German company, she offers very high-class devices working only complete with the COMPUTER and the software. Production of this company has no such necessary property as compactness and mobility. The firm offers completely equipped offices intended only for work with this device. Completely equipped office costs approximately $20000. Such expenses are presumed only by the provided medical institution. * Kindling. It too the company from Germany. About it there is an information small amount. Devices of this company are delivered and work both from the COMPUTER and without the COMPUTER but as have no property of compactness and mobility. The complete set of the equipment of the given company costs approximately from $5000 to $6000 depending on a complete set. * Start-1. It is the Russian firm. Makes complexes both from the COMPUTER, and without the COMPUTER. It is known that the complex without the COMPUTER costs approximately $1400. The basic advantage of all three listed companies consists that in their devices there is a quantity of additional functions, but this advantage is not the main thing. Lacks of all three companies consist that: - Devices do not have properties of compactness, mobility, and they are difficult in circulation; - the high prices for complexes. Advantages of our device are its such properties as: mobility, compactness, possibility to work both in stationary, and in field conditions, possibility to work both complete with the COMPUTER, and without the COMPUTER, very low price at quality not conceding to competitors, but in our device are collected only the basic functions which are the most necessary. A lack of the given device is absence in it of additional functions available for competitors. A company lack is its not so wide popularity on the given segment of the market, but this lack constantly decreases. The table in which the advantages set forth above and lacks are shown is more low resulted.
Let's notice that at the moment of April, 1st, 2004 1 American dollar on a Central Bank rate of the Russian Federation made 28 rbl. 15 copeck Of the table it is visible that the considered device has big advantages in comparison with the competitive. The goods of competitors are calculated basically on a narrow circle of the consumers having their possibility to buy, and many have such possibility far not. At the same time the considered device has low enough price at the basic requirements not conceding to competitors, and in some parametres them even surpasses. Demand forecasting. For the forecast we will take advantage of mathematical modelling of demand for the developed device? The biotest?. The essence of an applied mathematical method consists in extrapolation of the statistical data about presence of similar devices in medical institutions of a city and area for 2002-2004 on volume of demand for the considered device in 2005. For extrapolation carrying out it is necessary to calculate a trend line. Calculation of a straight line of demand. The general equation of a straight line 
Where at? The predicted volume of demand, t? Time moment (year, day, month, etc. in which us the demand volume), a0 and a1 interests? Unknown factors of a straight line of demand subject to calculation. Two unknown person of factor of a straight line of demand we will find from two linear equations
Here п? Quantity of the considered moments of time (for example, as in our case, three years). At application of the described model of forecasting of demand for a developed product, we will take advantage of results of own researches which consisted in data gathering about presence of the devices realising a method of Follja in medical institutions of Novosibirsk and the Novosibirsk region. The idea of the forecast of demand consisted in that, having the information on presence similar developed in the present work of devices, to assume that on the offered device demand will develop under the same mathematical laws. For drawing up of the equations of the predicting we will take advantage of the following table in which results of telephone surveys of assistants to head physicians on economy of various medical institutions of a city of Novosibirsk and the Novosibirsk region are brought:
From the schedule it is visible that in 2005 theoretical volume of demand for the device? The biotest? In Novosibirsk and the Novosibirsk region will make 600 units of production. Working out of the organizational project of manufacture. 5 day working week and 8 hour working day necessary quantity the person Is supposed, occupied on an industrial site (the basic workers) makes 2 persons. Specificity of the given work assumes, that the employees occupied on an industrial site possess high qualification in radio electronics and installation of electronic components. The control system of all firm is under construction by a principle of linear organizational structure which allows to conduct an effective control behind firm work as a whole. More low in the table calculation of annual fund з/п heads, experts and employees is resulted.
