The rules of logistics

Essence, structure and basic functions of informational logistics system. Principles and the levels of information logistic system. Resources project development. Business process of logistic operations. The tariff for the transportation of cargo.

Рубрика Маркетинг, реклама и торговля
Вид дипломная работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 31.05.2013
Размер файла 3,1 M

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Now more and more companies require reception of the operative information depending on demanded conditions on a certain instant. Thus the information should be received as soon as possible with the minimum expenses of money resources, with maximum metrics of reliability, accuracy and objectivity. Connected with this operations in logistics sphere did not become an exception.

The logistics is an optimal control of the commodity-material streams followed from the supplier to the consumer and linked to them by informational, financial and service streams on the basis of a system approach for the purpose of abbreviation of time and costs in a chain of deliveries of the goods.

Nowadays, there are several types of logistics. Here are some of them: transportation logistics, procurement and production logistics, warehouse logistics, business logistics, information and marketing logistics, industrial logistics and distribution logistics. The majority of the types of logistics intersect. This is a case in point is the definition of the tasks of transport logistics, whose main tasks is to ensure cargo, minimizing the cost of shipping, searching for optimal routes of goods, searching and selection of forwarders, coordination of other issues with the sender and the recipient of the goods. Transport logistics is different from the transportation that freight forwarding is the result of logistics, namely choosing the most favorable option in terms of time and cost of the route, mode of transport and their combinations. Transport logistics binds the many stages of freight forwarding.

At the basis of control process of the material flows lies information processing, which is circulating in logistics systems. In this connection one of key concepts of logistics is the concept of an informational stream. The choice of vehicle type, the joint planning of transport processes, the joint route planning, joint planning of travel time along the route - all of this are information flows, by good governance them directly depends of the effectiveness of materials management.

The rules of logistics

Activity in the field of logistics has the final goal, which was called name “six rules of logistics”.

1. Cargo (the necessary goods).

2. Quality (necessary quality).

3. Quantity (in necessary quantity).

4. Time (should be supplied in due time).

5. A place (in a proper place).

6. Expenses (with the minimum expenses).

The purpose of logistics activity is considered reached if these six conditions are fulfilled, i.e. the necessary goods of necessary quality, in necessary quantity are supplied in due time, in a proper place with the minimum expenses.


Contemporary development logistics underwent, in essence, because of appearance and development of the transmission media and data processing, there is demand for the applications for the logistics, the actuality of the need of the automation of logistic operations does not leave doubt.

Under the contemporary conditions for the development of economy for the enterprises of Kazakhstan urgent need to focus serious attention on the optimization of its activity appears, since the principles of the market economy take root into of increasing degree in the country, competition is strengthened. In this context the special importance acquires the creation of the systems, which make it possible to increase the effectiveness of control of material flows, which improves entire economic activity. As a whole, this problem can be defined as the formation of the competitive advantages through the reduction of logistic expenses and an improvement in the quality of maintenance on the basis of the creation of effectively functioning logistic systems.

The subject actuality is also defined: an increasing role which is played by logistics in economic activities in the conditions of market economy; problems of integration of Kazakhstan in a global logistics infrastructure and its adapting to standards and the requirements operating in the developed countries; necessity of application of modern technologies and economic mechanisms of creation and development. The research actuality is defined as well by that attention which is given by Government RK to questions of development of a logistics infrastructure and its interaction with the international logistics environment.

The purpose of diploma work

The main purpose of diploma project is - to make better transportation, automation of logistics operations in depots associated with the control of the route and time. Experience shows that because of the irrational planned routes and lack of control the location of transport companies transport costs are increased by 20-40%. Inefficient logistics management results in excessive mileage and fuel consumption, less than optimal use of fleet vehicles and simple, and the lack of funds leads to a diversion of transport, fuel drain, non-compliance with the conditions of transport drivers. And so today, in the fleets it is necessary to automate logistics processes. In particular the need to develop a software application that allows you to control the route and time of a particular bus. The development program will be implemented in JavaScript.


To the basic results, obtained in the diploma work and which constitute the scientific novelty of a study, relates the following:

- defined requirements for the structure and function of modern logistics information systems allowing for the business organization;

- developed a procedure for choosing the most effective way to automate the management of the logistics company based on the analysis of business processes, information systems.

-Implement a software application, to select an effective way to control routing, time and resources to optimize cost.

The practical value of the work lies in the opportunities of practical use of methods and recommendations for the development of information systems in logistics. The use of the program will enhance the efficiency of logistics systems in the company.

