The rules of logistics

Essence, structure and basic functions of informational logistics system. Principles and the levels of information logistic system. Resources project development. Business process of logistic operations. The tariff for the transportation of cargo.

Рубрика Маркетинг, реклама и торговля
Вид дипломная работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 31.05.2013
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A business process can be decomposed into several sub-processes, which have their own attributes, but also contribute to achieving the goal of the super-process. The analysis of business processes typically includes the mapping of processes and sub-processes down to activity level.

Business Processes are designed to add value for the customer and should not include unnecessary activities. The outcome of a well designed business process is increased effectiveness (value for the customer) and increased efficiency (less costs for the company).

Business Processes can be modeled through a large number of methods and techniques. For instance, the Business Process Modeling Notation is a Business Process Modeling technique that can be used for drawing business processes in a workflow.

2.1.1 Business logistics

Logistics as a business concept evolved only in the 1950s. This was mainly due to the increasing complexity of supplying one's business with materials and shipping out products in an increasingly globalize supply chain, calling for experts in the field who are called Supply Chain Logisticians. This can be defined as having the right item in the right quantity at the right time at the right place for the right price in the right condition to the right customer and is the science of process and incorporates all industry sectors. The goal of logistics work is to manage the fruition of project life cycles, supply chains and resultant efficiencies.

In business, logistics may have either internal focus (inbound logistics), or external focus (outbound logistics) covering the flow and storage of materials from point of origin to point of consumption (see supply chain management). The main functions of a qualified logistician include inventory management, purchasing, transportation, warehousing, consultation and the organizing and planning of these activities. Logisticians combine a professional knowledge of each of these functions so that there is a coordination of resources in an organization. There are two fundamentally different forms of logistics. One optimizes a steady flow of material through a network of transport links and storage nodes. The other coordinates a sequence of resources to carry out some project.

2.1.2 Third - party logistics

Third-party logistics involves the utilization of external organizations to execute logistics activities that have traditionally been performed within an organization itself.[1] According to this definition, third party logistics includes any form of outsourcing of logistics activities previously performed in-house. If, for example, a company with its own warehousing facilities decides to employ external transportation, this would be an example of third party logistics. Logistics is one of the emerging business area in many countries.

Warehouse management system and warehouse control system

Although there is some functionality overlap, the differences between warehouse management systems (WMS) and warehouse control systems (WCS) can be significant. To put it simply, the WMS plans a weekly activity forecast, based on such factors as statistics, trends, and so forth, whereas a WCS acts like a floor supervisor, working in real time to get the job done by the most effective means. For instance, a WMS can tell the system it's going to need five of SKU A and five of SKU B, hours in advance, but by the time it acts, other considerations may have come into play or there could be a potential logjam on a conveyor. A WCS can prevent that problem by working in real time and adapting to the situation by making a `last-minute decision' based on current activity and operational status. Working synergistically, WMS and WCS can resolve these issues and maximize efficiency for companies that rely on the effective operation of their warehouse or distribution center.

2.1.3 Logistics operations and logistics functions

Logistics as a function in a company. Logistics can be classified into various positions depending on how it is viewed as a function in a company. If logistics plays a critical role in a company's success, it makes sense to position it in the functional organization beside the basic functions of finance, production or human resources. Another option could be further centralization of logistics. But it is debatable whether this serves the cross-sectional function of logistics.

Logistics as an operational function. The functional organization is based on the classification criterion of operations, and is frequently used in small and mid-sized companies. Logistics can be included centrally or decentrally in the current organizational structure as an additional operation. As a result, it is put on the same level as other fundamental operational functions such as production, sales and procurement. The basic condition for this is that logistics is considered an operational function [1]. Broad centralization can be achieved if logistics is placed directly under the managerial level. However, the functional organization opens up wide design possibilities as there are various types of this organizational form - this depends on the degree of centralization, the hierarchical classification and the functional place of logistics tasks in the present organizational units [2]. Despite the possibility of creating a comprehensive centralization, it must be stressed that a functional classification does not reflect the cross-sectional character of logistics. For this reason, this classification is termed skeptically as the “functional-silo approach”

Logistics function is the integrated group of the logistics operations routed on implementation of the purposes of logistics system

With modern tasks of logistics distinguish two sorts of functions: operative and coordination.

Operative character of functions is linked to direct traffic control of material assets in sphere of supply, production and allocation.

To functions in supply sphere concern handle of movement of production from the supplier or the item of their acquisition industrial firms, warehouses or trading storages.

In a phase of production the storekeeping including the control of movement of intermediate products and components through all stages of production, and also finished goods moving on wholesale warehouses and retail commodity markets becomes logistics function.

Control function by production allocation cover the end streams operative organization of production from firm-manufacturer to consumers.