Capacity calculation. For normal work of firm the one-replaceable operating mode with 8 hour working day is recommended. Duration of working week of 5 days. It is necessary to notice that duration of work of firm during the day makes 9 hours. Here it is necessary to include an hourly break on rest in work. The break to be put after first 4 business hours. Taking into account what the total quantity of days for holidays, target, within a year makes holidays of an order of 112 days, we receive, what quantity of the working days in a year of 365 days? 112 days off = 253 working days. From here the fund of a usage time of the equipment for 8 hour changes taking into account time for service makes 1820 hours. Knowing fund of an operating time of the equipment, we will define annual throughput. 2 persons work for us. The average norm of time for assemblage of one device makes 6 hours. Hence capacity (throughput) in a year makes: Qгод. = (1820:6) *2=607 piece/year As it has already been noted, the predicted sales volume makes 600 pieces / year. Hence, the factor of loading of the equipment makes: Кзагр. = 600/607=0.99, i.e. 99 %. It is necessary to note risk which should be considered in offered model. As it has been told above, a core of offered model of an estimation of efficiency of innovative projects is demand forecasting. If real demand differs from predicted throughput of assembly shop can be regulated a multiplier corresponding to quantity of the personnel. So, if real demand will make, for example, 900 pieces throughput will need to be counted not under formula Qгод. = (1820:6) *2=607 piece/year, and under formula Qгод. = (1820:6) *3=910 sht/year that corresponds to that workers should be 3, instead of 2 persons. It means that the offered model is steady against risk of change of demand as it will be easy to be arranged by quantity of the personnel under real demand. Calculation of volume of investments. For calculation of necessary volume of financing it is necessary to define structure of expenses which are necessary for firm work. They look as follows: 1) Expenses for premise rent for the first month are defined from calculation that rent cost for 1 square metre of a premise a year makes 300 c.u., we receive rent cost: Саренды = 300 * (24+30*0.15)/12 = 712 u.e./mes As output makes 15 % from total amount of manufacture of all enterprise that from rent not industrial premises is taken 15 %. 2) Expenses for the equipment and stock.
In this table, as well as further, one standard unit corresponds to 1 US dollar, i.e. approximately 30 roubles. 3) expenses for initial purchases of accessories at the rate on 1 month of work. For definition of expenses we believe that every month in firm the identical number of devices equal 1/12 of part of annual release is issued. The annual volume of release is accepted 600 units. Hence in a month 50 devices will be issued. Expenses for purchase of accessories for each device approximately are equal 38 c.u. From here is received that expenses for creation of stocks of materials for work within a month are equal 38*50=1900 c.u. 4) Initial publicity expenses undertake with such calculation that it is necessary to dispatch a direkt-mail at least all 1/3 of Moscow medical institutions fair brochures. It is supposed to spend for it about 500 c.u.
The analysis of economic indicators. For carrying out of the given analysis it is necessary to make a report of the basic economic indicators. Them concern such, as: profit (total and pure); profitability of production; profitability of funds; the full cost price; labour input; the predicted price for production; a critical sales volume and release; efficiency of capital investments; a time of recovery of outlay; a stock of financial durability. 1) the size of total profit on sales of the considered device within the first year of work will make 14011 c.u. provided that the predicted break-even sales level will be provided. For definition of size of net profit it is necessary to define the tax to property of the enterprise which reduces base of the taxation under the profit tax. Cost of property of the organisation develops from: - costs of rent of a building - 8550 c.u.; - costs of the equipment minus 7 % of deterioration 3400 * (1-0.07 =3162 c.u.; From here property cost makes: 8550+3162=11712 the Tax to property (2 %) makes c.u.: 11712*0.02 = 234 c.u. the Tax to the maintenance of available housing of 1.5 % from a gain 14011*0.015=210 c.u. the Tax to general educational needs of 1 % from payment fund 14994*0.01=150 c.u. the Base of the taxation under the profit tax is equal: 14011-234-210-150 = 13417 c.u. the Profit tax makes by the current moment 35 % and is equal: 13417*0.35=4696 c.u. the net profit Size makes 13417-4696=8721 c.u. Profit at the disposal of the organisation (a difference between net profit and returned investments): 8721-6512=2209 2) the Size of profitability of production makes c.u.: r = П:Т = 14011/84600*100 = 16.6 %, that is on 100 roubles of sold production are necessary 16.6 roubles of profit. 3) size of profitability of production assets: (П: (ОФ + МС) *100) where average cost of a fixed capital (ОФ) equals: ОФ=8550+3400=11950 c.u. average cost of material circulating assets (МС) is equal: МС=22800 c.u. From here the size of profitability of production assets is equal: (14011 / (11950+22800)) *100 % = 40.3 % 4) the Full cost price of production is equal 70554 c.u. 5) Labour input of let out production is equal to the sum of time spent for each unit of production on a separate workplace: Т=6 hours. 