The history of corporate identity. The elements of corporate identity. The examples of a strong corporate identity and new trends. Corporate identity today and in the future. Past of corporate identity. The origin of logos and corporate identity.
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The Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
Department of Foreign Languages №1
1. History of corporate identity
1.1 Past of corporate identity
1.2 Corporate identity today and in the future
2. What is corporate identity?
2.1 The elements of corporate identity
2.2 The examples of a strong corporate identity and new trends
Corporate identity is one of those vaguely defined, hodge-podge ideas that grows in scope as more consultants from different disciplines try to mark out their own piece of the market.
From a designer's viewpoint, "identity" is all the ways people identify the company visually: how it looks to the world. A common misconception, particularly among owners of small businesses, is that it's just the logo, but of course it's a lot more.
You can develop an "identity program" for an entire company, a particular product line, or even a single advertising campaign. All of these are "corporate identity."
The simplest sort of identity program would be a logo (if they don't have one already), signage and stationery designs. At a minimum this includes an exact color palette, typefaces for correspondence and advertising, paper type and color.
Depending on the size of the company and the budget, a basic identity program should include a style guide that lays out exact uses for the logo (absolutely essential if it's a trademark), what variations, if any, are allowed or required (there may be one version for small sizes, one for larger, for example), and examples of prohibited uses. It must say exactly how the logo will be reproduced in print, on the web and in video, how big it must be in relation to context, required white space around it and very exactly defined colors.
If the company has a slogan or tag line that appears in conjunction with the logo, the style guide must specify its position and size in relation to the logo itself and a clear statement of when it should and should not be used. This would be the minimum, and is for use not only in-house but for media people who may want to show the logo in connection with an article. It should have specifications for corporate communications -- letters, invoices, etc. -- that specifies margins, line spacing, typeface, address placement, greeting line, etc.
Marketing collateral is defined in the style guide as part of any identity program. The style and quality of photography, overall style, use and style of line art or illustration, typefaces, color palette, paper stock for print and so on are part of corporate identity (especially in connection with a single ad campaign). These specs would include the web, interactive and mobile presentation, TV and video where applicable.
When you work with a client that already has an identity program, be sure to get a copy and study it. Stay within the guidelines if you want to turn them into a steady client and avoid expensive problems.
In the 21st century, if the vision for a brand is not centered in a rich emotional connection with customers, and the corporate identity not well-defined, then the brand may be visible, but it will lack personality. And a brand without personality is a brand without a soul. And although a corporate identity is a small component of the overall brand expression, it remains the first connection made with the consumer's mind.
1. History of corporate identity
1.1 Past of corporate identity
corporate identity logo trend
The origin of logos and corporate identity could be traced to early examples of pictograms. According to WIkipedia "pictogram or pictograph is a symbol representing a concept, object, activity, place or event by illustration."
Some historians believe that the use of pictograms originated in Mesopotamia around 9000 BC. Simple pictures were used for labeling farm produce and eventually the use has spread to labeling manufacturing goods.
It is believed that the Roman alphabet has its origins in pictograms, for example "the letter A represented the head of an ox, and if it is turned upside down, a bovine head with horns can be seen." WIkipedia
The word logogram or logo originated in the early 19th century. In Greek language "logo" means "word" (Oxford Dictionary) The early example of logos consisted of a single letters and later 2 letters interweaving together, as seen on old Greek and Roman coins for example a sacred monogram formed by letters XRSTOS which means Christ. The first two letters were connected together on the early coins. Logomagic website states «In the thirteenth century, logo design evolved from simple ciphers to trademarks for traders and merchants. These early examples of logo design include masons marks, goldsmith's marks, paper maker's watermarks and watermarks for the nobility." Also the printers and publishers would often have their own trademarks printed on products.
The brand icons and logotypes were often appearing in Medieval paintings and Renaissance period and played an important role in the largely illiterate society. The logos were used extensively to distinguish products and manufacturers. Artists especially used their logo in the work as a means of building reputation and getting employed. Logo of Albrecht D'rer is a good example. He was an artist, printmaker and theorist from 16th century Germany. Modern contemporary art has been much more influenced by popular culture, which is depicted in art movement of the 1950's Pop Art. Andy Warhol painted popular brand names like Coca-Cola, Campbell's Tomato Soup and other day to day products. He favoured American culture and consumerism in which brands play a key role. He explains "What's great about this country is that America started the tradition where the richest consumers buy essentially the same things as the poorest." He takes Coca-Cola as an example "You can be watching TV and see Coca Cola, and you know that the President drinks Coca Cola, Liz Taylor drinks Coca Cola, and just think, you can drink Coca Cola, too. A coke is a coke and no amount of money can get you a better coke than the one the bum on the corner is drinking. All the cokes are the same and all the cokes are good. Liz Taylor knows it, the President knows it, the bum knows it, and you know it."