Number of logistics coordination functions concern: revealing, the analysis of requirements for material resources of various phases and production parts; the analysis of the markets on which the firm, and forecasting of behavior of other sources of these markets operates; the data processing, concerning orders and requirements of clients.

The enumerated functions of logistics consist in supply and demand coordination on the goods. In this sense marketing and logistics are closely interconnected, and the affirmed formula - «marketing forms demand, and logistics it realizes» - has under itself powerful from-carrying. To a certain extent the formula is applicable and to coordination of mutual relations of logistics and production (figure 3).

Within the limits of coordination functions of logistics one more of its directions - the operational planning dictated by tendency to reduce stores was selected, without reducing efficiency of industrial and marketing activity of corporations. Its essence consists that on the basis of the forecast of the demand adjusted later at arrival of real orders, schedules of transportations and as a whole an order of storekeeping of finished goods which as a result and define production planning, development of programs of supply by its raw materials and completing products are developed.

Figure 3. Logistics functions schema.

2.2 Simulation of the system

CASE- means (from Computer Aided Software/System Engineering) make it possible to design any systems on the computer. The necessary element of systems and structural-functional analysis, CASE- means allow to model business processes, databases, software components, activity and structure of the organizations. Activities are applicable practically in all spheres. Result of applying the CASE- means - optimization of systems, reduction in the expenditures, an increase in the effectiveness, and reduction in the probability of errors.

For conducting of analysis and reorganization of the business- processes PLATINUM of technology proposes the CASE- means of the upper level Of BPwin, which supports methodologies IDEFO (functional model), IDEF3 (WorkFlow diagram) and DFD (DataFlow diagram). Functional model is intended for describing the existing business- processes in enterprise (the so-called model AS -IS) and ideal state of affairs - that, what it is necessary to approach (model TO -BE). Methodology IDEFO prescribes the construction of the hierarchical system of diagrams - the single descriptions of the fragments of system. First is conducted description of the system as a whole and its interaction with the surrounding peace (contextual diagram), after which is conducted functional decomposition - system it is divided off into the subsystems and each subsystem is described separately (diagram of decomposition). Then each subsystem is divided off into the smaller and so on before reaching of the necessary degree of detail. The session of the examination is conducted after each session of decomposition: each diagram is checked by the experts of subject area, by representatives of customer, by people, which directly participate in the business- process. This technology of the creation of model makes it possible to build the model, adequate of subject area at all levels of the abstracting.

2.2.1 UML Diagrams

Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized general-purpose modeling language in the field of software engineering.

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to specify, visualize, modify, construct and document the artifacts of an object-oriented software intensive system under development. UML offers a standard way to visualize a system's architectural blueprints, including elements such as:

· actors

· business processes

· (logical) components

· activities

· programming language statements

· database schemas, and

· reusable software components

UML combines techniques from data modeling (entity relationship diagrams), business modeling (work flows), object modeling, and component modeling. It can be used with all processes, throughout the software development life cycle, and across different implementation technologies.

It is very important to distinguish between the UML model and the set of diagrams of a system. A diagram is a partial graphical representation of a system's model. The model also contains a "semantic backplane" -- documentation such as written use cases that drive the model elements and diagrams.

UML diagrams represent two different views of a system model:

· Static (or structural) view: Emphasizes the static structure of the system using objects, attributes, operations and relationships. The structural view includes class diagrams and composite structure diagrams.

· Dynamic (or behavioral) view: Emphasizes the dynamic behaviour of the system by showing collaborations among objects and changes to the internal states of objects. This view includes sequence diagrams, activity diagrams and state machine diagrams.

These diagrams can be categorized hierarchically as shown in the following class diagram:

Figure 4. Categories of UML diagrams

Diagrams overview. UML 2.2 has 14 types of diagrams divided into two categories. Seven diagram types represent structural information, and the other seven represent general types of behavior, including four that represent different aspects of interactions.

In general, every UML element may appear on almost all types of diagrams; this flexibility has been partially restricted in UML 2.0. UML profiles may define additional diagram types or extend existing diagrams with additional notations.

Structure diagrams. Structure diagrams emphasize what things must be in the system being modeled:

· Class diagram: the class diagrams describes the structure of a system by showing the system's classes, their attributes, and the relationships.

· Component diagram: depicts how a software system is split up into components and shows the dependencies among these components.

· Composite structure diagram: describes the internal structure of a class and the collaborations that this structure makes possible.

· Deployment diagram: serves to model the hardware used in system implementations, and the execution environments.

· Object diagram: shows a complete or partial view of the structure of a modeled system at a specific time.

· Package diagram: depicts how a system is split up into logical groupings by showing the dependencies among these groupings.

· Profile diagram: operates at the metamodel level to show stereotypes as classes with the <<stereotype>> stereotype, and profiles as packages with the <<profile>> stereotype.

