The political system of society

The term "political system". The theory of social system. Classification of social system. Organizational and institutional subsystem. Sociology of political systems. The creators of the theory of political systems. Cultural and ideological subsystem.

Рубрика Политология
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 29.04.2016
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“Astana Medical University”

Department of Kazakh history and politology


The political system of society

Done by: Sansyzbay K.D


Chacked by:Omarova B.K

Astana 2016


A political system is a system of politics and government. It is usually compared to the legal system, economic system, cultural system, and other social systems. However, this is a very simplified view of a much more complex system of categories involving the questions of who should have authority and what the government's influence on its people and economy should be.

The political system of society or the political organization of society - organized on a single normative value based on a set of interactions (relationships) political subjects related to the exercise of power (government) and the management of the company.

This concept brings together a variety of actions and relationships of the ruling groups and subordinates, rulers and the ruled, the dominant and subordinate, theoretically summarizes the activities and relationships of organized forms of power relations - the state and other institutions and agencies, as well as the ideological and political values ??and norms governing the political life of the members of the society. The concept of "political system" refers to a characteristic of the specific structure of the society and political activity relationships and types of political process.

The central element of the political system to serve the state, that it carries out its main function - authoritarian distribution of values. Isolate its most essential features.

Firstly, it is society's ability to integrate the presence of social differences caused by their conflict of interests. The state operates primarily in the field of general interest. If it comes out of this area, then it ceases to be a State does not fulfill its function, authoritative regulation of social relations.

Secondly, the state - it is the authority of social coercion, actively using sanctions - rewards and punishments.

Third, among the norms of particular importance the government attaches to the right, to the laws.

Fourth, it is the public nature of state power, the professionalization of the general case management, voluntary or compulsory transfer of state agencies and their employees the authority to control others.

Fifth, the government operates within a specific and clearly limited political space. It has geographical limits: the territory covered by his power, and the limits of human: it covers citizens - Member States with respect thereto legally binding rights and obligations.

Main body

The theory of social system

The creators of the theory of political systems are American scientists T. Parsons, D.Iston, G. Almond.

Parsons notes the mobility of the boundaries of the political system. For example, on election day, or times of emergencies political system boundaries are expanded and everything is subordinated to the center settings. His major works- "The Structure of Social Action" (1937), "Social System" (1951), "Towards a general theory of action" (1956), "The theory of action and human existence" (1978). The aim of the exercise is to search for the construction of the theoretical system, encompassing human reality in all its diversity. He sees society as an infinite number of interactions of people, in which there are aspects of the relatively stable (structure) having specific roles and values (functions). We also introduce the notion of process - pair to the concept of structure. The function connects the structure and process, and sets their value to the system. The system has two orientation axes: the first shows whether the events surrounding the system is focused on the environment, or internal problems; second - whether the system responds to the immediate needs and long-term interests. Imposing one axle to another provides a set of four basic functions system- adaptation tseledostizheniya, integration and maintenance of the sample (in this case we are talking about the political system). Created by Parsons structural-functional method has been successfully used modern political science.

In theory, Easton are the two main functions of the political system:

- The distribution of values in the society;

- Urge their citizens to accept this distribution for granted.

Almond sees the role of the political system as the guiding force of society, which is carried out by means of the threat or use of legitimate physical coercion.

Gabriel Almond singled out a number of functions to save the system:

· Political socialization - the acquisition by man of political knowledge, values, adherence to standards of political behavior in the society, and so on.

· Adapting to the external and internal environment. Implemented through the training and selection of subjects of power.

· Responding to the signals coming from the outside and the inside of the system.

· The extraction function - are drawn resources from internal and external environment.

· Distributive function - coordination of interests of various groups within society.

· Regulatory function - management actions.

The political system is characterized by:

1. political ideology;

2. political culture;

3. political norms, traditions and customs.

The political system has the following functions:

1. conversion, the transformation of social demands into political decisions;

2. adaptation, adaptation of the political system to the changing conditions of social life;

3. mobilization of human and material resources (money, voters, etc.) in order to achieve political goals.

4. watchdog function - protection of the socio-political system, its original core values and principles;

5. foreign policy - the establishment and development of mutually beneficial relations with other countries;

6. consolidating - the coordination of collective interests and demands of different social groups;

7. Distribution - the creation and distribution of material and spiritual values;

It is clear that in any given society forms its own specific political system as its constituent elements - the traditions, institutions, political values, etc. - Different in different societies. Note that the policy - it is an open system, ie, It actively cooperates with other spheres of social life - economic, spiritual, social, influencing them and experiencing the impact of the response.