Methods for the problem solution

Development of software applications for logistics solutions will reduce labor costs and saving money before officers standing at bus stops, watching the time, can use this time to work more effectively.

Disadvantages of paper conducting operations:

a) Loss of productivity in connection with search of necessary remarks to working off;

b) Copying and storage of remarks for the purpose of an archiving;

c) Cumulative influence on a total cost and the quality of tools given to clients.

Advantages of operation with electronic system:

a) Automation access of clients to a database;

b) Simple and safe digital archiving of the data;

c) Reduction of necessity for physical space of storage of documents at the expense of usage of digital storages;

d) Cumulative useful result of reduction of cost and more effective servicing;

e) the ability to monitor the bus directly from the bus park, which does not allow bus drivers to deceive the authorities.

The basic results of studies in the process of the work on the diploma project are published in [2].

Structure of diploma project

Diploma project consists of the following main sections: introduction, designing section, experimental research section, technological section, conclusion, bibliography and applications.

In introduction part is proved importance and an urgency of the selected subject, is formulated the purpose of the diploma project, and also offered the short characteristic of development of logistics.

In design section of the project are parsed necessary requirements at a design stage, is resulted the substantiation of development tools and defined the methodology of solution of the task.

In experimentally-research section is directly described system development, a physical design of the application, and also UML diagrams.

Technological section contains results of operation of the application, testing and the description of operation in Software application.

In the conclusion are resulted the main theoretical and practical results of the diploma project

The literature list consists of 18 sources.

Appendixes contains: user interface windows, codes of programs

1. Design section

1.1 Information systems in logistic

An informative thread is an aggregate of circulatory in the logistic system, between the logistic system and external environment of reports, necessary for a management and control of logistic operations. An informative thread can exist as paper and electronic documents.

It is necessary to mean, that besides logistic operations another operations, similarly attended with an origin and transmission of threads of information, are carried out in the economic systems. However logistic informative threads(stream) make the most meaningful part of the combined stream of information.

Similarly as well as any other system, the informative system must consist of well-organized associate elements and possess some aggregate of integrative internals. Decoupling of the informative systems on making elements it is possible to carry out variously. Most often the informative systems are subdivided into two subsystems: functional and providing (figure 1).

Figure 1. Information subsystems

The functional subsystem consists of a collection of the solved tasks grouped on the basis of a generality of the purpose. The providing subsystem, in turn, includes following units:

- A hardware, aggregate of hardware, providing treatment and transmission of informational threads;

- A supply with information which includes various directories, qualifiers, coders, means of the formalized description of the data;

- A software, i.e. set of methods of the decision of functional problems. Logistical information systems, as a rule, represent the automated control systems of logistical processes. Therefore the software in logistical information systems is a complex of programs and set of means of the programming providing the decision of problems of management by material streams, processing of texts, reception of the help data and functioning of means.

At microlevel distinguish the following three kinds of information systems:

1. Planned information systems - are created at administrative level of management for acceptance of long-term decisions: creation and optimization of links of a logistical chain; manufacture planning; the general storekeeping; management of reserves, etc.

2. Non-mandatory, or dispatching offices IS - created at the level of management storage or workshop for providing of the debugged work of logistical system, for making decision on medium-term and long-term prospects: disposing of intra-depot or inside factory transport; selection of loads on orders and their completing; account of the sent loads; detailed control of inventories.

3. Executive IS - are created at level of administrative or an operational administration for execution of daily affairs in a mode of real time; an operational administration manufacture service; management of moving, etc.

Tasks, relating the logistic systems, decide in the planned information systems. Through planning in a chain "sale-manufacture-supply" that allows creating effective system of the organization of the manufacture, constructed on market requirements, with delivery of necessary requirements in system of material support of the enterprise is thus carried out. By planned systems as though "get involved" logistical system in an environment, in a cumulative material stream.

The non-mandatory and executive systems go into detail drawn up plans and provide their implementation on separate productive areas, in storages, and also on concrete workplaces.

Vertical and horizontal integration of information systems.

According to the conception of logistic the informative systems, related to the different groups, are integrated in single IS. Distinguish vertical and horizontal integration. Vertical integration connection is considered between planned, non-mandatory and executive the systems by means of vertical informative threads.