Behavior diagrams. Behavior diagrams emphasize what must happen in the system being modeled:

· Activity diagram: represents the business and operational step-by-step workflows of components in a system. An activity diagram shows the overall flow of control.

· State machine diagram: standardized notation to describe many systems, from computer programs to business processes.

· Use case diagram: shows the functionality provided by a system in terms of actors, their goals represented as use cases, and any dependencies among those use cases.

Interaction diagrams. Interaction diagrams, a subset of behaviour diagrams, emphasize the flow of control and data among the things in the modeling system:

· Communication diagram: shows the interactions between objects or parts in terms of sequenced messages.

· Interaction overview diagram: are types of activity diagram in which the nodes represent interaction diagrams.

· Sequence diagram: shows how objects communicate with each other in terms of a sequence of messages.

· Timing diagrams: are a specific type of interaction diagram, where the focus is on timing constraints.

In the module “Log of demand” manager of logistics carries out following functions (Fig.5 ):

Figure 5. Use case diagram

ь Creation and management of the demand;

ь Review of the demand history

ь Demand search

ь Review of the personal accounts reference

Function «Creation and management of the demand» is the most general, expanded problem in relation to another. To carry out all other operations, first of all, it is necessary to create the demand and to work it. The simple scheme of work with the demand in case of its successful end looks thus:

Figure 6. Activity diagram

In figure 7 the sequence diagram for successful working off of the demand is presented.

Figure7. Sequence diagram for successful demand working off.

But it is the simplified scheme which is developed to understand process of work with the demand.

Actually operations with the demand are supposed some more, the work scheme is presented by the diagram of demands management (Fig. 8). Using the diagram of demands management it is possible to track easily, what new actions can be carried out after this or that operation. For example, after demand creation following actions are possible: sorting on a route, carrying over by date, updating of requisites, refusal of the demand. sort by buses, the transfer of routing updates by date and time, the rejection of a particular route or bus. After each of these operations the demand status varies and other operations or the same according to the status are possible.

Figure 8. State diagram

Any enterprise, carrying out the activity, for reception of production from suppliers should conclude with the last the contract on production delivery. Usually on production with the same name the enterprise-customer concludes some contracts with the enterprises-suppliers. Then the customer in process of requirement for certain production sends to the supplier the demand for delivery of production and receives from the last the invoice in which the name of production and its cost price is specified. On the basis of these accounts the enterprise-customer defines the optimum demand and sends to the supplier the order for production delivery. After reception of ordered production the customer sends the account in accounts department which pays it in bank in a current of the term provided by the contract.

The sequence diagram of this task:

Figure 9.Sequence diagram.

2.3 Physical design of the program application

2.3.1 JavaScript

Javascript is one of the most simple, versatile and effective languages used to extend functionality in websites. Uses range from on screen visual effects to processing and calculating data on web pages with ease as well as extended functionality to websites using third party scripts among several other handy features, however it also possesses some negative effects that might make you want to think twice before implementing Javascript on your website.

JavaScript may be considered a derivative of the programming language Java. But while both are tools for providing interactivty into web pages, they are as different as bananas and papayas.

Java is a complex programming environment where you create packaged ("compiled") software applications that you can insert into a web page. The learning curve for Java is monumental at best (despite claims of the expanding number of software tools). On the other hand, JavaScript offers a simpler set of programming instructions that you can enter directly among the HTML formatting of your web pages, and code that can be easily accessed and modified.

Before JavaScript, to create interactive forms (web pages with fields, buttons, and menus) you needed to write computer programs ("CGI" scripts) that resided on and ran from a web server. But with JavaScript, you can perform many form tasks without connecting to a web server. In the jargon, we are processing on the "client-side".

Even better, JavaScript allows you to create content that is dynamic, so that the code inside one web page can produce many different types of displays and features depending on the viewer's actions, including the images that change when you move the mouse over a graphic.

We should note that while JavaScript is much simpler than Java, it is quite a step up from formatting HTML. It might scare you off when you see what JavaScript code looks like! The scripts we will show you are clearly documented, and we will tell you exactly how to alter the contents of the JavaScript code.

JavaScript combined with the absolute screen positioning available in web browsers that support HTML 4.0 provide what is known as Dynamic HTML, or DHTML

Advantages of JavaScript:

· Javascript is executed on the client side

· This means that the code is executed on the user's processor instead of the web server thus saving bandwidth and strain on the web server.

· Javascript is a relatively easy language

· The Javascript language is relatively easy to learn and comprises of syntax that is close to English. It uses the DOM model that provides plenty of prewritten functionality to the various objects on pages making it a breeze to develop a script to solve a custom purpose.

