The constitutional law in the modern world: the main trends and forms of development

Analyze general, special and single in different constitutionally legal systems of the countries of the world. The processes of globalization, internationalization, socialization, ecologization, humanization and biologization of the constitutional law.

Рубрика Государство и право
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 13.02.2015
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In spite of the complex, multiplanned and bulky nature of the constitutional matter (the legal status of a person, electoral and legislative processes, system of bodies and officials of state authorities, municipal power and its structures, territorial structure and etc.), stupendous historical base, the essential influence of the constitutional traditions, doctrines, customs, etc., the constitutional law is the dynamic, mobile phenomenon, which quickly develops, improves under the influence of external and internal processes, happening in modern states.

There are more than two hundred states on our planet, which quite often differ from each other on the level of economic development, social structure of the population, political systems, and nature of spiritual life. Except for group differences each country has elements of unique nature, connected with concrete-historical conditions of life of the people. All these differences, naturally, are reflected in particularities of the constitutional law.

The modern constitutional law tries to analyze general, special and single in different constitutionally legal systems of the countries of the world, to find such constitutionally legal institutes, which correspond to the universal human values, and other institutes, to determine, as far as it possible, reasons of their originality, to indicate their positive and negative sides, to determine the role in the society.

Such methodological approach aims not only to decision of theoretical tasks, but also has the pragmatic nature: determination of the possibilities and limits of application of this or that constitutionally legal institute in identical or transformation conditions in the other countries.

Analyzing originality, peculiarity, and sometimes cardinal opposition of constitutionally legal institutes of different countries, it is impossible not to take into account the main way of the constitutional development of mankind in the third millennium. Division of states and legal systems of the world, in spite of permanent processes of rising interdependence, is saved and will be saved. Countries and peoples, some of them quicker, others slowly, advance, eventually, to the uniform in their base postindustrial information society though some countries of Tropical Africa and Oceania have not practically set foot on this way.

In conditions of such society formation division of states is leveled and, in essences, loses its initial importance. Globalization, happening at present, reveals itself in elements, which have long time considered achievement and exclusive prerogative of the socialist ideal, are present in capitalist countries with socially oriented market economy, and elements of capitalist organizations are perceived and are successfully realized in the countries of totalitarian socialism. The majority of the specified processes occupy their place exactly in the constitutional sphere [1].

The world trends of the public development, becoming transparent in the constitutional matter, have the manifestation in the permanent processes of globalization and internationalization of the constitutional law. They exist, first of all, in rapprochement of national constitutional law of each democratic country with international public law and consequently the clear border between is disappearing.

The prospects of development of "overnational" constitutional law are connected with formation of the regional constitutional law (for instance, the general constitutional law of the European Union, C.I.S., Union State of the Russian Federation and Republic Belarus), which have features of international, and overstate law, and the further gradual formation of the international constitutional law ( development and adoption of the constitutions of Europe, creation of the European Parliament, election of the European Ombudsmen).

The given trends are conditioned by activation of information correlation of institutes of the modern society resulting in achievements of the constitutional law of separate countries generalized on the international level and included in acts of the international law - pacts, conventions, etc., which allocate the duty on the countries -participants to implement in their national legislation this or that democratic constitutionally legal institutes (for instance, the determined human rights, recognition of local self management, etc.).

In many constitutions now it is directly fixed that the universal principles and norms of the international law make the part of the national law (including the constitutional), and in the event of divergence with the norms of the national legislation they have some priorities (France, Germany, Russian Federation, etc.). At the same time some states proclaim the principles of equal position of norms of the international agreement and national law (Poland, Belgium, Switzerland) or the priority of the national law before the norms of the international agreements (Norway, Denmark, Ukraine).

One more manifestation of internationalization of the constitutions and constitutional law as a whole is expansion of the number of overnational legal acts as a result of regional rapprochement of a number of states. These are some acts of bodies of the European Union, which have the direct action on the territory of the countries-participants (for instance, the act, which regulates the order of carrying out elections to the European Parliament).

The problems of globalization of the modern constitutional law are closely connected and, in significant measure, are determined by the growth of the role of human rights in coordinate system "the international community - the national state - individuals". Since 1970s the human rights have gradually started to gain the global features which have become the reflection of the known standardization of vital and social needs of the people. The increasing similarity of conditions of life, forming general economic, information, cultural space, internationalization and transnationalization link the individuals with the system of greater scale. Internationalization, in the opinion of experts, has entered its terminating stage. The world becomes united not only from the philosophical point of view, but in reality [2].