6) the predicted price for firm production is equal 141 c.u. 7) the Critical volume of a gain from sales makes 55695 c.u. at which the critical sales volume makes 395 devices. 8) efficiency of capital investments is defined as the relation of profit to capital investments (investments): Е = П / To = 8721/6512=1.34 9) the Time of recovery of outlay - size return efficiency of capital investments: Т = 1 / Е = 0.75 years or 9 months. 10) the stock of financial durability of the organisation is defined as follows: Wпрочн. = (Dmax-Dmin)/Dmax*100 %, where Dmax - the maximum revenue of production sale; Dmin - the revenue at a critical break-even sales level; Wпрочн. = (84600? 55695)/84600*100 % = 34 %. It means that there is a possibility to lower the income of sales on size of 34 % from the planned. If to speak about rate of return (20 %) it is optimum for firm, the considerable which share of sales is provided directly though all attention is concentrated to buyers with a low prosperity. Net profit, being at the command it is quite enough enterprise to pay back capital investments within the first year of work. The low norm of profitability of the sold goods will be compensated by a stable break-even sales level. Labour input of production on time allows firm to provide the demanded volume of release, not задействуя thus a considerable quantity of employees. The price for production, should draw attention of potential buyers with low level of a prosperity as it is enough low in comparison with competitive by the current moment. The critical sales volume makes 66 % from the planned. This fact allows firm to stabilise the position in the market within the first year of work even in case of struggle from outside competitors. Efficiency of capital investments is estimated in 134 %. That is after the first year of work the size of net profit, firm being at the command will make 134 % from the enclosed capital. The small time of recovery of outlay of the capital allows firm already by the end of the first year of work to get the profit going on development of the organisation, instead of return of the enclosed means. The stock of financial durability of the company makes 34 % that allows the company to work in the conditions of a competition without losses. That is there is a possibility to lower the planned income of sales on size of 34 % from the planned. On the basis of the considered indicators it is possible to draw a conclusion that the project is effective for following reasons: 1) Low profit, but stable sales; 2) the Low prices for production; 3) Low level of a critical sales volume in comparison with the planned; 4) High efficiency of capital investments; 5) the Short time of recovery of outlay of the capital; 6) the Sufficient stock of financial durability. All it will allow firm to occupy stable position in the market within the first year of work and will provide a break-even sales volume.
3.3 Comparison of estimations of efficiency of the innovative project on standard and offered models
We can spend comparison of estimations of efficiency of the innovative project on standard and offered models only having compared an end result of application of these models? I.e. the answer to a question, whether it is necessary to put up money in the project? And to compare values of the indicators calculated at application of standard model with similar indicators of offered model. 1) to factor of the pure resulted cost (NPV) from standard model there corresponds an indicator of net profit plus size of initial investments. That is in standard model an indicator
Whereas in offered model a similar indicator 2209 + 14011 = 16220 c.u., where 2209 c.u.? Profit at the disposal of the organisation (a difference between net profit and returned investments). A difference in the sum here that the offered model in calculations uses the predicted size of a sales volume. It is the forecast becomes on the basis of linear approximation which, as it is known, yields approximate results. It is necessary to notice, what the divergence of values of these factors makes all (1? 16200/17149,3) *100 % = 5,52 %. It allows to draw a conclusion about enough split-hair accuracy of offered model in general and the sales volume forecast in particular. 2) to an index of profitability of investments (PI) from standard model there corresponds an indicator of efficiency of capital investments: the Standard model gives value of factor whereas the offered model gives Е = П / To = 8721 / 6512=1,34. A divergence? 4 %, i.e. accuracy of offered model it is high. 3) the Standard model assumes calculation of internal norm of profitableness which for the considered project is equal. The similar indicator in offered model is not present, however is told that profitability of the project 0,166. In other words, the standard technique says that that the project was profitable, value of internal norm of profitableness a minimum whereas the offered model says is necessary that the project has norm of profitableness 0,166. Here it is impossible to compare accuracy of calculations, it is possible to tell only that conclusions of these two models do not contradict each other. For more evident comparison of models we will result the comparative table of values of the basic factors of models.
So, having compared values of the basic indicators of two models, we will notice, what definitive conclusions of their application to the considered project too do not differ from each other? Both that and other model have drawn the conclusion that in the considered project it is necessary to put up money.