· Javascript is relatively fast to the end user

· As the code is executed on the user's computer, results and processing is completed almost instantly depending on the task (tasks in javascript on web pages are usually simple so as to prevent being a memory hog) as it does not need to be processed in the site's web server and sent back to the user consuming local as well as server bandwidth.

· Extended functionality to web pages

· Third party add-ons like Greasemonkey enable Javascript developers to write snippets of Javascript which can execute on desired web pages to extend its functionality. If you use a website and require a certain feature to be included, you can write it yourself and use an add-on like Greasemonkey to implement it on the web page.

2.3.2 CSS

CSS was first developed in 1997, as a way for Web developers to define the look and feel of their Web pages. It was intended to allow developers to separate content from design so that HTML could perform more of the function that it was originally based on - the markup of content, without worry about the design and layout.

CSS didn't gain in popularity until around 2000, when Web browsers began using more than the basic font and color aspects of CSS. And now, all modern browsers support all of CSS Level 1, most of CSS Level 2, and some aspects of CSS Level 3.

Web Designers that don't use CSS for their design and development of Web sites are rapidly becoming a thing of the past. And it is arguably as important to understand CSS as it is to know HTML - and some would say it was more important to know CSS.

CSS is an Abbreviation

It stands for Cascading Style Sheet.

Style sheet refers to the document itself. Style sheets have been used for document design for years. They are the technical specifications for a layout, whether print or online. Print designers use style sheets to insure that their designs are printed exactly to specifications. A style sheet for a Web page serves the same purpose, but with the added functionality of also telling the viewing engine (the Web browser) how to render the document being viewed.

Cascade is the special part. A Web style sheet is intended to cascade through a series of style sheets, like a river over a waterfall. The water in the river hits all the rocks in the waterfall, but only the ones at the bottom affect exactly where the water will flow. The same is true of the cascade in Web style sheets.

Every Web page is affected by at least one style sheet, even if the Web designer doesn't apply any styles. This style sheet is the user agent style sheet - the default styles that the Web browser will use to display a page if no other instructions are provided. But if the designer provides other instructions, the browser needs to know which instructions have precedence.

For example, in my Web browser, the default font is "Times New Roman" size 16. But nearly no pages I visit display in that font family and size. This is because the cascade defines the second style sheets set by the designers to redefine the font size and family and override my Web browser's defaults.

CSS is used to style Web pages. But there is more to it than that. CSS is used to style XHTML and XML markup. This means that anywhere you have XML markup (including XHTML) you can use CSS to define how it will look.

CSS is also used to define how Web pages should look when viewed in other media than a Web browser. For example, you can create a print style sheet that will define how the Web page should print out and another style sheet to display the Web page on a projector for a slide show.

CSS is one of the most powerful tools a Web designer can learn because with it you can affect the entire mood and tone of a Web site. Well written style sheets can be updated quickly and allow sites to change what is prioritized or valued without any changes to the underlying XHTML.

The challenge of CSS is that there is so much to learn. But it doesn't seem like it. After all, there are only around 60 properties in CSS Level 1 and around 70 in CSS Level 2. Compared with the number of HTML tags and attributes to learn, that can feel like a cake walk.

But because CSS can cascade, and combine and browsers interpret the directives differently, CSS is more difficult than plain HTML. But once you start using it, you'll see that harnessing the power of CSS will give you more options and allow you to do more and more things with your Web sites.

2.3.3 HTML

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for web pages. HTML elements are the basic building-blocks of webpages.

HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like <html>), within the web page content. HTML tags most commonly come in pairs like <h1> and </h1>, although some tags, known as empty elements, are unpaired, for example <img>. The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag (they are also called opening tags and closing tags). In between these tags web designers can add text, tags, comments and other types of text-based content.

The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into visible or audible web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page.

HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites. HTML allows images and objects to be embedded and can be used to create interactive forms. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. It can embed scripts in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML webpages.

Web browsers can also refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the appearance and layout of text and other material. The W3C, maintainer of both the HTML and the CSS standards, encourages the use of CSS over explicitly presentational HTML markup.

The first publicly available description of HTML was a document called "HTML Tags", first mentioned on the Internet by Berners-Lee in late 1991. It describes 18 elements comprising the initial, relatively simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were strongly influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house SGML based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4.

Hypertext markup language is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text, images and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, and these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of CSS. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 Techniques for using SGML, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the RUNOFF command developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS (Compatible Time-Sharing System) operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements (nested annotated ranges with attributes) rather than merely print effects, with also the separation of structure and processing; HTML has been progressively moved in this direction with CSS.

Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification: "Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)" Internet-Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document Type Definition to define the grammar.[8] The draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgement of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes.[9] Similarly, Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+ (Hypertext Markup Format)", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms.[10]

After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based.[9] Published as Request for Comments 1866, HTML 2.0 included ideas from the HTML and HTML+ drafts.[11] The 2.0 designation was intended to distinguish the new edition from previous drafts.[12]

Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests. Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).[13] However, in 2000, HTML also became an international standard (ISO/IEC 15445:2000). HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004 development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG), which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008.

