Application of digital education resources in teaching computer science
Theoretical aspects of the application digital education resources in teaching computer science according to the capabilities of electronic programs. Capabilities of tools Microsoft Office and Macromedia Flash. Application of the program Microsoft Excel.
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Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan
Kazakh State Women Pedagogical University
Physics and Mathematics Faculty
The Department of "Computer Science and Applied Mathematics"
Theme: Application of Digital Education Resources in Teaching Computer Science
Digital educational resources and their types for presentation and content
Digital educational resources is a product used for educational purposes for playback which need a computer. Dynamically developing information technologies provide new, effective complement to traditional means of the educational process, which many teachers all the more willing to shall include on their methodical system. Using the DER provides new possibilities for increase the efficiency of the educational process. DER - operative means of visual in training, help in Drills of practical abilities of pupils in the organization and conduct of the survey and monitoring of students, as well as monitoring and evaluation of homework in the work with schemas, tables, graphs, symbols, etc., in editing and correcting errors in the creative works of the students. The use of DER in education allows teachers to qualitatively change the content, methods and organizational forms of education. Being improved tools pedagogical activities, improve the quality and effectiveness of training. DER have many advantages over traditional means of education:
The purpose of digital educational resources is to strengthen the intellectual capacity of students in the information society, as well as improving the quality of education at all levels of the educational system. The following main pedagogical objectives of DER:
- Intensification at all levels of the educational process due to application of modern information technology (improving the efficiency and quality of the learning process, deepening intersubject connections, increase and optimize the search of necessary information, increasing the activity of cognitive activity);
- The development of the individual student, the preparation of an individual to a comfortable life in the information society (the development of different kinds of thinking, the development of communicative abilities, aesthetic education through the use of computer graphics, multimedia technology, the formation of information culture, abilities to process information).
At the stages of the lesson when the principal teaching operations and control is transferred to the computer, the teacher is able to observe, fix display of such qualities in students, as awareness of the search target, active reproduction of previously studied knowledge and interest in replenishing lacking knowledge of ready sources on your own. This allows the teacher to design their own activity on management and the gradual development a creative attitude to the teaching of students. Filing standards for testing of course for Action (through job training or software), providing analysis of the causes of errors can gradually teach students self-monitoring and self-correcting learning and cognitive activity that must be present at each lesson. The mentioned DER can facilitate the identification, development of his abilities, forming skill and desires to learn. According to the purposes of application DER in the educational process and their opportunity to distinguish the following types DER:
- Digital Library - a distributed information system that allows reliably and effective use of heterogeneous collections electronic documents (electronic publications containing pieces of literature, manuals, etc.);
- Library of electronic of visual aids - a handbook in which the content is passed through a set of multimedia components, reflecting the objects, processes and phenomena in a given subject area;
- Electronic Encyclopedia - a manual containing a great information on various fields, embracing certain areas of knowledge. Editions provided with an abundance of illustrations, video and audio fragments, animations and three-dimensional models.
- Tutors, simulators workshops is a teaching and methodical complex able to prepare yourself for classes, exams, to objectively evaluate their knowledge;
- Multimedia tutorials - a software and methodical complex, providing opportunity of independent or with the participation of teacher learning course or a large section with a computer;
- Virtual Lab - a learning system allows the subject experiments, including those whose holding in the school is difficult, require additional equipment or is too costly.
Convectional DER include:
photographic reproductions of paintings, monuments and sculptures;
images of the world;
table (explanatory, comparative, generalizing);
scheme; diagrams, graphs, maps;
interactive tables, figures, maps, charts;
text defining concepts, processes and phenomena;
mathematical and chemical formulas;
mathematical and chemical equations;
text comments to the described processes and phenomena;
text that duplicates the content of the textbook;
text, supplementing textbook content;
fragments of literary works;
critical articles, historical documents;
animation processes, animation of natural phenomena, events, social events;
audio lectures, speech fragments of personalities;
audio-video fragments phenomena, processes, and events;
The tool is a learning activity include:
The programmed DER consists of:
models of processes;
models of natural phenomena;
models of laboratory work;
models of experiments;
Pedagogical tools of digital educational resources.