The symbolism elements were widely used in heraldry, which encompassed designing, displaying, describing, and recording coats of arms and badges.
The repeating themes of the symbols have been around in 15th century heraldry. According to encyclopedia "The German Hyghalmen Roll was made in the late fifteenth century and illustrates the German practice of repeating themes from the arms in the crest" (Wikipedia). The German Hyghalmen Roll often represents a collections of coats of arms relating to specific events or stories.
Another early example of logos are the symbols of merchants or also known as merchant's mark. Originated as early as 3rd millennium and were discovered in the Indus Valley in Pakistan they are impressions on coins, silk and other materials. (Wikipedia8) Those seals and emblems were used to identify and control economic administration and trade. Kelley and Wells (1995) states "Seals were used to make impressions in wet clay as a means of sealing shipments of goods." According to Pe'a (2007) "Commercial inscriptions in Latin, known as Tituli picti, appear on Roman containers used for trade."
I think that the emerging time for corporate identity is a commercial context was 19th century. Taking as an example brewery logos and emblems. Only today we can easily recognize famous names like Guinness and Johnnie Walker. For example Guinness logo adopted the "Harp" the national symbol of Ireland only in 1862. The harp is facing left instead of right, like in the Irish coat of arms. The Johnnie walker logo is also relatively young. In 1906 the whisky was renamed from Walker's Kilmarnock Whiskies to Johnnie Walker Whisky and introduced slogan "Born 1820. Still going Strong!" and a logo of a striding man, which is still used today.
In Britain there are numerous old pub and inn signs which have a long history beginning in Roman times when wine leaves were hung to indicate that this establishment sold wine. In Britain instead of wine leaves, bushes were used. Later the theme of the signs were religious themed. In the 12th century pub names became common, and because the majority of population could not read or write, the names were very visual in graphics. "In 1393, King Richard II passed an Act making it compulsory for pubs and inns to have a sign (his own emblem the "White Hart" in London) in order to identify them to the official Ale Taster. Ever since then, inn names and signs have reflected, and followed, British life at that time." Historic UK Website9
Before 19th century, all typefaces were Serif based because it was difficult to create and maintain straight edges of the letters using instruments of that time. This led to all the letterforms having rounded feet. The individual letters at that time had to be carved by hand in metal.
After the 19th century the emergence of superior tools allowed the creation of move precise letterforms and led to creation of first sans-serif typefaces. In the twentieth century corporate identity didn't change dramatically until the end of the Second World War. The majority of firms and companies had an old style of identity which often used a scripted type and illustration elements which by the middle of sixties seemed too out of touch and cluttered. After the war people in USA had a natural urge to throw away all the old corporate material and start afresh. But not just clients, also many designers felt the desire to "rebuild, reconstruct, make things more open, more democratic" By that time there has been a strong emergence of new design aesthetic in Western Europe and especially in Switzerland.
The new clean, minimalist and legible way of designing things quickly spread around the world, along with new Swiss typeface called Helvetica (which is based on the word Helvetia meaning "Swiss" in Latin). This landmark typeface has been featured in exhibition and documentary celebrating its 50 year history. Design writer Rick Poynor in Helvetica documentary stated that "1950s an interesting period for graphic design, after the horror of WW2, there's a real feeling of idealism, amongst many designers across the world, certainly in Europe".
"And so in a post modern period designers were breaking things up, wanting to get away from the orderly, clean, smooth surface of design, the horrible slickness of it all as they saw it and produce something that had vitality" states Rick Poynor. The hand drawn type could either be presented as a distorted sans serif or a completely unpredictable scripted style, which has no equal line spacing, uniform size or spacing between the letters. The lines can flow freely in any shape and angle, and this freedom allows designer to embed more visual information in the same page than when automatically set type.
So, corporate identity has undergone many changes and continues to change over time.