There occurs change of civilization paradigm of the development, the planetary life is becoming interdependent, the world aim. The world community has closely come to appearance of the new phenomenon - the worldwide civilization, covering all mankind. The human rights, being the reflection and active lever of these processes, have altered the following level of its development - the level of globalization. They demonstrate their sufficient maturity for participation in problems of "global harmonization" [3] of the world that, undoubtedly, finds its reflection in the constitutional law.

Thereby, for the states of the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century is typical the progress in the sphere of internationalization of relations. At present "open statehood" is inseparable in the process of globalization and reveals itself in the longing of states to take part in the general international activity, to join international trade agreements and organization such as World Trade Organization, strictly follow the norms of the international law and etc. Integration of many states as the especial form of international relations is the leading stage of internationalization of the constitutional law. The ability to go on essential narrowing the external sovereignty for the sake of European integration is inseparable from deep realization that political, economic and cultural progress goes closely with the international cooperation and that transfer of the internal affairs on international or over international level is now the necessary contribution in the strengthening of international cooperation [4].

The new wave of the constitutional development testifies to the fact that there has occurred the principle on its importance expansion of the object of the constitutionally legal regulation. If earlier the constitutions were mainly limited by the questions of organizations of state authorities and relations of authorities and a personality, at present actually all modern constitutions comprise positions, relating to the sphere of functioning of the subjects of the civil society, economy, social relations, political system, fundamentals of spiritual life in the society.

Later, the constitutions mainly declaimed the civil and political rights, and from economic rights - mainly the right to property. At present the catalogue of the constitutional rights and freedoms is renewed with social, economic, cultural and ecological rights. There appear the constitutional rights and freedoms of the separate categories of the citizens - businessmen, employers. The constitutions, adopted after World War II in democratic countries, give the considerable and significant place to regulation of the social relations.

There is noted active law making in the sphere of rights and freedoms all over the world, the national systems realize searching for the optimum models, address to international practice person, and exchange their own experience. The human rights occupy their place in the first articles of the constitutions and even sections of the constitutions. So, practically one third from the general volume of articles of the Constitution of Italy of 1947., Constitution of Spain of 1978., Constitution of Ukraine of 1996., Constitution of the Venezuela of 1999 concern the human rights moreover the catalogue of the later leaves the limits of their classical list.

Forced international development of the human rights happened for a variety of reasons, on political motives somewhat, as well as under the influence of the humanitarian catastrophe of the World War II and in connection with wreckage of the colonial system. The human rights have become the slogan, under which there was realized fight with totalitarian ideologies and state regimes, against any dictatorship and unlimited violence.

In this period the human rights particularly dynamic leaving the limits of European space and appear in the legislation and in practice of the countries, dispensed from colonial and other dependence. The human rights accompany the process of decolonization (1945-1960.).

Also, in connection with this trend we should specify institualization of political parties and public associations, conditioned by growth of their role, as well as the necessity of strengthening of legal statehood etc.[5] The given processes aim at more full constitutionally legal regulation of bases of all most important parties of the public relations in their interconnection. The constitution becomes the universal document, which spreads on all specified spheres of the life of the society. By means of application of instruments of the public authorities the constitutional law of practically of all countries installs the system relationship "the person - the group - the state - the society".

However herewith there are exist other tendencies: from the normative sources gradually disappear some types of the rights of the first generation, for instance, the right to resistance on oppression, the right to rebellion, the right of the people to self-determination i.e. those, which from the standpoint of the government expose to danger the constitutional law and order in the country.

The states, conducting campaigns of constitualization of rights on the general base, begin to face great difficulties. Borrowing norms from each other, legal structures and technologies, does not guarantee automatic action of rights since it is impossible to carry in new sphere mechanisms of functioning. There has appeared the problem of ensuring rights. And this is a long term process, requiring time and patience, and results of the work are postponed on some prospects. All this causes dissatisfaction and the corresponding critics against the idea of human rights as a whole [6].

The expansion of the object of constitutionally legal regulation is not only change of the volume. It has the profound side, simultaneously being the process of socialization, politization and ideologization (in organic joint with deideologization) of the constitutional law.

First between the two world wars gradually, and after World War II more rapidly, especially in the last decennial events, trends of the expansion of the object of the constitutionally legal regulation and socialization and politization extended on the constitutional law not only of the leading states, but in the developing countries as well. Unlike the preceding acts of the constitutional law, the new constitutions even in Saudi Arabia (1992.), the Sultanate Oman (1996.) or United Arabic Emirates (1996.) leave the frames of the proceeding narrow interpretation of the constitutional law. Even in the British doctrine, which is more prone to conservatism and overweening juridization, there appear sociological elements.