1.1.1 Essence, structure and functions of informational logistics system

The logistics information system fulfils a number of specific functions:

1) planning

2) coordination

3) service

4) management

At the basis of the functional pyramid of logistic information system lies the system of the operations between the components of logistic system, which determines interrelations between the functional subdivisions of firm (in the plan of the realization of logistic functions), by logistic mediators and by the users of the production of firm. At the level of analysis the logistic regional or administrative managers of firm in essence use information for tactical purposes for marketing, prognostications of financial and operating production indices. Finally, at the upper strategic level logistics determines strategy of management and it is connected with the strategic corporate planning and the mission of firm.

The characteristics of the system levels of the functional structure of logistic information system are connected with achieving of the specific strategic and tactical goals of firm and competitive advantages.

The organizational structure of logistic information system can be coarsely formed of four subsystems: administration of the procedures of orders, scientific studies and connection, support of the logistic solutions and generation of output forms and reports. These interconnected subsystems achieve information- computer support of all functions of logistic management and connection with the micro- and macro-logistic environment.

In the organizational structure of logistic information system as one of the basic subsystems is isolated the subsystem of control of the procedures of orders, which is caused by the direct contact of this subsystem with the users in the processes of working and fulfilling the orders. Great significance here has a use of a concept “of electron exchange by data” and the based on it standards.

The subsystem of scientific studies and connection reflects the influence of the external and internal medium of firm on the process of logistic management and is accomplished interaction between the components of logistic system and the control functions due to:

* the integration of logistic planning with the corporate planning;

* interaction of logistic management with other corporate functions;

* strategic installations for the organizational structure of logistic system and personnel;

* the integration of information technologies;

* preparation or the purchase of the technological solutions and use of mediators;

* adaptation to the conditions of the firm of the forms of logistic chains, channels and networks, and also of control functions;

* accentuation on productivity and quality of services in the logistics.

The subsystem in question plays important role for the reflection of changes and requirements both of the external and internal medium of firm. Logistic manager can use this subsystem for scanning of micro- and macro-media of firm four by methods:

1) by indirect examination on the basis of the total analysis of the obtained information, when there is no specific assigned purpose;

2) by the direct examination, when information about the external and internal medium of firm actively is analyzed with the previously formulated purpose;

3) by a nonformal study of relatively limited and unstructured data;

4) by a formal study with the use of the previously comprised plan, procedures and methods of working and analysis of obtained information.

For the optimization of the results of evaluating the influence of the external and internal medium of firm on the behavior of logistic system logistic manager must use key information sources of subsystem in the process of monitoring. It is here necessary to consider two aspects. First, the use of information by personnel of firm for the estimation of the effectiveness of its logistic solutions. For example, bookkeeping information or information about the prices of the finished production of competitors can give irrefragable answer about the effectiveness of management; information about the sizes of cargo sending can be used by the transport subdivisions of firm and T. d. In the second place, the logistic partners of firm, such, as the suppliers of material resources, commercial mediators, ferrymen and users of finished production also can use information of subsystem for an improvement in coordination and reduction in our own expenditures. Important place in the subsystem in question belongs to prognostication, in particular, to such aspects as the collection of initial information, the estimation of accuracy, authenticity, use of the most effective methods of prognostication.

The third component of a logistics information system is the subsystem of support of logistics solutions which represents the interactive computer information system including databases and analytical models, the optimization tasks realizing, as a rule, arising in the course of logistics management. The subsystem forms, refreshes and supports variously structured, centralized and distributed databases for four main types of files:

* the basic files containing the external and internal information, necessary for acceptance of logistics solutions;

° the critical factors defining the main operations, the purposes and limitations at decision-making;

* the politicians/parameters containing the main logistics operational procedures for key areas;

* files of the solutions storing the information on the previous (periodic) solutions for various logistics functions.

In the given subsystem the great number of economic-mathematical models and methods (in particular, predictions for support of the solutions accepted by logistics management) is used. All these models and methods can be divided into classes: optimization, heuristic and imitative. Optimization models of decision-making are grounded on operational calculus methods: programming (linear, nonlinear, dynamic, stochastic, integer), the mathematical statistics (correlatively-regression analysis, the theory of stochastic processes, the identification theory, the theory of statistical models of decision-making, etc.), calculus of variations, optimum control, queuing theory, counts, schedules etc. In particular, for various logistics functions it is possible to specify following tasks:

* optimal dispatching in production, transportation, cargo handling;

* the optimal allocation of objects in the production, the distribution, the storing;

* the construction of optimum logistic chains, channels, networks;

* the construction of the optimum organizational structure of logistic system;

* optimum routing;

* the determination of the optimum duration of the components of logistic cycles;

* the optimization of the procedures of collection, working and of fulfilling the orders;

* the optimization of the parameters of control systems of reserves;

* an optimal choice of a carrier, the forwarding agent, the supplier etc.