The use of DER at lessons possible in various forms:
- Interactive (interaction) - alternately utterance (from release the information to the performed action to) of each of the parties. And each utterance is given as a previous own and statements of another party;
- Multimedia - presentation of resources and processes are not the traditional text description, and using photos, video, graphics, animation, sound;
- Modeling - simulation of real resources and processes for the study;
- communicativeness of - the ability to directly communicate, the rapid provision of information, monitoring of the process;
- Productivity - automation uncreative, routine operations, a person taking away a lot of energy and time. Quick search by key words in the database, access to unique publications for reference information character.
Universal technology of DER does not exist. Each author uses its own technology. This topic is intended some basic principles that can be adapted to the creation of an electronic textbook of any kind. Create DER depends on such factors as the didactic purpose, knowledge of the subject, the type of subjects (technical very different from the humanities), existing facilities, etc. When creating DER have to face the two polar views on the methodology of their creation. The first of them is the fact that the author is sufficient properly prepare necessary materials, and translate them into computer form will not make particular problem. According to the second view, the skilled programmer can take any conventional textbook and without the help of the author to make him an effective educational tool. In the first case, an absolute content part, in the second of its software realization.
Production stages DER
the content of stage
Formulation of the original idea Evaluation of existing elements
Collection of necessary information
The needs analysis Highlight important didactic purpose
Justification of the need and the new things that will make a product compared to conventional print training manual
Isolation of a of didactic purpose
Presentation of content in the form of modules
Development of the general concept
The choice of media (audio, images, video, etc.)
Detail design + interactivity connection
Programming and content digitizing
Creating images, sound, etc.
The layout of finished materials the modules
Testing and evaluation of the product
Preliminary training includes the following stages:
- Elaboration of didactic requirements of DERs;
- It is an analysis of needs, which includes the specifics of the direction of the group of potential students and the objectives of the course - on the results of this analysis, the decision to form DER;
- Elaboration of technical requirements for DER;
- need to make sure that the chosen technology can realize that this is a means;
- Development of structure of of DERs;
Under preparation the content in the first place created script. Sometimes it is provided with illustrations explaining the instructions. The script imply thinking through the organization of interactive, interaction between the learner and the computer, students and teachers, other students.
Possible functional composition software subsystems DER might look like this:
- Units of educational material (which includes tasks for self-control and record-set of different species);
- Additional materials (from contextual decryption of the terms to normative base and e-library);
- Service tools (help for the tutorial, a dictionary, a glossary, an electronic organizer, search, etc.);
- Communication System (providing student-teacher interaction);
- The protective system. Preparation phase content and programming is usually alternate.
In the design DER specified of the overall structure DER and creates a detailed script. This process consists of two steps: creating the overall concept and design of each individual part. The general concept defines the overall style and atmosphere of the course, the navigation structure, feedback from students, the selection buttons for navigation, etc. It is important to initially specify the look and structure did not undergo significant change during development. Changes made at the later stages, are sources of program errors, creating additional work hours. Detailed design defines the detailed development of the course content, the appearance of each window, and context menus. It is easier to make changes at this stage than in the overall concept. In any case, every change must be recorded in writing.
Testing DER is on each phase of production to the final product coincides with the intended didactic purposes. It is also important technical testing program directed at identifying software bugs.
Final testing DER should be in the experimental groups under the direct supervision of developers. Its goal:
- Check the operation of all the functional modules of the training program in real mode (not observed if the program hangs, how fast it works etc);
- To reveal previously unnoticed errors in the presentation of educational material and software implementation;
- Evaluate effectiveness of the organization DER interface, fixing what causes difficulties for students when working with it;
- To save the results of a database of test items for checking their validity.
Requirements for the DER in teaching science
Digital educational resources must meet the following substantive requirements:
match the content and structure of a specific textbook;
ensure a new quality of education, to focus on the modern forms of education, high interactivity, students strengthening of self-learning;
provide the ability level differentiation and individualization of instruction (this applies to the level of subject formation of skills and knowledge and intellectual skills and general);
consider age psycho-educational characteristics of students and differences in the cultural experience of students;
contain content that is meant to work with the information provided in various forms (graphs, tables, composite and original texts of various genres, video sequences, etc.);
contain bundle of tasks (such as training and diagnostic character) focused primarily on ingenious ways solutions;
offer learning activities that guide students the acquisition experience in dealing life (including domestic) problems based on the knowledge and skills mastered in the framework of the subject;
ensure the organization of learning activities, it requires the use of independent forms of group and individual research, forms and methods of the project organization of the educational process;
options include planning of the educational process, which should involve a modular structure that allows to implement an agreed upon division by teaching subjects, classes and subjects.