Formation and statement in the democratic countries of social states has brought about to significant expansion of the constitutional regulation of the major principles of social life and social policy. Therefore one of the manifestations of socialization of the constitutional regulation became enter in its toolbox of the term "social state". As a rule, the main laws do not contain definitions, connected with such phenomenon, however from the analysis of their positions it follows that the social state is the feature of the modern state, which contents certifies that the state activity should be directed to creation of real standard material well-being, formation, health care etc., provision of such standards for all the citizens (individuals), as well as minimization of actual social inequality with its economic consequences and creating the system of social support (protection) of those who needs it. Hereunder, the notion of the social state is interconnected with accordingly interpreted ideas of social justice and social protection [7].

About such joint certifies the fact that practically all researchers link the phenomenon of the social state with the constitutional and internationally legal fixing of social-economic rights, as well as with the practice of their realization. In any event, the specified and other similar definitions of the social state provide realization of effective actions in accordance with contents of one of the main functions of the modern state which is the social function, by means of which, first, there are creative the worthy terms of life for each person, and there is provided the civil peace; secondly, there is realized social protection of unemployed, elderly, invalids, families of many children, orphans, children from incomplete families, and in terms of interethnic conflicts, refugees and compelled migrants; thirdly, there happens strengthening of social fairness and solidarity in the society, as well as democratic system, protecting the individual. Successful activity of the state in the social sphere is one of the terms of efficient realization of economic, political and other state functions. The social function of the modern state represents itself activity of the state in the field of ensuring the worthy terms of existence for each person, creation of equal and equitable possibilities for development of a person. Therefore, the contents of the specified function is determined by the new tasks of the modern state in social sphere, which, first of all, are conditioned by proclamation of the idea of the social state [8].

"Socialization" of the modern constitutions is necessary to distinguish from "sociologization" of the soviet constitutions, which were considered the fundamental laws of the society. The texts of these acts were filled with not legal abstractions, stated with terminology, which today, first of all, is connected with politology. Recognition of the Soviet constitutions the fundamental laws of the society and their "sociologization" were not casual. For the years of existence of the soviet organization of ruling there existed the constant longing to mithologization of the social being. In such terms the constitution was considered, first of all, as one of the instrument of ensuring of the ideological influence in the sphere of domestic and foreign policy. Moreover, there was directly recognized the ideological function, which was usually put on the level with strictly legal function or even above [9].

Today, the state undertakes the decision of many social tasks. It, first of all, pertains to the problems of protection of marriage and family, development of education and health care, relations between labor and capital, the living standard of the population, social maintenance, unemployment, interethnic relations, protection of lives of the people, etc. By its administrative and legal policy the state should strive greatly to influence upon distribution of economic good in the spirit of justice for provision for each person of the worthy existence. Actively assisting development of the free market, the state at the same time should undertake the functions of social maintenance of the population. The task of the social state should comprise the redistribution income between different layer societies through determination of the balanced system of taxes, state budget, financing of social programs. The state should put the long term and perspective purpose of the leveling of the position of the people though, it was earlier noted in different publications, and now is confirmed by real life, achievement of actual, instead of only legal equality in historically foreseeable periods is not workable [10].

We should agree that actually achievement of absolute and legal, and actual equality of all people is objectively impossible. However, on our opinion, it is possible the achievement of legal, and actual equality of the social possibilities for each person, guaranteed and provided by the state of cutting social inequality. Undoubtedly, the constitutional regulation of public relations plays the significant role in the process of realization of this global task.

The trend to strengthening of protection of the fundamental rights and freedoms is all European. If to analyze the constitutional legislation of the foreign countries, it is possible to find the different legal concepts, characteristic to this or that countries or group of the countries, however, it is possible to find the total lines of the motion, common fundamental ideas, similar results and similar (though not identical) legal instruments of their achievement. The rapprochement of the constitutional concepts in different European states is the result of generality of the fundamental ideas, which spread in global or regional European scale. Such ideas, first of all, are the respect to human value, anthropozentrism, the increasing significance of the legal state that is linked with the common recognition of dignity, autonomy of the person and his freedom as the supreme values. The new ideal shifts are the ability to recognize the supremacy of the international law. The generality of ideas brings to generality of the decisions even in the countries with different legal systems. The transparency of the process of rapprochement of the countries, the process of extension and deepening of relationship between them, the essential influence of the norms of the European Union and the Council of Europe, as well as the global statement of the uniform values, in the sphere of human rights assists the appearance of common political and legal institutes [11].