In a considered subsystem interactive (dialogue) procedures of informational support of decision-making by logistics management are widely applied.

The fourth unit of organizational structure of a logistics intelligence system - a subsystem of generating of output forms and reports ".

The system of information input in the logistics for fulfilling the functions enumerated above must be correspondingly organized. The specific character of this system lies in the fact that in the process of its activity it must have the capability to exert influence on all functional subsystems of logistic organization. Three methods of its organization are based on this possible: centralized, decentralized and specialized.

With the centralized method of organization the activity in the information input is concentrated in one control (subdivision) and is subordinated to the directly highest leadership of organization through the Vice President (deputy director) for the information systems (technologies). The guarantee of a high efficiency in the works on the introduction of new information systems and technologies is the advantage of this method of organization. To the deficiencies can be attributed high expenditures for the content of administrative apparatus.

With the decentralized method of organizing the subsystem of information input the specialists of different functional subdivisions fulfill control functions of information traffics in their subject area. The high standard of knowledge of the subject area of manager along the information systems is the advantage of this method of organization, by deficiency - duplicating uniform tasks and functions in the different subdivisions of organization.

At a specialized way in the organization there are no divisions on intelligence systems (technologies). In need of development and implantation of a new intelligence system the given organizations access in specialized corporations and perform operations on a contractual basis (outsourcing).

It is characteristic for the small organizations which cannot have the experts in the field of the information technology, occupied a full time, and resort to services of advisers. Advantage of the given way of the organization of system of a supply with information is high level of scientific and methodical developments, disadvantage - complexity of the registration of specific features of the object.

The choice of this or that way of the organization of system of a supply with information depends on many factors, first of all from the sizes of the organization existing in it of business processes, presence of free money resources. We will mark: the supply with information system has reached now such level of specialization that demands attention to the organization are modern heads understand. Therefore any small organization incorporates information services. The intelligence system necessary for adequate performance of functions of logistics, should meet following requirements:

* informational streams should be compatible in the informational ratio;

* internal interrelations and complementarities of informational streams should have cause and effect character;

* hierarchical subordination of informational streams to should be accurate;

* property of integrations should be inherent in an intelligence system.

1.1.2 Principles and the levels of information logistic system

The principles must be placed as the basis of the construction of logistic information system:

1. Completeness and the fitness of information for the user. Logistic manager must have available the necessary and complete (sufficient) information for decision making, moreover in the form necessary for him. For example, information about reserves or orders of users frequently needs preliminary processing and is usually placed not, where logistic manager is made decision.

2. Accuracy. The accuracy of initial information has fundamental value for making of correct decisions. For example, information about the level of reserves in the distribution network in the contemporary logistic systems allows not more than 1% errors or uncertainties for adopting the effective solutions in the physical distribution, the creation of reserves and the satisfaction of consumer needs. Great significance has a accuracy and a authenticity of initial data for predicting of demand, planning of the needs for the material resources and etc.

3. Timeliness. The logistics information should arrive in management system in time as it is demanded by many logistics technologies especially grounded on the concept "is exact in time". Timeliness of the information is important practically for all complex logistics functions. Besides, many tasks in transportation, operational management, handle of orders and stores dare in real-time mode ("on line"). Same numerous tasks of logistics monitoring demand also. Requirements of timeliness of arrival and information processing are realized by modern logistics technologies of scanning, satellite navigation, shaped coding, and implementation of standards EDI/EDIFACT.

4. Degree of orientation. The information in information logistics should be routed system on revealing of additional possibilities of improvement of quality of production, tools, lowering of logistics costs. Ways of reception, transmission, mapping and information preprocessing should promote revealing of "bottlenecks", spares of saving of resources, etc.

5. Flexibility. The information circulating in a logistics intelligence system, should be adapted for concrete users, have the appearance most convenient for their. It concerns both firm personnel, and logistics intermediaries and end users. Paper and electronic document circulation, intermediate and output forms, reports, helps and other documents should be as much as possible adapted for requirements of all participants of logistics process and are adapted for the possible dialog mode for many users.