1.2 Corporate identity today and in the future
Big corporations often refresh their logos when necessary. One company who used a number of logos in the past is British Telecom (BT). In the 1980 when the company was privatized, and the British Telecom brand was introduced, the logo consisted of stylistic capital letter T in blue placed in the yellow circle. This symbol stayed for 11 years after which the famous "piper" logo was introduced. The colour scheme this style was chosen which established the national colours prominently. The "Piper" character had an interesting design, split by red and blue with white running in the middle. This symbol was also used standing on its own sometimes, and even embossed on the company's products. This versatility of the symbol in my opinion became very desirable for companies towards the end of the decade. This is why I think that logo was a successful design that stayed until 2002. But as the new decade began, the focus of the company changed dramatically, they started to innovate more, in fear of fierce competition which started offering high speed internet and telephone deals. The final logo that BT has adopted is an abstract globe symbol, which has none of the national symbolism, but has a global theme attributed to it. The "Connected world" logo represents company's attempt at working on the global scale with other partners in the communication sphere. This symbol appears to be designed to be animated form the start and the animated version was unveiled on television at the moment of the new product launch. The static version of the symbol can stand on its own quite well but it's the animation which makes this logo appear impressive. I think this is the trend in corporate identity for the future, the creation of "dynamic" scalable logos, something which will not just change colours and setting, but maybe even the basic shape of the logo could be altered, as if its a puzzle for the consumer to de-cipher. Google use their logo creatively when they respond to the global events and holidays by altering the logo in an artistic way. (Appendix 1)
One example, which has seen an incredible amount of bad press, is the London 2012 Olympics logo designed by branding agency Wolf Olins. It is reported to cost 1.2m pounds. While the design is flawed in its execution, initial objectives of having a logo flexible in its shape its colours and the way the shapes can be rearranged in animation, is a great idea for the future. The flows are in my opinion the typography which is too small and the choice of shapes and colours which do not invoke the positive emotion like other Olympic logos did. The logo has seen a critical reaction also because it doesn't have any elements, which show London, England, or any cultural references needed to be highlighted in connection to the Olympic games. (Appendix 2)
Bill Gardner from Gardner Design in his article on logolaunge.com about current and upcoming trends in corporate identity states in relation to dynamic identity, that future trends point towards using lots of elements, sometimes so delicate that they would not have previously been considered to be part of a logo design, assembled into a patterned whole. Logos are designed to be in motion as opposed to logos that are designed flat and then animated. He also points out the use of overlapping shapes with transparency trend, which he attributes to the desire for companies to look transparent to their stakeholders and customers.
Many graphic designers are creating 3D looking logos instead of traditional flat colour designs. They make that decision because some of their work will not be constrained to print, but only onscreen for example. Bill Gardner writes "We have seen many more 3-D logos that are designed to be in motion, never still or flat. These designs have completely shaken the earthly bonds of CMYK and exist only in ethereal RGB: The old logo design rules just don't apply to them." While I think those logos will be more and more common, there still needs to be a way to fall back to a printed paper designs. I think there will be a simplified version of logo still printed, of just a typography of the logo represented on paper. Paper will never disappear in my opinion because its immediate, simple, approachable. So the printed logos will stay also.
VSA Partners, the design agency in charge of creating identity for Cingular mobile phone company had achieved great success by creating an orange symbol which charmed consumers and telecommunications market. They also were responsible for creating the name for the company. Jamie Koval (2005) of SA partners says it "was not a conventional, safe solution". Unlike the competitors, the creative team decided to try create positioning that was "warm and human Jamie Koval wrote, "We wanted to make the mark to be a strong graphic symbol, but also had to be soft and playful". And it is evident that they didn't go for symbolism of communication, connecting people together or latest technology. They left the idea wide open for experimentation. The final logo can be used to create patterns or be a basis for photography, so it is truly flexible brand which will not become out of date anytime soon because it's easy to refresh the idea without scrapping the whole language which it successfully established. (Appendix 3)
With the future trends lies a danger of losing the uniqueness of the corporate identity. As everyone tries to create something striking, it is important to have the idea, which communicates the needed message in the simplest way. Redundant elements are usually removed to create a more recognizable symbol, but that can break the balance of simplicity vs. uniqueness. When I mean uniqueness I'm talking about both the visual side and the idea. The visual side of uniqueness boils down to making sure that the competition in the certain field, do not have a similar colours or shapes, which would lead to confusion and wasted efforts on behalf of marketing. The strength of the idea is measured in its uniqueness idea also needs to be unique but not in just the same sector but overall, because when the consumer associates the idea to the company, there might be a similar memory or image of another company invoked and that would divert attention of the customer. The strength of the idea is often measured in the uniqueness of the concept.