In the majority of modern democratic constitutions there is fixed the right to social maintenance and rendering aid and protection of weak public groups. So, in the Constitution of Italy (1947.) the question is that the republic protects health as the main right of a person and the main public interest and guarantees free of charge treatment of the poor (Article 32) [12]. The Constitution of Ukraine, proclaiming Ukraine the social state, installs that each person has the right to the sufficient living standard for himself and his family, which includes sufficient feeding, clothing, and dwelling. Each person has the right to health care, medical aid and medical insurance. The state creates conditions of medical service for efficient and available of all people. The state renders the assistance to development of medical institutions of all patterns of property (Articles 48-49) [13]. The Constitution of Spain (1978.) determines that state bodies support the state system of social insurance, providing all the citizens with the necessary aid and social facilities, first of all at unemployment (Article 41) [14].

At the same time at present there happens overcoming of spare (mainly declarative-popular) moments in the process of socialization, politization and ideologization of the constitutional law. In the democratic countries of market economy they proceed from the fact that the state can not and should not entrust itself with the settlement with all social tasks, many of which should be settled exactly by the civil society or due to its cooperation with the state. The legal state provides the formal equality all before the law. The modern social state should provide the certain social-property balance between wealth and poverty, not to allow cutting and dangerous social stratification for the state and society [15].

Entrusted on the state overweening social burdening, which exceed the possibility of the society to satisfy the up rated claims this or that social groups or share of the public product, bring to decay of economy and spare poliztion prevents the civil initiative "from below", ideologization reduces legal certainty of the norms of the constitutional law[16].

So, deilogization of the constitutional legislation is in elimination from the text of the constitutions c and other legislative acts of the majority of the post socialist states of the ideological features of the essence of the state, institutes of public and state system, fixing of the principle of impossibility of recognition of any ideology as obligatory, political and economic pluralism, etc. [17].

The following trend of the constitutional development of the countries of the world is the strengthening of similarity, of the so called universilization of the constitutional law of the different countries with the standpoint of the "set" of constitutionally legal norms and institutes, forming its system. Gradually in the course of practical activity and interinfluence, especially after wreckage of totalitarism on the border of 1980-1990s, there has determined more or less total circle of relations, institutes of the constitutional law, which, first of all, are fixed in the constitutions. But such similarity concerns only most general features and principles.

Simultaneously with the trend of universilization there appears another trend: diversification of the constitutional law, or extension of the variety of constitutionally legal institutes. The constitutional matter is penetrated with the unique institutes, reflecting historical, national and other particularities of the people of different countries, and their contents becomes more variable. This enriches the constitutional law. Nations and states, which were earlier "imperceptible" in the constitutional measurement, now bring their weighty contribution to development of theory and practical activity of the constitutional law.

The following specifying itself is humanization and biologization of the constitutional law. The given trends are revealed in increasing the influence of general humanitarian valuables of the mankind of the constitutional law, moving the center of gravity on ensuring the natural rights and freedoms of a person, proclamation them the supreme value, recognition of inalienability and firmness of the rights and freedoms, impossibility of their cancelling, narrowing of the contents and volume etc.

Simultaneously, biologization of the constitutional matter is revealed in activity of the modern state on restriction of negative consequences of scientific technical progress, especially in such new fields, as genetics, medical biology. In fact there is formed the new scientific direction - bioethics, which is connected with transplantation of organs of a person, change of sex, artificial fertization, problems of abortion and euthanasia. The given phenomena can not remain a side checking and regulating (including on the constitutional level) state interference in the given field.

The influence on the most deep structures of the human organization on the part of biomedicine, interference of biomedical technologies in the gene of a person, reproductive functions, psyche and processes of dying of a person, biological copying by manipulations with gene (cloning), creation of the so called transgenic animals by means of implantation to them of human gene and other fantastic from the position of up-date achievement of science can have far going consequences for regeneration of a person and environment. There appears the risk of genetic, as well as moral and spiritual negative consequence for mankind. The consequent evolution towards the given by the modern tendencies to life, can cause the total loss for the person: loss of exactly the person. "In the "mirror of" civilization there can one day instead the accustomed image be reflected the image of a quite different anthropic creature. [18].