3. Technological Section

This part describes the demo version of a software application, as the thesis is one part of a larger project that is currently in development. It also describes the development of application software and its use.

The main advantages of the program, that it is possible to see movement in real time. Works in Online mode, so users have accurate information. The main type of interface is shown on figure 10:

Figure 10. The passage of buses along the route.

As mentioned in the first part of software application designed for three types of users.

The greatest privileges are of administrators. They are the system administrators of the company. To add a new route in the program must know specify all the coordinates of the corners of stops and turns. In the program, as shown on figure 11, using the right mouse button you can find the coordinates of a point.

Figure 11. The coordinates of points on the map

- where the first digit is the longitude and the second width of the coordinates. So the administrator can see all the coordinates needed to add a new route. And all the coordinates are stored in arrays. Since the program is written in JavaScript, for easy implementation of software applications using arrays. An array is a set of values identified by the index. Usually, the array is allocated contiguous chunk of memory of a given length. In JavaScript, this is not true. Arrays in JavaScript is a simple object with a unique designer and an additional set of properties and methods inherited from Array.prototype. Because of this performance will be slightly worse, but this is offset by ease of use and powerful set of tools. In contrast to the array in other programming languages, JavaScript arrays are very easy to use. The array can contain any object or an elementary type. Several types of data can simultaneously be in the same array. Javascript supports two types of structure "array":

· An associative array (hash), where data is stored in an arbitrary key.

· Numeric array Array, where data is stored by number.

Javascript - a very flexible language, so technically in Array can store arbitrary keys as in Object.

Advantages of the use of arrays that you can specify the length of the array during its creation. But since JavaScript does not require pre-allocate memory for arrays and their length can be changed at any time, it is debatable advantage. The array can contain any object or an elementary type. Several types of data can simultaneously be in the same array.

The unique properties of the array: The most important property of the array - length. In other words, it is calculated as: (a numerical value of the last index) 1. Arrays are not bounded above in length. You can add an element whose index is greater than (length - 1) and the length property is changed according to the definition above. So no matter how much we did not specify the coordinates in the program, we will still succeed in adding a new route.

There is also a managers who watch over the correct passage of the bus route. They sit at their computers and can see any bus which is currently at work. Since the program is written in JavaScript, for easy implementation of application software using the drop-down lists, how you can see on the figure 12.

Figure 12. The maps of bus route

And drivers can only see their own individual screen, as shown on figure 13.

Figure 13. Drivers window

On the of the program are two buses, as shown in figure 14:

- green bus that moves on a programmed route and time. This bus is the simulation, which shows the bus driver how to drive, and with it the driver can focus on time and on the road. There's also a red bus as shown in figure 15:

- this sign shows the location of the bus with the help of a real bus JPS navigator. Also on the program of the whole picture can be seen in satellite mode, more simulation are given in Appendix A.

More graphical interface window design shown on Appendix A.

4. Economical analysis

Experience shows that because of the irrational planned routes and lack of control the location of transport companies transport costs are increased by 20-40%. Inefficient logistics management results in excessive mileage and fuel consumption, less than optimal use of fleet vehicles and simplenon-compliance with the conditions of transport drivers.

Table 1 - Input data

№ п\п



The value of the indicator

Passenger transport


Mark PS



The average number of cars, ed.




First Class


















The average length of haul, thousands of miles




Graduation rate of cars on the line






Ratio of run




The distribution volume of cargo in a Class-X% of the total traffic




First Class



Table 2 - Technical data buses

The number of seats at peak times


Kerb weight, kg


Gross vehicle weight, kg


Turning radius, m

along the axis of the outer front wheel track

the outer marker



Maximum speed, km / h


The filling volume of


The production program of shuttle bus

The average daily mileage per bus km

Lсс = VI · tenge;

Lсс = 9,00 · 22,54 = 202,9 km

The average number of flights on the route of a bus for a day:

Zp = VI · tenge · в/ lep · зcm;

Zp = 22,54 · 9,00 · 0,48/ 6,99 · 2,93 = 5.

Number of passengers carried per day a bus, pass:

Qday = q · гn · зcm · Zp = q · гn · VI · tenge · в/ lep;

Qday = 67 · 0,56 · 22,54 · 9,00 · 0,48/ 6,99 = 523 pass.

Passenger bus for one day, pass-km

Pday = Qday lep = q · гn · VI · tenge · в;

Pday = 523 · 6,99 = 3656 pass-km

The production program for a year around the bus depot

Number of flights buses per year, ed.