2. What is corporate identity?
2.1 The elements of corporate identity
If a manager asked his employees, “How do we create value for our customers?” would he get a clear answer? And would three different people have the same view?
The question about a company's way to create value for customers is probably one of the most fundamental elements of strategy. Which makes it all the more surprising that few organizations are able to answer it with certainty and clarity. Companies' purpose and mission statements often don't help, being as vague as “we want to be the company of choice for our customers” or “we are committed to delivering the highest quality and widest selection to our customers.”
We know, however, that companies with a strong identity -- the kind that is backed up by the ability to deliver their promise -- tend to win. In a recent survey of 720 executives, companies that were seen as having a stronger identity outperformed others by 25% (in terms of average annual TSR between 2010 and 2013).
Here's what I mean when I talk about a company's identity. It is what drives entire organization to perform, what makes hiring top talent easier, and what gives manager the framework by which to operate the company. Powerful identities are coherent -- they connect three elements: the value proposition company offers its customers, the capabilities system that allows company to create that value, and the set of products and services that leverages those capabilities and delivers against companies value proposition.
A logo and a slogan are the first and the most important elements of corporate identity.
A logotype is the first thing that attracts potential customer and business partners. A small sign and a short text can tell a lot about the directions and scale of the business activity, actually much more than any detailed advertising leaflet.
Design of an interesting and exclusive logo is one of the first and most important steps in business development. A logo is a center of corporate identity. It is present everywhere: starting with business cards and finishing with business gifts.
No doubt that the logo's efficiency should be first of all oriented at the customer. That's why to attract them and make them interested it is necessary to make the logo's design exclusive and think over each detail (color, font, etc.). The clearer is the logo's design, the more precise will be the slogan and the corporate idea in the future.
A slogan is a motto and an idea of corporate identity. An advertising slogan is a short and easy-to-remember phrase forming the idea of the advertising message. Slogan should definitely have some sense as its quality directly influences the success of goods or a company at the market. Silly and funny slogans can only irritate customers or even scare them.
A successful slogan is:
· if possible 2 or 3 words
· precision and clarity
· minimum philosophism
Corporate color and font is a mood of corporate identity. Corporate colors and fonts are permanent colors following the company everywhere. They are used on a corporate website, on official documents, such as envelopes, business cards, folders, etc.
Every corporate color should be associated with a certain idea. That's why the corporate color use is a way of managing customers' emotions. They have positive feeling, assurance of high quality goods or services and there appears a desire of purchasing this goods or services.
A brand book is a manual of corporate identity. A brand book is a reference material containing information about the corporate identity and its use. It clearly describes what one should and shouldn't do to save the positive image of the trade mark.
Every respectable company needs a brand book to make its staff users of the corporate identity follow its rules.
A business card is a corporate mini-presentation. A business card contains important information of a person or a company (first and last names, address, telephone number, company name, position, etc.) It is usually a rectangular and is made of a hard paper.
Business card types:
A letterhead is a documentary support of corporate identity. A letterhead is a paper with printed corporate details. It is one of the most popular and resultative advertising materials.
Thanks to a letterhead a company will not only be noticed, but it will also help to find it's papers among a big pile of other documents on the table.
A corporate folder is a convenient accessory. A folder is an office accessory, the main purpose of which is keeping some documents, using it at seminars and other meetings, advertising, etc.
· business folders
· personal folders
· conference folders
· restaurant folders
Defining a clear purpose in the world has been an age-old challenge -- for individuals and organizations. But if companies can find the courage to declare what value they are able to create and for whom, they can commit themselves to a path of building greatness in that area. This has proven not only to be a winning strategy for financial results, but also an incredible motivator for employees, who perform at their best when they know how they fit into a larger objective.
2.2 The examples of a strong corporate identity and new trends
Here are some examples of good corporate identity in Russia.
The Art director of "RIA Novosti "Ilya Ruderman has introduced four new logo of Moscow Zoo with a pelican, pheasant, dolphin and squirrels. Bright patterns of shapes of animals have appeared in the design of souvenirs, tickets, navigation and offices. Images were made in four colors - green, purple, blue and yellow.
To make it easier to navigate in of the intricate space of the zoo, creative people have developed a convenient navigation system with information posters. The look of promotional materials and website has changed too.