There are various reasons for allocation of the main elements of the political system. Consider the first of the classifications, which are allocated subsystems:

1. organizational and institutional - are organizations (social groups, revolutionary movements, etc.) and institutions - parliamentary, party, public service, judiciary, citizenship, presidency, etc .;

2. legal and regulatory - political, legal and moral norms, customs and traditions;

3. communicative - a relationship of communication and forms of interaction between the participants of the political process, as well as between the political system as a whole and society;

4. cultural and ideological - political ideas, ideology, political culture, political psychology.

Organizational and institutional subsystem

Political organization - organized group of people working together to achieve certain political goals, such as a political party; socio-political movement; initiative group of citizens nominating the candidate; public association that has an influence on public policy; cell of revolutionaries, etc. You can also select organizations that have political goals, but these goals are not central to them (for example, trade unions or the church). Finally, some organizations do not have clear political goals (such as mushroom club), but under certain conditions can act as political organizations.

The political institution - the more complex elements of the political system, which is a stable form of social interaction, which regulates a certain area of ??the political aspects of society. The Institute has an important function (or functions) that is relevant to the whole of society to form an ordered system of social roles and rules of engagement.

Examples of political institutions are parliamentary Institute of Civil Service, an executive institution, the institute president, presidency, monarchy, trial, citizenship, suffrage, political parties, etc. The main institution in the political system is the state.

Cultural and ideological subsystem

The cultural and ideological component of the political system includes political ideas, views, ideas, beliefs, and feelings of political actors. Conventionally, in the cultural and ideological component of the politico-psychological level, mainly concerning the behavioral aspects of policy can be allocated, and the political-ideological level, focusing on political theory.

Political psychology is focused on the behavior of individuals, groups and societies, as well as their motivation, moods, opinions, feelings, emotions, beliefs, misconceptions, etc. Of particular importance here are the crowd psychology, charisma leader manipulation of mass consciousness, etc.

Political ideology is a higher level and includes political ideas, concepts, theories, doctrines. Center for political and ideological level of a political culture.

Under the political culture to understand an integral part of the spiritual culture of mankind, including a set of political knowledge, values and behaviors, as well as the political language, symbols and traditions of statehood.

All the elements of the political system, while in constant interaction, contribute to the implementation of important social functions:

· identification of promising areas of social development;

· Optimization society movement towards your goals;

· allocation of resources;

· harmonization of interests of different stakeholders; familiarizing the citizens to actively participate in politics;

· development of norms and rules of behavior in society;

· control over the implementation of standards, laws and regulations;

· ensuring stability and security in society.

The political system includes the following institutions:

· the state and its organs;

· political parties;

· social and political movements;

· pressure groups or interest groups.

Sociology of political systems

political system sociology theory

The sociological interest in political systems is figuring out who holds the power in the relationship of the government and its people and how the government's power is used. There are three types of political systems that sociologists consider.


In authoritarian governments, the people have no power or representation and it is characterized by absolute or blind obedience to [formal] authority, as against individual freedom and related to the expectation of unquestioning obedience. The elite leaders handle all economic, military, and foreign relations. Dictatorships are examples of authoritarianism.

Totalitarianism is the most extreme form of authoritarianism because it controls all aspects of life including communication between citizens, censors the media, and threatens by means of terror.


A monarchy is a government controlled by a king or queen determined by a predisposed line of sovereignty. In the modern world there are two types of monarchies, absolute monarchies and constitutional monarchies. An absolute monarchy works like a dictatorship in that the king has complete rule over his country. A constitutional monarchy gives the royal family limited powers and usually works in accordance with an elected body of officials. Social revolutions of the 18th, 19th, and 20th century overthrew the majority of existing monarchies in favor of a more democratic governments and the rise of the middle class.


A democracy is a form of government in which the citizens create and vote for laws directly, or indirectly via representatives (representative democracy). The idea of democracy stems back from ancient Greece and the profound works of ancient academics. However, the presence of democracy does not always mean citizen's wishes will be equally represented. For example, in many democratic countries immigrants, and racial and ethnic minorities do not receive the same rights as the majority citizens.