Zyear = ADE * Z;

Zyear1 = 30 485 * 3 = 91 455;

Zyear2 = 27,944 * 5 = 139 720.

Run with passengers km

Lgr (pass) = Lobsch * в;

Lgr (pass) a = 4472149,5 * 0,90 = 4024934,6 km;

Lgr (pass) 2 = 5669837,6 * 0,48 = 2721522,1 km

The volume of passenger transportation, t (pass)

Qyear = ADE * Qsut;

Qyear1 = 30 485 402 402 * 13,2 = t;

Qyear2 = 27,944 * 523 = 14,614,712 passengers.

The calculation results are summarized in the table:

Table 3 - Indicators of transport company for the year

Name of indicators


Route of bus




Ratio of run



Time to work



The idle time for loading and unloading of haul


Average schedule speed


Operating speed



Carrying capacity (total capacity) of the bus




Bus-days in



Vehicle-hours of work



The number of rider with cargo

flight Coach



The total mileage



passenger turnover



Passenger, t * km (pass-km)

Pyear = ADE * Psut;

Pyear1 = 30,485 * 548,6 = 16,724,071 t * km;

Pyear2 = 27 944 = 3656 * 101 066 464 pass-km

Determining the cost of transportation

Cost of transport is the cost of the enterprise in terms of money transport unit to perform the work and is determined by dividing the sum of costs of the enterprise for a period of time to operate the car park, performed during this period the transport operation. The transport work is calculated depending on the type of transport in ton-kilometers, pass-km. Cost of transport is determined by the formula:

Operating costs of rolling stock are divided into variable and fixed. For variable costs include costs for fuel, lubricants, wear and tear on the restoration and repair of tires, maintenance and repair of rolling stock, the depreciation on the full recovery. By the constant expenses include expenses for salaries of drivers overhead.

Variable costs

Variable costs are determined by multiplying the standard cost of 1 km run on an annual mileage of cars.

Regulatory fuel costs for 1 km, tenge / km, determined by the formula:


where q - standard fuel consumption of 1 km, l;

Cl - the price of a liter of fuel, tenge

Сt1 = 0,31 · 20,00 = 6,2 tenge/km

Сt2 = 0,43 · 16,00 = 6,88 tenge/km.

Regulatory fuel consumption by 1 km, l, for on-board vehicles is given by:

where the CCM - the rate of fuel consumption per 100 km, l;

Ntkm - an additional rate of fuel consumption per 100 km, liter;

1.05 - coefficient taking into account the increase in fuel consumption in winter conditions and input needs.

q = 1,05 * (25/100 + 1.3 / 8 100 * 0,52 * 0,9) = 0,31 l / km

Regulatory fuel consumption by 1 km, L, for the buses is given by:

q = 1,05 * 41/100 = 0.43 liters / km

Standard costs for lubricants, tenge / km, determined by the formula:

where Nm - the engine oil consumption rate per 100 liters of fuel, l;

Lim - transmission oil consumption rate per 100 liters of fuel, l;

H - normal flow of grease per 100 liters of fuel, kg;

Cm, the MDGs, the Central Committee - respectively, the price of 1 liter of engine oil, transmission oil and 1 kg of grease, tenge.

Ssm1 = 0,31 * (3,2 / 100 + 0.4 * 100/100 + 0.3 * 180/100 * 220) = 1,42 tenge / km

Ssm2 = 0,43 * (2,4 / 100 + 0.3 * 100/100 + 0.2 * 180/100 * 220) = 1,45 tenge / km

The cost of restoration and repair of tire wear on the 1 km, tenge / km, is given by:

where Hm - normal cost for 1000 kilometers,%;

Tssh - the price of one set of tires, tenge.;

Ka - the number of wheels (without reserve) on the car.

Ssh1 = 0,89 * 2500 * 10/100 * 1000 = 0,22 tenge / km

Ssh2 = 0,91 * * 2500 6/100 * 1000 = 0,14 tenge / km

The costs of maintenance and repair of motor vehicles operating at 1 km, tenge / km, determined by the formula:

where the Sts and ts - normal maintenance costs and operational car repairs for 1000 kilometers, tenge.

Stoitr1 = 725.4 / 1000 = 0,73 tenge / km

Stoitr2 = 603.8 / 1000 = 0,6 tenge / km

The rate of costs to be determined taking into account the mode of the vehicle (with trailer, semitrailer, a single vehicle), operating conditions.