As a result of changing the image the zoo now is a comfortable wildlife museum since December 2013. (Appendix 4)
Designer Vova Lifanov has created brutal identity for "Hardcore bar."
"Since last year, I have been seeking ways and sponsors willing to implement this project. It seemed that Ginza was interested in it, but they changed their minds. But it is a bar from dreams. Hardcore bar." (Appendix 5)
Ufa studio Paradox Box have created identity for travel agency "Stranoteka."
Bilingual and bilateral logo is made in the aesthetics of the Soviet industrial signs. Images of flags of different countries became decorative style elements of corporate identity of the travel agency "Stranoteka." Decorative interpreted, they can be collected in an infinitely variable composition. Bright and positive ornamental solution allows to create the right mood and character of the brand. It's an endless kaleidoscope of impressions and images. (Appendix 6)
In conclusion, I want to tell about some “new” things, which should be included in good corporate identity. The traditional promotional materials are always necessary, but today designers and programmers are connecting to add new media to the old corporate identity package.
1. PowerPoint presentation -- Some designers are creating custom PowerPoint presentations to accompany the standard corporate identity package. You might want to have a slit die cut into your presentation folders to hold your PowerPoint DVD or CD-ROM, or have separate professional CD or DVD sleeves printed - especially if the PowerPoint will be for private prospect use.
2. Websites -- Companies today are creating websites that complement their corporate identity package, and it only makes sense to develop them side by side. You might even consider setting up special URLs for customers to visit after you've given a specific presentation.
3. Brochures -- Many corporate identity packages include brochures, and for good reason - they're the friendliest and perhaps most personal marketing material around. There are many brochure sizes and folding options available, and it doesn't hurt to go a little large to stand out from the competition.
4. E-mail template -- This goes hand-in-hand with a corporate website and includes a standard header and style for corporate communications. It's like the letterhead of the Internet.
And if we talk about the future of brand design here are some expectations of professionals:
· The profession of marketer will continue to be dominated by people who have the required entrepreneurial spirit to develop new ways to deliver value to clients while they remain free and independent to pursue opportunities that are in line with their personal goals and creative aspirations. More and more of marketers will work and collaborate with clients and colleagues in places of the world we may never visit. For success minded marketers and brand designers, the opportunities inherent in this trend are limitless.
· Brand designers will move up the value chain by becoming highly specialized experts-known for their specific expertise in a discipline, an industry, or a consumer demographic. To prosper and grow, brand designers will forsake their generalist positioning and build their reputation and business success around a narrow and deep expertise that will enable them to differentiate themselves from competitors and command premium pricing from clients who place a higher value on their specialized design expertise.
· Brand design and management will require practitioners (client marketers and designer alike) to be meta-focused on designing real and useful experiences people love-with greater sensitivity and responsibility to the environment and the social wellbeing of those who are served in the marketplace. To remain relevant, brands must be trustworthy ambassadors of social good and the shared values of the tribes they serve.
· Reshaping the designer/client relationship will require brand designers to bring more useful and rigorous consumer insights that impact the very nature of how their clients bring value to their customers. The good news is brand designers will be seated at the big table. The more difficult future trend will see brand design and management focused on real business outcomes rather than producing more logos, taglines, style and decoration. And clients will increase their demand for designers to prove the value of their ideas by constantly measuring their return on investment.
· Brand design and management will continue moving away from the homogenous western (US and UK) stylizations of corporate and brand identity so emulated in the past. The work of brand designers will reflect authentic cultural reference points unique to their various regions of the globe. Designers are celebrating the cultural styles of their regions and this is moving the discipline of brand building to new levels of diverse cultural expression. This trend is already firmly in place in China, India, Eastern Europe, and many South American countries.
It is unlikely that corporate identity in the future will have a unnecessary complex design or concepts, the natural evolution of visual ideas leads to survival of the strongest + simplest and disregard of everything secondary. The striking balance of any great identity is in both its simplicity while also in the sophistication of the concept behind it. In the future we can only expect stronger efforts to create more interaction, more battles for customer attention, and bolder approaches to design.
A carefully developed brand also needs detailed implementation and guidelines. It is important because wrong use of the logo for example can lead to not just wrong impression of the customer, but also hamper the company brand as the whole. We often see brand guidelines that specify the exact colours which should be used for logos in print, but also more importantly which layouts and the amount of empty space around the logo needed to preserve the intended visual impact. I think guidelines like that will be on seen more often and will become even more important as designers deal with new technologies.