4. Management of the personnel of the scientific organizations
4.1 Personnel of the scientific organisations
In the present point of degree work the personnel of the scientific organisations from two points of view: from the point of view of motivation of work and from the point of view of special subculture. The question on interrelation of these points of view is interesting: on the one hand, the personnel of the scientific organisations, as well as the personnel of other spheres of activity, has usual human wants in food, habitation, etc., on the other hand, belong to closed enough social class. The given theme mentions two interconnected variables: the personnel and the organisation, in essence, the individual and group, also are brought by an attention to the question on motivation of the personnel in achievement of the purposes of the organisation, i.e. about influence on behaviour of the individual according to problems and the group purposes. There is a necessity of the analysis of motivation as systems of factors or the motive forces influencing social behaviour of the individual, and the analysis of the group affecting the individual. In details to list all? Forces?, which движут our acts, hardly probably. Therefore the author considers expedient to stop on the following approach:? Numerous evident displays of uniformity in social behaviour speak at all orientation on what? Or considered? The significant? Norm, but also not custom, and it is simple that fact, what the given type of social behaviour, in essence, most of all on the average corresponds, by an objective estimation of individuals, their natural interests, and what they focus the behaviour on these interests?. (M.Veber) . Thus, the basic source of behaviour of the person is its interest. In this connection it is necessary to understand with a number of the interconnected concepts? Motivation components: requirement, interest, motive, the purpose, value. As requirement we will understand a lack something necessary for existence and development of the individual (group). Under interest? The realised requirement. Under motive? The realised actual requirement inducing the person to activity for the purpose of its satisfaction. The purpose? It something realised as means of satisfaction of requirement and acting owing to it in the form of value for the given subject. Value? It is the importance of this or that subject or the phenomenon for satisfaction of requirement [176, with. 22].
Thus, the person is not born with ready motivation, its formation is I many respects caused by a situation, factors of social and economic character.
4.2 Motivation of the personnel in the scientific organisations
As already it was told above, the motivation of the personnel of the scientific organisations in a sense does not differ from motivation of representatives of other trades. We will consider this motivation. Base of modern theories of motivation of the personnel in the scientific organisations is the theory of requirements developed by American psychologist A.Maslou (1908? 1970) . A.Maslou has assumed that the person is based on satisfaction of a series of the requirements built in hierarchy or a pyramid from five groups. In an increasing order it: - physiological or base requirements (food, heat, a refuge, safety, sex etc.) ; - Requirements of safety (protection, an order); - social requirements (dialogue, an accessory to group); - requirements for respect (self-esteem and respect of others; the status, prestige, glory); - requirement for self-realisation (creative results, achievements, career) . Маслоу has made the assumption that in the elementary case of requirement are satisfied one for another i.e. as soon as one requirement is satisfied, it acts as motivation for satisfaction of the following. But if at satisfaction of group of requirements, arises what? Or the new base requirement, the person will pay the attention first of all to it. From the point of view? Motivations in work? The employer considering that the person lives only bread uniform, will be nonplused, as its workers will be unfortunate and немотивированны. According to A.Maslou, the person only there lives bread uniform where in general there is no bread. It is necessary to remember three important positions of the theory of Maslou: 1) the Hierarchy of requirements reminds development of the person since the childhood till an old age: the baby requires food and heat, safety and love; in process of growth there is a gradual development of self-esteem and, at last, appears? Itself the motivated? The adult. 2) disappearance of the satisfied requirements and occurrence of others in the form of motivation is not realised process: as soon as you have got a job, you will forget at once all last hardship and will start to think of career, etc. if it does not occur, you will feel unfortunate as though and at all have no work. 3) Maslou notices that five steps are not something independent. There is a certain degree of interaction between them. The theory of Maslou is under construction on the assumption that while necessity for satisfaction of base requirements for hierarchy as is important, as, for example, requirement of a human body for the vitamins, the healthy person will be guided, basically, requirement of self-realisation of the potential. If with the person interfere in satisfaction of requirements of lower level, requirements of higher level cannot arise. A.Maslou's theory has brought the all-important contribution to understanding of that underlies aspirations of people to work. The head should understand that to motivate the person it should give the chance to it to satisfy its major requirements by means of that line of action which promotes achievement of the purposes of the organisation. It is necessary for head to investigate carefully requirements of the subordinates for the purpose of satisfaction in interests of business and group [21, with. 218].
