The structure, particularities and meaning of distance learning
The basic tendencies of making international educational structures with different goals. The principles of distance education. Distance learning methods based on modern technological achievements. The main features of distance education in Ukraine.
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· purpose of individual work;
2. Distance learning.
According to the data received by independent international experts in future every working person should have higher education which will be the minimal educational level, necessary for the existing of the mankind in the XX century. Thus it's not surprising that during latest decades the number of students who use non traditional technologies in studying grows much faster than the number of full-time students.
Besides to the increasing necessity in higher and continuing education, the tendencies of making international educational structures with different goals become stronger. The process of internationalization of education takes place not only in the sphere of its meaning, but also in the sphere of its methods and management.
Education becomes an instrument of interrelation not only of knowledge and technology, but also the capital, the instrument of market competition, and solving geopolitical problems. At this stage distance methods of education that are based on the modern technological achievements will play the main role. At present the mankind have rich experience in the realization of distance education systems, which use computer nets, television systems and modern telecommunication technologies.
Purpose of my work is:
1. definition of distance learning;
2. prospects of distance learning;
3. problems of distance learning;
4. effectiveness of distance learning;
5. quality of distance learning in Ukraine.
Subject of my work is research the structure, particularities and meaning of distance learning.
Object of my work is research particularities of distance learning in Ukraine.
2. Distance learning
distance education technological
Distance education is a kind of technology in which both traditional and innovational means and forms of education that are based on computer and telecommunication technologies are used.
In the educational system distance education fulfills all the demands of humanistic principle, according to which nobody can be deprived of the opportunity to obtain education because of poverty geographical or time distances, social isolation physiological defects, or lack of time because of own business. Taking into consideration the objectivity of the process of informatisation of society and education distance education, which encompasses the best features of other forms of education, will enter the XX century as the most promising, synthetic, humanistic, and integral form of obtaining education.
Distance education is a pedagogical technology, which is based on the principles of open education; it uses widely computer education programs of different purpose and modern telecommunications with the aim to deliver educational materials and to communicate (also in the real time).
Image 2.1 “Characteristics of distance education”
As you can see the following characteristics of distance education img. 2.1. witness about accessibility of distance learning.
But at the present moment all these categories can't receive educational services of high quality with the use of distance education, because the latter is absent in Ukraine.
Distance learning offered many promises to the field of education. In practice however, it is vise -versa. Some of the shortcomings are due to problems with the technology; others have more to do with administration, instructional methods, or students. Despite the problems, many users like technologies such as compressed video and see continued growth in the area. Due to the rapid development of technology, courses using a variety of media are being delivered to students in various locations in an effort to serve the educational needs of growing populations. In many cases, developments in technology allow distance education programs to provide specialized courses to students in remote geographic areas with increasing interactivity between student and teacher. Although the ways in which distance education is implemented differ markedly from country to country, most distance learning programs rely on technologies which are either already in place or are being considered for their cost effectiveness. Such programs are particularly bene?cial for the many people who are not ?nancially, physically or geographically able to obtain traditional education. The ?eld of distance education has changed dramatically in the past ten years. Distance education, structured learning in which the student and instructor are separated by place, and sometimes by time is currently the fastest growing form of domestic and international education. What was once considered a special form of education using nontraditional delivery systems, is now becoming an important concept in mainstream education. Concepts such as networked learning, connected learning spaces, ?exible learning and hybrid learning systems have enlarged the scope and changed the nature of earlier distance education models. Distance education relies heavily on communications technologies as delivery media. Print materials, broadcast radio, broadcast television, computer conferencing, electronic mail, interactive video, satellite telecommunications and multimedia computer technology are all used to promote student-teacher interaction and provide necessary feedback to the learner at a distance. The term distance learning has been used for many instructional methods: however, its primary distinction is that the teacher and the learner are separate in space and possibly time.
Image 2.2 “The principles of distance education are the following”
As you can see the principles of distance education are the following img. 2.2 oriented on the students.
At present in the world we can observe rapid development of distance education. All the educational establishments understand that for the beneficial development we need cooperation. One educational establishment can't create a system of distance education by itself.
Qualitatively new stage in development of a communication facility has begun with the advent of computer networks.