Today's market seems to demand a quick response. The online identities for companies are often decorated temporarily with seasonal attributes like Christmas and Halloween decorations of online stores. In the future this can happen constantly. For example an electronics store can change a mascot into a character who plays the latest video games console or listens to the new music player. It would be also possible to achieve with printed media. It will be possible to write a set of programmatic rules for example for shape and color of the logo so that every time an office worker prints a letter to send to the customer, the logo would be of different shape and colour. So even with use of printed page, there could be a dynamic experience created for the customer.
So to conclude this project, it seems that corporate identity in the future will keep its uniqueness by becoming more flexible in its concepts and implementation. The simplest and most creative ideas will win and stay around us. The successful styles will be often copied, but I believe that won't be the problem as the creators of the original work are rewarded by being first in their field. If we could look at history and observe how corporate identity spread from non-existing to an important element in the business, we can make a prediction how the spread might continue. The use of interactive imagery will be used more in the daily lives. Interaction via graphics could happen on the way to work, at home, on holiday and in every public place.
Appendix 1 http://www.britishgraphics.co.uk/item/future-of-corporate-identity
Logos of BT
Appendix 2 http://www.britishgraphics.co.uk/item/future-of-corporate-identity
The logo of the Olympic games
Appendix 3 http://www.britishgraphics.co.uk/item/future-of-corporate-identity
The logo of Cingular
Appendix 4 http://www.adme.ru/tvorchestvo-dizajn/firmennyj-stil-moskovskogo-zooparka-572905/
The new corporate identity of the Moscow Zoo
Appendix 5 http://www.adme.ru/tvorchestvo-dizajn/vily-pily-topory-i-cherepa-v-ajdentike-bara-532555/
Corporate identity for "Hardcore bar"
Appendix 6 http://www.adme.ru/tvorchestvo-dizajn/turagentstvu-sdelali-logotip-iz-nesuschestvuyuschih-flagov-481055/
Corporate identity for travel agency "Stranoteka"
1. Brochure (брошюра) - a small, thin book or magazine that usually has many pictures and information about a product, a place, etc.
2. Letterhead (печатный бланк) - the name and address of an organization (such as a company) that is printed at the top of a piece of paper used for writing official letters; also : paper that has the name and address of an organization printed at the top.
3. Brand book (каталог бренда или брендбук) - An overview document, describing the brand position, it's history, how it was created and, briefly, it's use. This document tends to be utilized as a source document for internal staff. It's designed to help them understand the brand, and generally to understand how to use brand elements.
4. Folder (папка) - a folded cover or large envelope for holding documents or a collection of files or documents that are stored together on a computer.
5. Typeface (шрифт) - In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
6. Template (шаблон) - a shaped piece of metal, wood, card, plastic, or other material used as a pattern for processes such as painting, cutting out, shaping, or drilling.
7. Leaflet (листовка) - a printed sheet of paper, sometimes folded, containing information or advertising and usually distributed free.
8. Expertise (компетенция, особые знания, экспертиза) - expert skill or knowledge in a particular field.
9. Header (заголовок) - a word, phrase, etc., that is placed at the beginning of a document, passage, etc., or at the top of a page.
10. Trademark (товарный знак) - a symbol, word, or words legally registered or established by use as representing a company or product.
11. Sponsor (спонсор) - a person or organization that provides funds for a project or activity carried out by another, in particular.
12. Mascot (талисман) - a person or thing that is supposed to bring good luck or that is used to symbolize a particular event or organization.
13. Value (значение, ценность) - the regard that something is held to deserve; the importance, worth, or usefulness of something.
14. Manual (руководство) - a book of instructions, especially for operating a machine or learning a subject; a handbook.
15. Tagline (слоган) - a memorable phrase or sentence that is closely associated with a particular person, product, movie, etc.
16. Relevant (уместный, релевантный) - closely connected or appropriate to the matter at hand.
17. Envelope (конверт) - a flat paper container with a sealable flap, used to enclose a letter or document.
18. Redundant (избыточный) - not or no longer needed or useful; superfluous.
19. Uniqueness (уникальность) - verification that a message has not already been processed at an earlier time.
20. Transparency (прозрачность) - the condition of being transparent
1. Creativity. Freedom. Life http://www.adme.ru/
2. British Graphics Network http://www.britishgraphics.co.uk/
3. Harvard Business Review hbr.org
4. Oxford Dictionary definition for word "logo"
5. Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merchant's_Mark
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