4.3 Problem of a choice of the optimum schedule (mode) of work in the scientific organisations
The structure of workers of the innovative enterprises is not homogeneous. So, along with science officers in these organisations engineers, and also technicians and laboratorians work. Besides, and work of scientists is not homogeneous for the maintenance. It can include original and typical works, and also the works of organizational character connected with the coordination and the control over activity of experts. Certainly, as the work schedule cannot be universal for all categories of workers of scientific division and even for experts of one category. At introduction of new types of operating schedules it is necessary to pay attention not only to a kind of work of experts, but also on economic gains (expenses on heating, illumination, rent of premises, a food of workers, payment of parking places etc.) and technical possibilities (presence of phones, faxes, personal computers etc.) . Besides, new types of operating schedules can be considered and as original not monetary methods of stimulation of productivity. So, for example, according to German researchers, about 20 % of workers a flexible operating schedule consider as a primary factor of positive motivation. As a whole the work schedule is characterised by stability. Usually people work 5 days in a week, 40 hours per week, from 9 o'clock in the morning to 6 o'clock in the evening, have standard lunch time. Along with obvious advantages, such mode has also lacks: traffic jams, turns at lifts are created. Besides, people often have stresses because are late for work, they have conflicts to the chief. As new types of an operating schedule usually name: the flexible hours, the compressed working week (the summarised working day), a partial employment. The flexible operating schedule is understood as the work schedule at which the worker can choose time of arrival-leaving in certain limits which are established by a management. The compressed working week represents the work schedule in which there is an exchange between quantity of the hours fulfilled daily, and quantity of the working days within a week. So, the usual number of hours can be fulfilled not for five days, and for four (for ten hours daily) or for three days (for twelve hours daily). The Partial employment (partial hiring)? It is work with performance of the same duties, but during smaller time. The greatest distribution to the scientific organisations the flexible hours (have got flexible time, flexible working hours). It is under construction in the different ways: and #61485; the Daily choice of time of the beginning and the work termination; and #61485; Variable duration of the working day; and #61485; Allocation of the general (присутственного) time (i.e. Time established by the head when all employees should be on work). Depending on flexibility degree, it is possible to allocate various types of schedules. We will consider them in a direction from least to the most flexible. All of them are used in practice. The flexible cycle demands from workers of a choice of certain time of the beginning and the work termination, and also work under this schedule during the certain period (for example, weeks). The sliding schedule allows to change time of the beginning and the work termination, but thus it is necessary to work a full time? 8 hours. Variable day allows to change duration of the working day (for example to work one day of 10 hours, and another? 6 hours but so that as a result in a weekend it has turned out only 40 hours or for a month of 160 hours). The sliding schedule and variable day are most effective in a branch science. Abroad analogue it are laboratories of industrial firms and a private small-scale business. Very much the flexible hours demand presence of workers during the general time (for example, from 10 o'clock in the morning to 2 o'clock in the afternoon, but only on Monday and Friday). Flexible placing allows to change not only hours, but also a work arrangement? It is possible to work at home, in branches, etc. The flexible hours cannot be used in the event that the work period depends on work of any equipment, for example, for the workers performing skilled and experimental works. The great value, along with a choice of an optimum operating mode for the scientist has time effective utilisation. It is possible to allocate three reasons aggravating congestion: and #61485; Small degree of delegation of responsibility; and #61485; incorrectly selected priorities; and #61485; too big absorption in daily efforts. For optimisation of use of time principles of Pareto and Eisenhower have great value. In 1897 The Italian economist Pareto has invented the formula showing that all blessings are distributed non-uniformly. In most cases the greatest share of incomes or the blessings belongs to a small number of people. M.S.Lorentz (the American economist) has illustrated this theory with the diagramme. The doctor D. M.Dzhuran has applied the diagramme to classification of problems of quality on not numerous essentially important and numerous insignificant and named this method the analysis of Pareto. Application of a principle of Pareto is expedient and at working hours planning. In this case means that concentration of attention on the vital activity most of all influences achievement of desirable results. The rule 20/80 from here follows: concentration of 20 % of time on the most important problems can lead to reception of 80 % of results. The others of 80 % of time provide only remained 20 % of results. Eisenhower's principle is important for definition of the importance of problems. Eisenhower subdivided problems on their importance and promptness into problems And, In and С "A-problems": very important and urgent? To carry out immediately. "In? Problems": important, not