The goals of distance education, as an alternative to traditional education, have been to offer degree granting programs, to battle illiteracy in developing countries, to provide training opportunities for economic growth, and to offer curriculum enrichment in non-traditional educational settings. A variety of technologies have been used as delivery systems to facilitate this learning at a distance. Many of the promises of distance learning are financial in nature. Of course Ukraine faced with such problems as a lack of investing money into educational system. In all over the world universities hope to save money by delivering education to students that are unable to attend classes because of time or distance or diseases. The theory is that class size increases while the overhead remains the same. Places such as Beijing, Jakarta, and South American countries such as Brazil and Argentina have all begun to use distance-learning techniques to reach those that would by any other means be unreachable. China uses a radio and television delivery system to serve 1.5 million students, two-thirds of which are in a degree program. In Australia, Curtain University uses compressed video conferencing to reach remote students in Western Australia, and to enhance classes in Business Studies by connecting with students in Singapore. Other examples can be found in the UK and Norway where several sites have been linked together. Of course there is also wide use in the United States, both in the public and private sectors. It should be obvious by these examples and by the definition of distance learning, that it can meet the promise to deliver classes to a geographically broad and diverse population. Not only that, but the need seems to be strong for such programs. In Ukraine, were presented Memorandum on the organization of informational educational net “Distance Education in Ukraine”. Creation of such net on the free basis allowed to provide in Ukraine informational surrounding, that will encourage the development of different of techniques of distance education.
The most important task in the development of distance education in Ukraine is carrying out the analysis to find out the groups of people who need distance education. Such an analysis was not carried out in Ukraine, but we can use the results of analysis carried in other countries, tacking into account some specific features of this country.
The convenience of time and space is a big promise made by distance learning. Students do not have to physically be with the instructor in space and, depending on the method used, they do not have to be together in time as well. This is a great advantage for non-traditional students who cannot attend at regular times. The satellite campuses could conceivably help the school's enrollment to grow tenfold. At present in the world we can observe rapid development of distance education. All the educational establishments understand that for the beneficial development we need cooperation. One educational establishment can't create a system of distance education by itself.
Problems of Distance Learning
Despite the promises and obvious advantages to distance learning, there are problems that need to be resolved. These problems include the quality of instruction, hidden costs, misuse of technology, and the attitudes of instructors, students, and administrators. Each one of these has an effect on the overall quality of distance learning as a product. In many ways, each of these issues relates to the others.
Quality of Instruction
The first issue is the quality of instruction that is given through distance learning programs. Much of the quality of instruction depends on the attitude of the administration and the instructor. Many times it seems that the administration believes the technology itself will improve the quality of the class. The issue is not technology itself, but how it is used in the design and delivery of courses. Too often instructors do not design their lessons to take advantage of the technology presented. This affects the quality of the instruction.
The second issue is the true cost and the cost effectiveness of distance learning programs. Are they actually cost efficient? A study by Phelps et al. (1991) found that “the potential cost-effectiveness of using online technologies in distance education is still uncertain” . The study further showed that the concepts of costs and effectiveness are not as simple as they first appear. Starting a compressed video distance-learning program is not cheap. The startup costs, maintenance costs, and personnel costs should also be factored in to arrive at a true cost for a distance-learning program. The minimum number of staff required for delivery of a compressed video class would be one instructor and two technicians, one at each site. This means a minimum of three people is needed to deliver the same class as one instructor does in a traditional setting. The costs associated with training technicians and instructors should not be overlooked. For effective distance education to take place, the staff delivering the instruction should be well trained. Taking into account economical situation in Ukraine we see as the most real way out organization of free informational educational net where every educational establishment will contribute with intellectual product (meaning educational courses).
What may we conclude from the promises and problems of distance learning? Are there possibilities for improvement in the future? The technology will undoubtedly keep improving and the price will drop, as technology is prone to do once it comes into general use. Already we see improvement in the delivery systems of compressed video and computer assisted instruction. Despite student problems with distance learning, studies indicate they are relatively satisfied with what they are receiving. To get the certificate about professional training of the teachers of distance education it is necessary to study three modules and to fulfill the final work. The certificate is issued by the educational establishment where two or more modules were studied. The recommendation on the development of the network are worked out by special interest groups in the following areas: Pedagogical and psychological issues of distance education; hypermedia in distance education; technology of distance course design; distance education management; certification of distance courses. Informational exchange between the members of the net is organized through the special mailing list. This country needs real clear-cut policy in the sphere of using Internet in education. It should be composed taking into account the peculiarities of national educational informational environment, the quality of which should correspond to European level. Only these measures will make possible cooperation of all the countries in international educational Internet environment.
1. L.L. Tovagnyansky, V.O.Kravets, V.M. Kukharenko “Distance educational in Ukraine” // L.L. Tovagnyansky, V.O.Kravets, V.M. - Ukraine - 2010.
2. T. Bates “Technology: Open learning and distance education” // T. Bates - New York - 1995.
3. A. Carter “Interactive distance education: Implications for the adult learner. International Journal of Instructional Media” // A. Carter - New York - 2001.
4. T. Clark “Attitudes of higher education faculty toward distance education: A national survey. The American Journal of Distance Education” // T. Clark - America - 1993.
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