For valuable work with complete sets of DER must have one or more computer classes for 10-15 people (connected to the school network and the Internet), the projector. Desirable also a scanner and a printer, digital camera and camcorder. In the absence of this technique you can get ligament computer + projector, camera and video successfully replace the mobile phone.
Some of the main technical systems:
- The server and the local network - the organization of a single school space;
- The computer - the main tool the teacher or student, means of demonstrating educational facilities and interactive work with them;
- Projector and screen - a means of demonstrating the educational objects of different nature in the audience;
- Scanner (complete with character recognition software) - input means a teacher or student paper, not in the database;
- Digital photo and video camera - the writer and the teacher or students entering their results.
Set of DER enables the teacher to use an electronic edition in different ways depending on the configuration of school office:
one computer + projector class:
- Demonstration of the individual teacher multimedia objects on the topic;
- Demonstration teacher multimedia presentations on lessons (15 - 20 minutes of the lesson);
- "Live" demonstration of teachers different ways to solve problems;
- Use a computer at school (students) response at the board (in particular, demonstrating prepared from media - objects DER presentation);
two students - one computer:
- Frontal laboratory works;
- Group research assignments;
- Group creative task;
- Online training solutions to the problem;
one student - one computer:
- Virtual laboratory practice;
- Individual research assignments;
- Individual creative activity;
- Online training solutions to the problem;
- Computer testing.
Capabilities of tools Microsoft Office and programs of Macromedia Flash to create DER
The common name of software intended to constitute, editing and formatting of simple and text documents - word processors.
Microsoft Word (often - MS Word, WinWord or just Word) - is a word processor for creating, viewing and editing text documents, with local application of the simplest forms of table-matrix algorithms. Word processor, is published by Microsoft as part of Microsoft Office. The first version was written by Richard Brodie (Richard Brodie) for the IBM PC, using DOS, in 1983. Although MS-DOS and OS is a text devoid of GUI, Word for DOS was the first word processor for the IBM PC, which was able to display the layout of text, such as bold or italic text in the editing process. However, he still was not in the full sense of the WYSIWYG-editor.
Others word processors, such as WordStar and WordPerfect, used simple text screen the markup codes, sometimes the text has been colored. The ensuing versions added features that go beyond simple word processor. Drawing tools allow you to perform primitive operations of the layout, such as adding graphics into a document, although, of course, specialized programs for layout better cope with these tasks. Embedding, comparing versions of a document, multilanguage support and many other features have been added over the subsequent few years. Word processor Microsoft Word can be seen as a means of automating the activities of the author. When using this program should be clearly defined the target document electronic or printed.
For different types of documents use different tools, techniques and methods.
Microsoft Excel is designed to work with data tables, mostly of numerical. In forming the table you are writing, editing, and formatting text and numeric data, and formulas. The presence means of automation facilitates the operations. Computing in the program are done by Excel formulas. A formula can contain numeric constants, cell references and functions Excel, coupled signs of mathematical operations. Typically use the formulas in this program is that if the value of the cell is really dependent on other cells in the table, you should always use the formula, even if the operation is easy to perform in the "mind." This ensures that subsequent editing table without disturbing its integrity and correctness of computing made in it.
Microsoft Power Point program is to produce effective and visual presentations. Using the «Power Point» in the making of the presentation is the best way for dealing with a large audience. With all functions of the program, you can easily make a presentation, and most importantly, using the power of this program you will be able to attract the attention of every member of your audience. The system demonstration program allows to quickly and easily prepare presentation material of any complexity.
Document Microsoft Power Point - is the presentation. It consists of individual slides. On the screen you can display them in different modes, which have different meanings.