urgent? To define, in their what terms it is necessary to carry out." S-problems ": less important, but urgent? To delegate. Affairs which are not neither important, nor urgent should not distract attention of the head. In connection with the aforesaid, the great value gets definition of optimum parities between workers of various qualification. Optimum it is possible to consider such parity at which science officers do not carry out functions unusual for them. There are recommendations according to which optimum parity between technicians and engineers should make 0,3 / 1 at performance of researches and 1,7 / 1 at performance of developmental works. On the average this parity should make 1 / 2. Questions of formation of target groups in scientific personnel In a general view understand as group of two and more persons who co-operate with each other in such a manner that each person influences others and simultaneously is under the influence of other persons. It is noticed that association of workers in groups allows to solve a number of problems: As much as possible to use creative potential; to involve workers in managerial process. Target groups (time creative collectives), created of engineers and science officers have the features in comparison with quality mugs as before groups more difficult purposes are put. Practice of formation of target groups of the scientists working in various research divisions of firm is extended. Creation of such groups for working out of any one important problem gives the chance to be beyond existing departments and laboratories that is the important factor of increase of an efficiency of scientific research. Target groups of experts (time creative collectives) differ from circles of quality that operate on the basis of in advance formulated problem and always carry a temporality. They can be created for different terms: from 2-3 and more years. It defines also selection of participants of groups. Groups are created as for study of separate organizational or technical questions, and for the decision of difficult cardinal problems. The overall performance of groups is influenced by following factors: the size, structure, group norms, unity, a conflictness, the status and a functional role of its members. Before formation of target group (time creative collective) it is necessary to carry out the morphological analysis which leads to splitting of the general problem into a number of subtasks and reveals possible alternatives of their decision. Each subtask breaks into stages. To generate collective of executors, it is necessary to have the list of all subtasks which should be solved in the course of work performance; characteristics of each subtask with definition of requirements to their potential executors. Besides it is necessary to have a databank on all possible executors of work. At division of a task in view into subtasks each executor should know the concept of designing of all object. The new tendency is allocation of personnel services for needs of the time organizational structures which are engaged in process of innovations. Such personnel services also carry a temporality and move on divisions according to stages of realisation of the project. The actual organizer of work on attraction and personnel development is the head of the innovative enterprise who embodies the idea and is financially interested in innovation introduction. The head of division defines quantity of executors of each subtask, recognising that one executor performs from two to three stages of work. Selection of executors is carried out proceeding from complexity of performed work. Thus the potential of executors should be a little above, than demanded. At a stage of working out and realisation of the ideas which have been put forward by target groups, sometimes there are the so-called design groups, different in the big scales of carried out works and большей number of executors. In any target group select the most prepared experts. But even at the most careful selection almost always there is a distinction between them on readiness degree to performance of a problem assigned to them. In this connection training of less skilled executors at more qualified should be provided. Short-term employment on which each expert has an opportunity better will sometimes be organised to imagine sense of a collective problem and the basic approaches to its decision. Still большее value gets preliminary training at creation of the design groups which work has more long-term and complex character. In these cases for experts special seminars can be held. The seminar program should cover acquaintance of its participants with features of the organisation of works in design group, with specificity of planning, with establishment principles приоритетности in performance of works, methods of search of optimum decisions on the basis of the analysis of real situations. The attention is given also to working off of practical skills of teamwork in group. At a seminar there is an acquaintance of experts to the future project head which should spend some employment. It allows it to come into contact and to prepare participants of design group for forthcoming activity. Upon termination of a seminar to its participants the special certificate on the right to work over the project can stand out. In the USA creation of interfirm target and design groups is observed also. Usually in their structure experts from the external research organisations are involved. As a result of such cooperation from firm innovative structures in which are occupied both members of groups, and scientific shots can separate. In this case it is possible to define the innovative enterprise as target group which is created for industrial development and adjustment of sale of production based on the new technical concept.