6. Suitable data format. Data format and the messages, applied in computer and telecommunication networks of a logistics intelligence system, should use as much as possible effectively productivity of means (a memory size, speed, capacity etc.). Sorts and forms of documents, layout of accessories on paper documents, dimension of the data and other parameters should facilitate information machining. Besides, informational compatibility of computer and telecommunication systems of logistics intermediaries and other users on data formats in a logistics information system is necessary.

The formation of information system in the logistics is accomplished according to the hierarchical principle, moreover in the logistic information systems the numeration of the levels begins from the lowest. This principle is accepted for the purpose to ensure the possibility of the growth of information system with more high ranks and its starts as the subsystem in the generalizing systems and the network of higher order, if in this need appears.

In accordance with this structural decomposition in the information systems in the logistics are separated three levels (Fig. 2):

Figure 2. Levels in the processes of logistics from the positions of the systems approach.

1. The first level - this is the level of the work site (in the broad sense), for example, of the place of storing, machine tool for the execution of mechanical processing, place or installation for the placement into the container and marking and others One or other logistic operation or another with the controlled material flow is accomplished at this level, namely its element (component, single packing, working table- satellite or any other unit of load) is moved, is overloaded, is packed, is passed one or other working or another.

2. The second level - this is the level of production section, shop, storage and others, where the processes of working, packing and transport of the units of load occur and work sites are placed.

3. The third level - this is the system of transportation and displacement of the units of load in the entire productive- marketable system as a whole from loading of raw material, materials and components to the delivery of finished articles to users and calculations for them.

Levels of industrial-marketing system and manual to which there correspond the levels of an intelligence system, define functional and operation completeness of informational subsystems.

On an information system top level the planning informational subsystem is realized. Here administration of the common material stream on purpose is exercised logistics to organize the industrial-marketing activity routed on the most effective satisfaction of requirements of the market.

At the second level of information system are represented the so-called dispositive (disposite - to place, to manage) information subsystems. These subsystems detail the plans, comprised at the upper level and are led they to the level of separate production sections, shops, storages mechanized to one degree or another and other production subdivisions and T. p., and also determine the methods of operations of these subdivisions.

The so-called executive information subsystems are placed at the lower level of information systems. They lead tasks, rules and instructions to the concrete work sites and the executors, monitor also the motion of technological process at the work sites and ensure feedback, forming primary information from these work sites.

Let us note that the planning, dispositive and executive subsystems are connected with straight and reverse vertical information traffics.

Separate series of problems inside functional the subsystems indicated are connected with horizontal information traffics.

1.1.3 Basic directions of informational-technical support of logistics systems

By information and technical base of control systems is understood the totality of the interconnected means and methods, which ensure the preparation of information for decision making: data collection and their primary processing, checking of authenticity, storage and the transmission of data, their renovation and correction with the application of the necessary mathematical methods.

The information and technical guarantee of logistic systems is characterized by not the nature of information and the collection of technical tools, utilized for their the processing, but by methods and by the principles, utilized for their construction. This respectively affects the change information flows, volumes and directions, on the procedure of the selection of most technical means of control, in particular to:

• determination of the functions of control systems of material and flow of money, the determination of the composition of the necessary information and the establishment of its periodicity, appearance and use

* designing of procedures of standard and non-standard messages, on processes of design, ordering and the analysis of all informational materials.

Basic purpose of the construction of the information and technical base of logistic systems - to be incorporated in the structure of control and to become its integral part. In this case by the special feature of the logistics of the construction of the information and technical base of the systems of this kind in comparison with the traditional systems of the automation of control it consists in the fact that it, from one side, is directed toward raising the technical level of control systems, and with another - it imposes new requirements on the methods of economic control of objects.

As a result logistic construction the information and technical base of control systems must make it possible to conduct analysis and adoption controlling influence on the object under the conditions for the assigned purposes and established processes of information nature.

By the basic factors, connected with the construction it is information - logistic systems, they appear:

1) Conditions for interaction of the systems between themselves and environment.

2) The creation of the model of the organization of information and technical guarantee, by which understand the hierarchy of subjects, who make decisions, their right, the reaction time and the regimes of interaction.

3) Presence of the economic and mathematical model of planning, forecasting, management and analysis of state.

4) Development of calculated algorithms for the economic and mathematical models.

5) Presence of the necessary complex of technical equipment, including computer organizational technology and communication system.

6) Applied software of entering of data in the system, their storage, distribution for the purpose of the optimization of the actions of the controlling personnel.