It conditioned the cardinal revising of the conception of interrelations of the state and a person since instead of the priority of public and state interests over private interests their bases is occupied by the conception of priority of interests of a personality, their mutual liability. The constitutional practice of the majority of the post soviet state on the modern stage in significant measure has removed the oppositions of naturally-legal and positivist approaches to human rights on the bases of the constitutional fixing of the fundamental rights and freedoms, which includes oppression and violence of the state in respect of the personality, supporting its autonomy and priority of the human rights comparatively the state. Here is clearly revealed the new approach, based on positions of anthropocentrism, which creates the conceptual base of the idea, according to which any state power has the main purpose to assist the person, to maintain his physical existence, to strengthen his social welfare and his development as personality. The state exists for the sake of exactly this purpose exactly, and the person, on the contrary, exists not for the sake of purposes of the state. Etatizm (i.e. state centrism, centrality on the state), which prevailed in 19 th century and the first half of the 20th century has now lost its importance [19].

These and other global problems of mankind in significant measure explain the specified above processes of rapprochement of the constitutional law of different systems though there exists the ensemble of other, in particular, technological reasons (for instance, choice of the more efficient form of the legal regulation). Ideas of democracy, social-legal state, and rights of a person and others get the specific reflection in the norms of the constitutional law. At the same time the given principles, fixed in the constitutions, quite often are the "screen" for existing in life authoritarian elements of ruling. Moreover, in some countries the democratic principles are deformed or they are completely refused. There also exists discrepancy of the proclaimed constitutional principles.

In connection with sharp intensification of the problem of protection of environment, global ecological catastrophes which have endangered existence of the mankind, the modern constitutions of majority of the countries have lately started to fix general principles of ecological policy. This has brought to "penetration" in the constitutional matter of the great number of ecological. It certifies about permanent trends of ecologization of the constitutional law. Each person touches nature and environment in the process of its vital activity, as the citizen as the worker or an official or the citizen of the state or the member whole world community.

The ecological function of the state is vitally important activity of any modern state, of the world community as a whole. According to researches of the worldwide organization of health care, health of people on 80 percent depends on environment. Therefore activity of the state on its protection, maintenance of ecological security gains especial importance. In modern states there has been worked out the extensive ecological legislation, which clearly regulates activity of the people and different organizations in the field of their attitude to environment. In many country there have been worked out and already act national programs on protection of environment, providing application active measures of influence to violators of its wholeness, up to full eliminating of sources of pollution.

Therefore, in the majority of modern constitutions there is fixed the duty to save nature and environment. For instance, the Constitution of Lithuanian Republic (1992.) fixed that the state should care about protection of fauna and flora, separate natural objects of special value, realizes control for the purpose of careful use, as well as restoration and premultiplying natural resources (Article 54) [20]. The Constitution of Ukraine (1996.) proclaims that providing of ecological safety and maintenance of the ecological balance on the territory of Ukraine, overcoming consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe which is the catastrophe of the global scale and conservation of genofund of the Ukrainian people are the duties of the state (Article 16) [21]. Article 66 of the constitutions of Portugal (1976.), named "Environment and quality of life", fixes that all have the right to live in humane healthy environment, in the term of ecological balance, and are obliged to protect the environment [22].

So we see that maintenance of ecological safety as the right to healthy environment has already got the reflection in the system of acting human rights [23]. The modern researches certify that new global processes require another level "of ecologization of the rights" - their relationship with neusphere, co evolutionary and ecology-humanistic interpreting of the human dormitory. In this connection the person should not forget about restricted limits of its ecological home, indivertible ruinous consequences if limited resources are exhausted the process of self reproducing biosphere will break. Therefore, enjoying the rights and different institutes of constitutionally legal regulation for satisfaction of the varied and all rising needs, the person and the mankind should take into account ecological imperatives; correlate its freedom with natural-ecological restrictions. In the constitutional law there should be found the reflection for the harmony of development of a person and environment. And exactly the person should be interested in his future. Therefore the constitutional right and all human rights and the supreme right - right to life - should be accumulated with the program of strategic biological regulation, stabilization of environment [24].

constitutional law globalization internationalization

The literature

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12. Конституция Итальянской Республики от 22 декабря 1947 г. // Конституции государств Европы: В 3-х т. Т. 2 / Под ред. Л.А. Окунькова. - М., 2001. - С. 109.

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22. Конституция Литовской Республики от 25 октября 1992 г. // Конституции государств Европы: В 3-х т. Т. 2 / Под ред. Л.А. Окунькова. - М., 2001. - С. 341.

23. Детально об этом см.: Боголюбов С.А. Конституционные основы охраны окружающей среды в государствах Европы // Журнал российского права. - 2003. - № 6. - С. 85-96.

24. Глухарева Л.И. Права человека в современном мире (социально-философские основы и государственно-правовое регулирование). - М., 2003. - С. 165-166.

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