Fixed costs
Fixed costs are determined by multiplying vehicle-hours AChe the costs of salaries and overhead costs attributable to 1 hour.
The cost of wages of drivers falling for one hour, made up of basic salary Zosn, which includes the salary at the rate of Sm, allowances for proficiency Zkl, premiums from the payroll ANW, surcharges for freight Zeksp, additional wages Zdop, charges for social Insurance Zsots, tenge / h
The costs of wages are determined by the formula:
Szp1 = 163,5 10,55 57,23 40,88 27,2 = 299,36 tenge / h
Szp2 = 30,6 2,1 13,77 4,65 = 51,12 tenge / h
Piecework rates per ton of Art and per ton-kilometer Stkm defined by the regulations in accordance with the type and capacity of the vehicle, the type of goods, way to perform loading and unloading operations, the operating conditions of the rolling stock, taking into account correction factors at work vehicle with a trailer or load in both directions .
Bus drivers' wages at a rate equal to the hourly wage rate:
Sm = Gv,
where Cq - hourly wage rate of class 2 drivers, tenge
Sm = 7700/9 * 7 * 4 = 30,6 tenge / h
Proficiency allowance, tenge / h for truck drivers is determined by the formula:
where Cq - hourly wage rate of Class 3 driver, tenge / h;
N1, N2 - the proportion of drivers class 1 and 2, is determined by the student themselves.
Zkl = (16875/10 * 6 * 4) * (0,25 * 0,5 0,1 * 0,25) = 70,3 * 0,15 = 10,55 tenge / h
Overhead (tenge / h) are determined estimates of production costs. To simplify the calculations, average hourly overhead costs on a car you can use the standards costs a bus that emerged in the practice of trucking companies.
Hourly overhead for a bus, tenge / h, are determined by the formula:
For commercial vehicles:
Snr = 508 * 144/304850 = 0,24 tenge.
Snr = 380 * 116/251496 = 0,18 tenge.
Thus, the total fixed cost for the bus:
Spost = 71,24 * 251,496 = 17,916,575 tenge.
Costs are determined by dividing the income tenge cost tenge for each item of income.
C'per = Cper * Lobsch / A
C'post Cpost * ANC / DA
The total cost for each brand of vehicle is defined as the sum of the calculated components, tenge / tkm (tenge / pass-km), according to the formula:
The calculation results are reduced costs in Table 4.
Calculate the cost of transportation
Table 4

Items of expenditure

Expenses bu bus


10 pass-km, tenge

Incom, tenge


Variable costs, total:






Lubricants and maintenance materials





Depreciation and repair of tires





TO and exp. PC repair





Depreciation on the full restoration of

Fixed costs, total:





Fixed expenses, total:

earn card drivers with charges





Charges for social insurance















Revenues represent the amount of cash payments made for the transport company they transport and other services
To determine income for the transportation work should choose the kinds of tariffs for cargo transportation vehicles designed transport company, to justify their choice of /, 10 /distribution the total cargo transported in groups, in line with that, what kind of transportation tariffs will be implemented. Results distribution traffic volumes are reduced by group in Table. 5, 6, and proceeds are used to determine D.
The tariff for the transportation of one ton of cargo i-th class now.
The average revenue rate (tenge/10 tkm, tenge/10 pass-km) is determined by dividing the amount of gross income for the transport operation D on annual turnover or a passenger:
dsr = 116 917 696 • 10/101066464 = 11.57 tenge/10 pass-k
Table 5 Determination of income and an exceptional piece-rates

Average haul cargo

transport km

The amount of gross income, now
















logistics system informational
Revenues for the transportation of passengers in urban and suburban transportation (USD) are determined by multiplying the tariff for the carriage of a passenger on the number of passengers:
Where D - the tariff for the carriage of a passenger in a city:
Q - volume of passenger traffic, pass.
D = 14,614,712 116, tenge.
The balance sheet profit, tenge:
where the P- profit from doing traffic now.;
Income from other types of business, now:
For bus: Pb = lim = 46474371 tenge.

5.Labor protection and health safety

This section is written with a view of the law of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the health and safety of the February 28, 2004 y., 528-II ЗРК, labor law in the Republic of Kazakhstan dated 10.12.99, 493-I, the law on fire safety on 22.11.96, the law on industrial safety at hazardous production facilities of 03.04.02 314- II ЗРК [18-21].

Safety at work - the state of working conditions under which the possible impact on the working of harmful factors.

Labor Protection - a system to preserve the life and health of employees in the course of employment, which includes the legal, socio-economic and organizational - technical, sanitary, medical and preventive treatment, rehabilitation and other measures.

The problem of labor protection is to minimize the risk of infestation or disease running at the same time providing comfort with maximum productivity.

The law of the Labor Protection reflects the following rules and regulations: rules for organizations from enterprises, regulations on accident prevention and health regulations, rules that ensure the protection of individual workers from occupational diseases, rules and regulations of the special protection of women, youth and persons with reduced working capacity; law, which provides for liability for violation of legislation on labor protection.

Providing healthy and safe working conditions imposed on the administration of the enterprise. Administration of the enterprise is obliged to introduce modern means of safety to ensure sanitary conditions and prevent occupational diseases of workers.