5. Bases of safety of ability to live
5.1 Legal bases of a labour safety
Labour safety? System of safety of a life and health of workers in the course of the labour activity, including legal, social and economic, organizational, sanitary-and-hygienic, medical-hygienic, rehabilitation and other actions. We will describe the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of a labour safety the Legislation of the Russian Federation on a labour safety consists of corresponding norms of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, Legal bases of a labour safety [27, with. 123-127] and published according to them законодательских and other statutory acts of the Russian Federation and republics as a part of the Russian Federation. Guarantees of realisation of the rights of workers on a labour safety and standard requirements on a labour safety are established by acts of republics as a part of the Russian Federation, cannot be below guarantees and standard requirements, are provided by Legal bases of a labour safety [27, with. 125]. Actions of the present Bases extends on:? The enterprises, establishments and the organisations (further? The enterprises) all patterns of ownership irrespective of sphere of economic activities and departmental subordination;? Employers;? The workers consisting with employers in labour relations;? Workers of co-operative societies;? Students of educational institutions of the higher and average vocational training, pupils of educational institutions of average, initial vocational training and the educational institutions of the basic general education passing an industrial practice;? The military men involved for work at the enterprises;? The citizens who are serving time on a sentence of court in their work at the enterprises. On the citizens of the Russian Federation working on hiring in other states, the legislation on a labour safety of the states-employers, and on foreign citizens and persons without the citizenship, working on the enterprises which are in jurisdiction of the Russian Federation extends, the legislation on a labour safety of the Russian Federation if other is not provided international by contracts (agreements) of the Russian Federation extends. We will describe main principles of a state policy in the field of a labour safety the State policy in the field of a labour safety provides joint actions of bodies of a legislative and executive power of the Russian Federation and republics as a part of the Russian Federation, associations of employers, trade unions in the name of their corresponding bodies and other representative bodies authorised by workers on improvement of conditions and labour safeties, to the prevention of an industrial traumatism and occupational diseases. The basic directions of a state policy in the field of a labour safety are:? A recognition and maintenance of a priority of a life and health of workers in relation to results of industrial activity of the enterprise;? Coordination of activity in the field of a labour safety, other areas economic, social policy, and also in the field of protection of a surrounding environment;? An establishment of uniform standard requirements on a labour safety for the enterprises of all patterns of ownership irrespective of sphere of economic activities and departmental subordination;? The government of activity in the field of a labour safety, including the state supervision and the control of observance of legislative and other statutory acts about a labour safety;? Public control over observance of legitimate rights and interests работ6никаов in the field of a labour safety on the manufacture, carried out by workers through trade unions in the name of their corresponding bodies and others authorised by workers representative bodies;? Interactions and cooperation of state bodies, supervision and the control over employers, trade unions in the name of their corresponding bodies and other authorised workers, representative the bodies interested in working out and practical realisation of a state policy in the field of a labour safety;? Carrying out of the effective tax policy stimulating creation of healthy and safe working conditions, working out and introduction safe technicians and technologies, means collective and an individual defence of workers;? Application of economic sanctions with a view of observance by the enterprises and workers of standard requirements on a labour safety;? Maintenance of workers with the special clothes, special footwear, means collective and an individual defence, the treatment-and-prophylactic food, necessary prophylactics at the expense of means of employers;? Obligatory investigation of each accident and occupational disease on manufacture;? An establishment of indemnifications and privileges for a laborious work and works with harmful or dangerous working conditions, ineradicable at a modern technological level of manufacture and the organisation ore;? Protection of interests of the workers who suffered from unfortunate case on manufacture or have received occupational disease, and also members from families;? Preparation of experts in the field of a labour safety, including in educational institutions of the higher and average vocational training;? An establishment of the state statistical reporting about working conditions, about accidents on manufacture and occupational diseases;? Informing of workers on a condition of conditions and a labour safety at the enterprises;? Realisation of actions for propagation of an advanced experience in the field of a labour safety;? The international cooperation at the decision of problems of a labour safety. The state in the name of bodies of a legislative and executive power taking into account consultations of associations of employers. Professional the unions in the name of their corresponding bodies and other authorised workers, representative bodies develops, carries out and periodically reconsiders the co-ordinated policy in the field of a labour safety. Some words about guarantees of the worker on the rights on a labour safety. Each worker has the right to a labour safety, including:? On a workplace protected from influence of harmful or dangerous production factors which can