Application of programs Microsoft Word to create DER
Microsoft Word program is very easy to use. Make up tests, crossword puzzles, tests, lab work, quizzes, and other OPC is easy, just know this program at the elementary level. For example, to make a crossword, you should be able to draw the table and typing. Therefore, the teacher can give the students as a separate task to create a crossword puzzle or a quiz, and then use them in other lessons. Thus, the teacher develops creative thinking, intellectual acumen and logic, forms of independent work skills, has the ability of individual performance. In a table, I gave the example of a crossword puzzle, made 10th grade student. Tests listed in my table, is also very easy to compose, but minus the tests made in the program Microsoft Word is that the computer can not check them myself and give the result, and the teacher should check and evaluate yourself. Also in my table provides reference work, which includes 17 questions. Assignments are available in different forms, with a choice of one of four answers, with dopisaniem definitions, etc. Quiz made in Microsoft Word, also represents a set of tasks of various kinds.
In this program, you can also create modules. The purpose of the module: the formation of the knowledge and skills of information retrieval - acts, methods and procedures to carry out the selection of certain information from the dataset. Education within the module is implemented in cooperation with the teacher. Teacher - not the only source and "translator" of knowledge, he - consultant, organizer, judge. Modules are components of electronic textbook.
This allows the DER to teach difficult material is available. Text, the teacher pronounced and written on a computer monitor, is seen in several senses, which helps students with different types of memory learn the material. Symbols, definitions, allocated under the underlined words can focus on important things. This module is in electronic form has advantages over paper in that the partition is not necessary to search through the pages, simply click the button to find necessary. This is especially useful for independent decision problems: after each section are approximate solution of problems, if necessary, you can quickly find the desired information.
Application of the program Microsoft Excel to create DER
In Microsoft Excel, you can create many different DER. This program convenient for teachers that can be considered the result and give an assessment on the set teacher standards. In my classification, I gave examples of the test on computer on Microsoft Excel. You must select one option out of four. After the test you need to press the "result". The computer will show the percentage of assignments and evaluation, based on a percentage. Neither the students during the test or the teacher checking does not take much forces but make the tests more difficult than in Microsoft Word, because the basic knowledge of the program will not be enough to produce tests. For his lesson, I was and used for securing the schoolbooks and clarify the gaps in students' knowledge of terminology dictation on "Algorithms". Dictation is a short task, implemented in a form that the student give a short simple answer. Once the answer is given, the student must press «Enter», and in front of the answer will be written "true" or "mistake." To consolidate of the schoolbooks, to determine the gaps in students' knowledge can be used, quizzes made in Microsoft Excel. In the example I gave a quiz where you have to to guess the all the terms on ICT correctly, then the letters in the selected cells can be chosen to make the names of personalities in the field of computer. You can use the puzzles. I cited the example of numerical puzzles made in the program Microsoft Excel. In these problems, instead of letters must substitute numbers so that these equalities hold. The same letter should always correspond to the same numbers, different letters - different numbers. DER dignity, created in this program is that they allow you to accelerate the pace of the lesson, the teacher had more time checking the knowledge, skills form the self, eliminate subjective evaluation, increase motivation and interest in learning.
Pic. 1 - Test in Microsoft Excel
education microsoft office program
Pic 2. - Terminological dictation in Microsoft Excel
Application of the program Microsoft Office Power Point to create DER
The program Microsoft Office Power Point is traditionally used as a instrumental environment to prepare presentations. Multimedia presentation - one of the most effective methods of training in the classroom, a powerful pedagogical tool that goes beyond the traditional class - lesson system.
Textual material using animations allow compact distribute educational material, reduce the time of presentation of new material in class, use the released time to consolidate and exercise. At the lesson was given so much information and the types of work that would be impossible in the classroom without DER. For example, to explain and consolidate the new material have been proposed research, best practices, challenges for personal study, information was presented historical character. Animation allowed accessible and interesting to describe difficult to grasp the material. For example, students looking slides 3-7, quickly realized the differences in the management of direct and feedback, visual laconic text helped to remember properties of the algorithm and type of algorithm. Demonstration and graphics, charts, graphs, figures, tables clearly showed the benefits of writing instruction in the form of an algorithm. Research problems in the animations allow not get lost in the verbal presentation and think logically even weaker students and the practical problems orient the student to gain experience solving life (including domestic) problems.
Thus, the DER will help the following educational objectives:
A) the organization of training activities, involving significant use of forms of independent research group and individual activities;B) a qualitative understanding of programming material;
B) the content of materials-oriented work with the information provided in various forms (graphs, tables, composite and original texts of various genres;
C) in a compact presentation of educational material, free up time to consolidate and exercise;
D) the availability and visibility of the material under study;
-consider the individual characteristics of students and differences in the cultural experience of students;
-raise interest in the subject; In my practice.