There are different approaches to the study of the political system. The institutional approach is to determine the allocation and form the political system and society in the analysis of its elements. Functional approach associated with the consideration of the political system from the standpoint of its activities, the flow characteristics of the political process and the implementation of the political regime as a system as a whole and its individual institutions or groups of institutions. Regulatory approach reflects the feature of the functioning of the political system of society on the basis of the whole complex regulatory (customs, traditions, rules of law, ethics, corporate standards, and so on. The ideological approach reflects the characteristic views, ideas, views, or those of other researchers on the issue of existence of the political system of society, aimed at the formulation of a particular political theory. The communicative approach is an analysis of the political system from the standpoint of systemic linkages and relationships between the different institutions. As an independent approach in the literature highlighted the personal approach to the study of the political system, the more so in the philosophical understanding of the primary element of the system is the person, the essence of which - the totality of all social relations.

The operation of any system (economic, political, legal, and so on.) Ultimately determined man. People form the political system and are involved in the implementation of its capabilities, and they also make up the civil society that are affected by this political system, so its nature, type, form always bears the imprint of the influence of culture, traditions, people's psychology.

The inability of the political system of the implementation of its most important functions is its crisis: when the rules regulating political relations established in society by its members are not accepted as authoritative; state machine operations, a closed scope of its specific interest, is not conducive to the improvement of the social organism, and the structure of state institutions established in spite of the traditions and the historical experience of the people.

Depending on these factors, as well as the prevailing political regime, formed a variety of typology of political systems. You can select the basic model:

* Command - focused on the use of coercive, forceful methods in management;

* competitive - the main of which is the existence of a dominant opposition, confrontation of different political and social forces;

* socio conciliatory - aimed at maintaining social consensus and overcoming conflicts.

As a policy, and all its elements are undoubtedly under the influence of a strong national characteristics of the participating nations. Ethnicity - this is the most accessible and understood by citizens the basis for mass mobilization and collective action "

The natural expression of this factor is the diversity of national and state political systems, their dependence on political experience, historical and cultural traditions of peoples, the main participants in the political life and state building.

The state is an integral part of the political system of society, as the largest and most stable political entity it gives political system integrity and stability. The state occupies a central place in the political system, as it has the following properties: - acting as a single, official representative of the whole people; -is the only bearer of sovereignty; - It has a special apparatus intended for the management of society; - Has the power structures; - Has a monopoly on law-making; - It has a specific set of material values (state property, budget, currency, etc...).

Along with the government a special place in the political system is right as an important social institution. The role of law in the political system of society is: -- to provide a means of communication between the society and its political system taken by the state through laws; -- accumulates the will of the society, all political forces; -- integrates society, makes the political system is stable; -- establishes the legal form of organization, functioning and change of state government, ways and methods of political struggle in all available this society's political forces; -- legalizes in legal acts of subjects of political system, which must work in their framework. Any state using the law in one degree or another tries to regulate the processes of formation and functioning of political parties in the Republic of Kazakhstan for this purpose adopted the Law "On political parties" of July 15, 2002. Through participation in political parties and public political movements, the citizens exercise their political activities.

Political activity is activity associated with the struggle for the interests (particularly economic interests) of large social groups -- classes, Nations, peoples and other social communities, In the constitutions of democratic States enshrine the principles of free formation of political parties, multiparty system, political pluralism. The idea of political pluralism is that in society there are diverse interests and, consequently, they Express different parties which compete for power and for votes. In political science literature the political party is defined as the most active and organized part of the social layer or class, formulating and expressing their interests.


The political system of society - a holistic, ordered set of political institutions, political roles, relationships, processes, principles of political organization of society, subordinate to the Code of political, social, legal, ideological, cultural norms, historical traditions and attitudes of the political regime of a particular society. The political system includes the organization of political power, the relationship between society and the state, characterized by the flow of political processes, including the institutionalization of power, the state of political activity, the level of political creativity in the society, the nature of political participation, non-institutional political relations.

The political system is one of the parts or subsystems of the total social system. It interacts with the other subsystems: social, economic, ideological, ethical, legal, and cultural image of its social environment, its public resources, along with its natural environment and natural resources (demographic, spatial and territorial), as well as foreign policy weapon.

As a policy, and all its elements are undoubtedly under the influence of a strong national characteristics of the participating nations. Ethnicity - this is the most accessible and understood by citizens the basis for mass mobilization and collective action "

The natural expression of this factor is the diversity of national and state political systems, their dependence on political experience, historical and cultural traditions of peoples, the main participants in the political life and state building.







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