In aims of accident prevention AGB imposes on the administration of the company following functions: briefing on accident prevention, industrial hygiene and fire safety.

There are several types of instruction: introductory, primary in the workplace, secondary, unplanned, current. Induction training required to pass all newly arriving at the company, as well as seconded person. Primary workplace conducted with all who joined. Secondary - not less than six months. His goal - restoring the memory of the working rules for accident prevention, as well as parsing of specific violations.

Unscheduled accident prevention done when a change process, rules of labor protection or the introduction of new technology.

Current instruction is carried out by employees before work which is made the admission in the outfit.

It is also necessary in offices in designated places to hang out stands with the rules of accident prevention instructions.

Safety requirements of workspace

Building (construction), which posted the jobs on the constitution must be consistent with their functional purpose and requirements of occupational health and safety. Working equipment must meet safety standards established for this type of equipment, have appropriate warning signs and provided with guards or protective devices to ensure safety of employees in the workplace. Emergency routes and exits of employees from the premises must be left open and display the open air or in the safe zone. Hazardous areas must be clearly marked. If the jobs are located in hazardous areas, which due to the nature of the risk to the employee or falling objects, such places should be equipped with devices as possible, barring access to these areas to outsiders. Pedestrians on the territory of the organization and technology, vehicles must travel in a safe environment. Workers should have the means of individual protection for work in hazardous industrial facilities (stations), including height, ground conditions, the open cells on the shelf seas and inland waters. During working hours, temperature, natural and artificial lighting and ventilation in the room where the jobs are located, must comply with safe working conditions. Employees are allowed to work in hazardous conditions (dust, fumes and other factors) after providing the employer safe working conditions.

Meteorological conditions (or climate) in the production are determined by the following parameters: air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and pressure. However, on human health is strongly influenced by pressure differences. The quantity of heat Q by the human body depends on the degree of stress in certain circumstances and may range from 80 J / s (at rest) to 500 J / s (hard work).

With environmental impact of heat convection and radiation is terminated. With decreasing Environment blood vessels narrow and blood flow to the surface of the body slows down and the heat transfer decreases. At high temperatures, room air blood vessels dilateHumidity affects the body's thermoregulation: high humidity (over 85%) makes it difficult to regulate its temperature by reducing the evaporation of sweat, and too low (less than 20%) - causes drying of the mucous membrane solid resulting in increased blood flow to the body surface and heat transfer in the environment grows. The optimum value of moisture content of 40-60%. Air movement has a big impact on well-being. In winter, the air velocity should not exceed 0,2-0,5 m / s, and in summer - 0,2-1 m / sec. The velocity of the air may have an adverse impact on the spread of harmful substances.

Requirements for the microclimatic conditions

Under optimum microclimatic parameters are taken to mean that during long-term and systemic effects in humans ensure the preservation of normal function and the thermal state of the body without the stress reactions of thermoregulation, create a feeling of thermal comfort and are a prerequisite for a high level of performance. To create an optimal microclimatic conditions should take into account the temperature, relative humidity and air velocity.

Table 6 lists according to СНиП РК 4.02-05-2001 "Heating, ventilation and air conditioning" values of the parameters of the microclimate, which create a comfortable working environment.

The desired composition of the air can be achieved by performing the following activities:

1) The application of technological processes and equipment, excluding the formation of harmful substances. Of great importance is sealing equipment, which contains harmful substances;

2) Protection of sources of thermal radiation;

3) The device heating and ventilation;

4) The use of personal protective equipment.

Table 6 - Microclimate parameters


Microclimate parameter



Room temperature

22…24 °С

Relative humidity

40…60 %

The velocity of air

до 0,1 mps


Room temperature

23…25 °С

Relative humidity

40…60 %

The velocity of air

0,1…0,2 mps

Classification of ventilation systems

The objective of ventilation is to provide cleaner air in the given weather conditions. By way of moving air ventilation is natural and mechanical.

The ventilation system should not create noise in the workplace. It must be electric and non-hazardous.

Natural ventilation. Ventilation with natural ventilation is due to the temperature difference between air inside and outside, which causes flow of cold air into the room. With the dried up part of the building creates a low pressure, so that is extract warm air pollution from the premises. On the windward side of the building creates excessive pressure, resulting in the fresh air enters the room. Natural ventilation can be organized and disorganized. Unorganized ventilation is through leaks windows, air vents and special openings. Organized is maintained through natural ventilation and aeration vents.

Air conditioning. Air-conditioning - automatic maintenance of the premises, regardless of external conditions of temperature, humidity, cleanliness and air velocity. Air conditioning is used to create the necessary sanitation facilities.
Air Conditioning - air handling unit, which with the help of instruments of auto regulation maintains indoor air quality parameters which are defined.

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