The logistic systems for control are directed toward an increase in the effectiveness in the motion of material and flow of money. Construction of the information and technical bases of the systems indicated to called ensure the comprehensive integration of all parts of control system, their operational and reliable cooperation.

1.1.4 Hierarchy of the use of the logistic information system

Any structure of organization (enterprise) in general form presents the actually formalized system of decision making, independent of the nature of activity. Organization system usually determines the specific objectives, which must be solved by the appropriate services of enterprise (by subdivisions, by the components of production), and also is attached responsibility in the prevailing hierarchical system for control.

The logistic system of the organization of control establishes such order, with which information and information traffics between the separate organizational units folding on its basis have a nature of information lead. The purposeful nature of the anticipating information makes it possible to conduct within the framework administrations the objective systematic analysis of situations and to make the necessary decisions. Objects themselves and objects of control, being located in the process of functioning in the purposeful, information and organizational interrelation, form the united logistic system of control of processes.

At present, depending on the nature of the relations between the objects, by the structures of control, and also of their signs were formed the following basic forms of hierarchical organizational structures: linear, linear-functional and matrix.

The information and technical bases of logistic systems, being entered in organizational the structure of control accepted, introduce essential correctives into the interrelation of the structures of control, into their subordination and make them more receptive to the real procedures of decision making. In other words, this makes it possible, to first of all in the best way use physical and intellectual possibilities of person himself, nature of division of labor in the spheres of control, quantity of control levels and composition of the subdivisions entering in them, and to also determine the necessary requirements for them for the purpose of effective control of material and flow of money.

The synthesis of the information and technical bases, built on the logistic bases, and the organizational structures of control as a whole makes it possible to ensure:

1) the more effective organization of planning and management of material and flow of money and the clear distribution of tasks and control function, rights and responsibility between the structural components, the objects and the objects,

2) the best combination of human and machine it is sectional in control systems, to increase the effectiveness of preparation and adoption the solution, reliability and authenticity of mapping the actual state of processes in all components of material and flow of money,

3) working out optimum administrative solutions and the efficiency of their fulfillment.

For the purpose of the achievement of the stability of the synthesis of the structures of control and information and technical bases of the logistic systems for control it is necessary to clearly determine concrete composition and nature of the planning problems and management of material and flow of money, distributing them along the levels of hierarchical system and the structural elements.

Information and technical base of the logistic systems for control, being organically entered in the structure of the control of the concrete subdivisions of control, and also to interaction during agreement and estimation of final indices.

Thus, the logistics of information process, being entered in the organizational structure of control, gives to it the specific hardness and rationality, it manufactures in the concrete specialists for administration the habits of the high professional level of decision making.

A question of the interrelations between the subdivisions in the quite organizational structure of control of material and flow of money was traditionally considered one of the most complex questions in the guarantee of effectiveness in control. In this connection the use of logistic approaches during the construction of organizational structures makes it possible to evenly distribute tasks along the structural subdivisions and the levels of the administrations, which require the solution. In this case, the formation of vertical and horizontal interrelations must occur not on the customary hierarchical or functional basis, but on the basis of the development of the special economic-organizational models of solution of the administrative problems, which make it possible to centralize (or decentralize) administrative connections during the solution of specific objectives and to increase the responsibility of concrete subdivisions and specialists for the eventual results of solution of problems during control of material and flow of money. Hierarchy of the use of the logistic information system:

1) The level of specialists, who use system for decision making of

1- Anticipating level

2 - Controlling level

3- Management of average level

4- Management of higher level

2) The range of the use of information

5 - Processing operational data (transaction, answers to questions)

6- Information for the schedule planning and control

7- Controlled information for the tactical planning and decision making

1.2. Development tools

Following resources are used for project development:

1.Integrated Development Environment Microsoft Visual Studio 2008

In computing, Microsoft Visual Studio is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) from Microsoft. It can be used to develop console and graphical user interface applications along with Windows Forms applications, web sites, web applications, and web services in both native code together with managed code for all platforms supported by Microsoft Windows, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, .NET Framework, .NET Compact Framework and Microsoft Silverlight.

Visual Studio includes a code editor supporting IntelliSense as well as code refactoring. The integrated debugger works both as a source-level debugger and a machine-level debugger. Other built-in tools include a forms designer for building GUI applications, web designer, class designer, and database schema designer. It accepts plug-ins that enhance the functionality at almost every level--including adding support for source-control systems (like Subversion and Visual SourceSafe) and adding new toolsets like editors and visual designers for domain-specific languages or toolsets for other aspects of the software development lifecycle (like the Team Foundation Server client: Team Explorer).