Also in this program is to create educational games. The goal - the formation and development of skills and abilities of students. On the table, see the example of an educational game "Jeopardy" It can be used for extra-curricular activities. The essence of the game is the following: a table, on which the four topics in computer science, and the player can choose any. Next to each topic are points, the higher the score, the more difficult question. Selecting a theme and score on the monitor, there is a question, a participant answers it. After answering the monitor displays the correct answer. If it is a replay player, the participant earns selected points and selects the next grade or subject, and if not, then, the transition to the next. The winner is the one who scored the most points.
This game can also be used to secure the material studied, because after seeing the correct answer, the participant remember.
Pic. 3 - Puzzles in the program Power Point
Pic. 4 - Playing "Jeopardy" in the program Power Point
The use of data DER in extracurricular work will increase the interest in the subject, the desire to work independently.
Application of the program Flash to create DER
In the program Macromedia Flash can do some very interesting DER. In addition to the test (see Figure 8), puzzles, crosswords can make video tutorials and demonstrate sound. Video tutorial provide a visual representation of the possibilities of teaching lessons on the basis of new information technologies.
But to do in Flash DER difficult as it is necessary to own programming language and takes time. But if you apply the DER in the workbench, the lesson will be more interesting and brighter.
The technology to create video tutorials put non-linear editing, which allows to show the dynamics of all the stages of the lesson, focus on teaching methods of solving problems of teaching. The individual pieces of video tutorials can also be used as a demonstration on real classroom.
Pic. 5 - Tests in the program Macromedia Flash
To date, one of the promising areas in the teaching of computer science can be an integrated approach to the use DER in the classroom. Typology allows the DER on the one hand, the student demonstrate the formation of key concepts, on the other hand, the most active part in this process. The use of DER in the learning process - is an attempt to offer one of the ways that allow to intensify the learning process, optimize it, to raise the interest of the pupils to study the subject, to realize the idea of developmental education, increase the rate of a lesson, to increase independent work. DER promotes logical thinking and culture of mental labor, the development of skills of independent work of students, and has a significant impact on the motivational sphere of the educational process, its activity-structure.
During the lesson, using DER teacher organizes the lesson and the consultant. DER does not replace the teacher or the textbook, but fundamentally change the nature of teaching activities. Introduction DER in the learning process enhances the teacher provides it in ways that allow us to solve the problem is not solved earlier, for example:
-improvement in the organization of teaching, increasing individualization of education (up to work with each student);
-DER can help where the teacher does not have time to address the gaps that have arisen because of missed classes;
Self-productivity increase after school;
-means of individualization of the teacher (ERC - the repository of the results of creative activity of the teacher:
-created interesting assignments and exercises - all that is missing in standard textbooks and that is valuable to other teachers);
-speeds up replication and access to everything that has been accumulated in teaching practice.
The introduction of new information and communication technologies in the modern educational process will help make better preparation of students. That is why it is important to be able to create the most DER teacher. The table shows the typology DER that the active role DER in education is that they not only serve as the tools used to address certain pedagogical problems, but also stimulate the development of didactics and methodology facilitating the creation of new forms of teaching and learning that can significantly improve the quality of student learning.
List of references
1. Avdeev S. Digital resources in education [about the project "Informatization of education" and the creation of a single collection of digital educational resources] Education. - 2008.
2. AI shoes The development of computer training and training systems / AI Shoes, IA Shoes - M. Filin, 2003.
3. Buhantseva NV. Electronic resources: technology development and cooperation, NV Buhantseva and M of Education and Science of Russia. Federation Gos.obrazovat. Institutions of higher. prof. Education, Volgogr. state. Univ.
4. Derevnina A. Principles of Electronic Textbooks / A. Derevnina, MB Koshelev Open Education. - 2001.
5. Zaynutdinova LH The creation and application of e-books (for example, technical disciplines) LH Zaynutdinova. - Astrakhan: Publishing house "TSNTEP", 1999.
6. Informatics. Basic Course / SimonovichS.V. etc. - St. Petersburg: Publishing House "Peter", 2000.
7. Kuklev VA Experience in the development and application of digital educational resources from computerized tutorial via the mobile network technology education // Computer Studies. programs and innovations. - 2006.
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