cause an industrial trauma, occupational disease or working capacity decrease;? On compensation of the harm caused to it by a mutilation, occupational disease or other damage of the health, connected with execution of labour duties by it;? On reception of a trustworthy information a prize of the employer or the state or public bodies about a condition of conditions and labour safeties on a workplace of the worker, about existing risk of damage of health, and also about the accepted measures on its protection against influence of harmful or dangerous production factors;? On refusal without any unreasonable consequences for it from performance of works in case of occurrence of direct danger to his life and health before elimination of this danger;? On maintenance with means collective and an individual defence according to requirements of legislative and other statutory acts about a labour safety at the expense of means of the employer;? On training to safe methods and receptions of work at the expense of means of the employer;? On professional retraining at the expense of means of the employer in case of a suspension of activity or closing of the enterprise, shop, a site or liquidation of a workplace owing to unsatisfactory working conditions, and also in case of disability in connection with unfortunate a case on manufacture or occupational disease;? On carrying out of inspection by bodies of the state supervision and the control or public control of conditions and a labour safety, including on demand of the worker on its workplace;? On participation in check and consideration of the questions connected with improvement of conditions and a labour safety. The state in the name of bodies legislative, executive and judicial authority guarantees the right to a labour safety to the workers participating in labour process under the labour contract (contract) with employers. Conditions labour (contract) contract should correspond to requirements legislative and other statutory acts about a labour safety. In the labour contract (contract) authentic characteristics of working conditions, indemnifications and privileges are specified to workers for a laborious work and works with harmful or dangerous working conditions. For the period of a suspension of works at the enterprise, in shop or on a site, a workplace in a consequence of infringement of the legislation on a labour safety, standard requirements on a labour safety not because of the worker, behind it the work place, a post and average earnings remain.
5.2 Planning of actions for a labour safety
In connection with inclusion of questions of a labour safety of workers of branch in the Concept of development of public health services and a medical science in the Russian Federation, considering the numerous offers arriving from controls, establishments of public health services and the trade-union organisations, on the basis of the Recommendations confirmed by the decision of Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation from 29.12.96? 74, Ministry of Health of Russia has prepared the project of the Program which has been considered and approved at session of Board of Ministry of Health of Russia 23.12.97. The program consists of 4 sections: 1) Legal and standard maintenance of protection works. 2) organizational and technical maintenance of a labour safety. 3) training of workers on a labour safety, a supply with information in the field of a labour safety. 4) scientific maintenance of a labour safety. The Program purpose? Working out of prime measures under the prevention of an industrial traumatism and the professional ache diseases, elimination of the negative moments in the organisation of this work. Program section 1 provides work on revision operating and working out of new rules and typical instructions on a labour safety and safe operation of branches, offices, laboratories, the equipment of establishments of public health services and Gossanepidnadzor. Financing of these works is supposed to be carried out at the expense of means of the Federal budget. Section 2 provides working out of programs of improvement of conditions and protection work at level of controls and establishments of public health services of subjects of the Russian Federation (there where such programs are not developed yet). In section 3 creation of system of improvement of professional skill concerning a labour safety for heads, experts, attendants, working out differentiated (according to volume of performed work) training programs on a labour safety is provided. Training of heads will be carried out on the basis of the Russian medical academy последипломного formations and on places, the medical institutions having the permission to the right of training concerning a labour safety. The basic actions of section 4 are researches of working conditions and preparation of scientifically well-founded offers on a work and rest mode, and also on granting of privileges and indemnification workers of the branch, working in especially harmful and dangerous working conditions. These actions it is planned to carry out forces of a branch science. It is supposed to provide financing at the expense of means of Federal fund of obligatory medical insurance. Planning of actions for a labour safety consists in working out of instructions on a labour safety, actually planning of actions, the control over carrying out of these actions and observance of instructions, and also to investigation of accidents and the illnesses connected with dangerous factors at realisation of professional work. Instructions on a labour safety can be developed for workers of separate trades, and for separate kinds of works. Instructions are developed for workers on the basis of typical instructions, safety requirements stated in operational and repair documents of the equipment, used on the given enterprise, and also in the technological documentation of this enterprise taking into account conditions of production. Instructions by trades and on separate kinds of works are developed for workers according to the list which is made by a protection service of work of the enterprise with participation of heads of divisions.
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