Visual Studio supports different programming languages by means of language services, which allow the code editor and debugger to support (to varying degrees) nearly any programming language, provided a language-specific service exists. Built-in languages include C/C++ (via Visual C++), VB.NET (via Visual Basic .NET), C# (via Visual C#), and F# (as of Visual Studio 2010[3]). Support for other languages such as M, Python, and Ruby among others is available via language services installed separately. It also supports XML/XSLT, HTML/XHTML, JavaScript and CSS. Individual language-specific versions of Visual Studio also exist which provide more limited language services to the user: Microsoft Visual Basic, Visual J#, Visual C#, and Visual C++.

Microsoft Visual C#. Microsoft Visual C#, Microsoft's implementation of the C# language, targets the .NET Framework, along with the language services that lets the Visual Studio IDE support C# projects. While the language services are a part of Visual Studio, the compiler is available separately as a part of the .NET Framework. The Visual C# 2008 compiler supports version 3.0 of the C# language specifications. Visual C# supports the Visual Studio Class designer, Forms designer, and Data designer among others.

Advantages of usage of Microsoft Visual Sudio:

· More effective work with the data. With writing of the code, which works with the sources of data, for developers it, as a rule, was necessary to study new technology or paradigm of access to the data for each source. LINQ (Language-Integrated Query) - this is the collection of lingual expansions for C# and Visual Basic and for the infrastructure .NET Of framework 3.5. It makes it possible to use unified approach and to write less than the code with the fulfillment of demands and conversions, which are rotated to the collections of objects, ADO.NET, with XML- given and relational data from the bases Microsoft SQL Server. To programmers, who use LINQ, are accessible all means Visual Studio 2008, which automate process of development: the auto-completion of operators, automatic correction during the intellectual compilation and the technology IntelliSense. All this makes it possible to expend less than the time on the study of the syntax of access to the data in the languages like T-SQL or XPATH and to be concentrated on data processing.

· Programming in different languages. The environment of Visual Studio supports several most popular in the world languages of programming, including Visual Basic, Visual C#, Visual C++ and JavaScript. Therefore it is suitable to the wide circle of developers for writing of the most different applications. The solutions for Visual Studio, created are more than 200 by strange companies, they ensure support of additional languages and many other possibilities, making it possible to master new languages, to improve its habits, to solve unique business- tasks and to be occupied by different projects, employing the same customary means.

· The more convenient user interfaces. Visual designers Visual Studio 2008 make it possible to create the powerful and attractive applications, based on Windows Presentation Foundation - to graphic subsystem .NET Of framework 3.5, which uses possibilities of contemporary video card.

· Development of the connected solutions and the ordering of the business- processes. With the aid of the graphic designer and the diagnostic routine for Windows Communication Foundation, entering Visual Studio 2008, the developers can easily connect systems or applications. Regardless of the fact, what protocols and transports are used, for the programming adapts general API. Analogously tools of Windows Workflow Foundation make it possible to simulate software of the real business- processes, allowing tools, with the aid of which simple to visualize, to create, to edit and to fix working processes with the participation of people or devices.

2.Sublime Text 2

Sublime Text 2 is a new version of a very powerful editor that has primarily flown under the radar since 2008. Originally created for Windows, the new beta version is now also available for Mac and also Linux-based platforms. The version 2.0 is available in beta, but is very stable, and even the developer releases are extremely solid and updated almost daily. I propose that you should check out ST2 and consider it as your daily go-to editor. This article is intended to show off some of the great features of this modern and constantly evolving text editor.

Below is a handful of the great features that sets Sublime Text 2 above other editors:

· Mini-map overview graphic for `birds-eye-view' of source

· Powerful command palette to quick perform actions

· Easy file loading with file switching panel

· Multiple selection capability

· Code-Folding

· Indent Guides

· Vintage mode for Vi key bindings

· Powerful multi-pane/Split-pane editing

· Regex-based find and replace

· Support for Textmate themes

· Powerful plugin architecture

· Jump-to-function panel

· Remembers files on re-open

· Bracket matching

· Fully customizable key bindings

· Auto-complete and Snippets and Macros

· Full-screen / Distraction-free editing

Needless to say that Sublime Text 2 is a feature-packed editor and makes it a worthy alternative to the other popular editors out there on each platform. As I use a mac, I will be using mac terminology in the information below, but most of the tips and tricks translate directly to the Windows and Linux versions.

Speed - Sublime Text 2 has always been quick, and now it's both faster and leaner. Startup times especially are now faster, although keep in mind that the first time you start up after installing or upgrading, it'll take longer than normal as your packages are updated.

Auto Complete - Suggestions are now offered as you type, to complete the current word or insert snippets. Because this uses Sublime Text's fuzzy matching algorithm, you can type just a few key characters to quickly select the word you want to complete: No more typing wow_this_function_name_is_really_long(), wtf<enter> will get you want you want.

3. Google Maps

Google Maps (formerly Google Local) is a web mapping service application and technology provided by Google, that powers many map-based services, including the Google Maps website, Google Ride Finder, Google Transit, and maps embedded on third-party websites via the Google Maps API. It offers street maps, a route planner for traveling by foot, car, bike (beta), kayak, or public transport and an urban business locator for numerous countries around the world. Google Maps satellite images are not updated in real time; they are several months or years old.

Google Maps uses a close variant of the Mercator projection, so it cannot show areas around the poles. A related product is Google Earth, a stand-alone program which offers more globe-viewing features, including showing polar areas.

Like many other Google web applications, Google Maps uses JavaScript extensively. As the user drags the map, the grid squares are downloaded from the server and inserted into the page. When a user searches for a business, the results are downloaded in the background for insertion into the side panel and map; the page is not reloaded. Locations are drawn dynamically by positioning a red pin (composed of several partially transparent PNGs) on top of the map images.

As Google Maps is coded almost entirely in JavaScript and XML, some end users have reverse-engineered the tool and produced client-side scripts and server-side hooks which allowed a user or website to introduce expanded or customized features into the Google Maps interface. Using the core engine and the map/satellite images hosted by Google, such tools can introduce custom location icons, location coordinates and metadata, and even custom map image sources into the Google Maps interface. The script-insertion tool Greasemonkey provides a large number of client-side scripts to customize Google Maps data.

Combinations with photo sharing websites, such as Flickr, are used to create "memory maps". Using copies of the Keyhole satellite photos, users have taken advantage of image annotation features to provide personal histories and information regarding particular points of the area.

A hidden IFrame with form submission is used because it preserves browser history. The site also uses JSON for data transfer rather than XML, for performance reasons. These techniques both fall under the broad Ajax umbrella.

In October 2011, Google announced MapsGL, a WebGL version of Maps with better renderings and smoother transitions.

After the success of reverse-engineered mashups such as and, Google launched the Google Maps API in June 2005 to allow developers to integrate Google Maps into their websites. It is a free service, and currently[update] does not contain ads, but Google states in their terms of use that they reserve the right to display ads in the future.

By using the Google Maps API, it is possible to embed Google Maps site into an external website, on to which site specific data can be overlaid. Although initially only a JavaScript API, the Maps API has since expanded to include an API for Adobe Flash applications, a service for retrieving static map images, and web services for performing geocoding, generating driving directions, and obtaining elevation profiles. Over 350,000 web sites use the Google Maps API, making it the most heavily used web application development API.

The Google Maps API is free for commercial use providing that the site on which it is being used is publicly accessible and does not charge for access, and is not generating more than 25 000 map accesses a day. Sites that do not meet these requirements can purchase Google Maps API Premier.

The success of the Google Maps API has spawned a number of competing alternatives, including the Yahoo! Maps API, Bing Maps Platform, MapQuest Development Platform, and OpenLayers.

In September 2011, Google announced it would discontinue a number of its products, including Google Maps API for Flash

Cell phones are being increasingly used for navigation assistance. Google Maps Navigation for Android 2.0 is free.

Features provided in the application:

Search in plain English

Search by voice

Traffic view

Search along route

Satellite view

Street View

Car dock mode

2. Experimentally-research section

2.1 Business process of logistic operations

A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. It often can be visualized with a flowchart as a sequence of activities.

There are three types of business processes:

1) Management processes the processes that govern the operation of a system. Typical management processes include "Corporate Governance" and "Strategic Management".

2) Operational processes, processes that constitute the core business and create the primary value stream. Typical operational processes are Purchasing, Manufacturing, Marketing and Sales.

3) Supporting processes, which support the core processes. Examples include Accounting, Recruitment, Technical support.

A business process begins with a customer's need and ends with a customer's need fulfillment. Process oriented organizations break down the barriers of structural departments and try to avoid functional silos.

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