Features of evaluation and self-esteem of children of primary school age
The problem of evaluation, self-assessment of personality as a psychological category. Factors of formation evaluation and self-esteem of children of primary school age. An experimental study of characteristics evaluation and self-esteem of junior pupils.
|Размер файла||28,6 K|
Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже
Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
The formation of a socially active, moral, realizing their individual abilities - the main objectives of education, successful solution of which depends on the direction and pace of reform of school life. One of the urgent problems facing teachers of the modern school is a psychological-pedagogical dualism with regard to developing personality - training and education is not always based on knowledge about the psychology of child development and the formation of his personality.
Analyzing the various studies should be noted that the central feature of any individual is a self-assessment, which is relatively stable and conscious system of ideas of personality about himself, on the basis of which a person builds a relationship to itself and its interaction with other people.
Part and parcel of the assessment is self-esteem. Self-assessment - assessment of the personality itself, its appearance, the place among other people, its qualities and capabilities. Self-esteem is a core backbone of individual personality, which largely determines the position of human life, the level of its claims, the entire system of ratings. Self-esteem affects the formation of a style of behavior and human activity. In other words, self-esteem largely determines the dynamics and direction of development of the subject.
The age of educational psychology and primary school age has a special place: in this age mastered learning activities, formed the arbitrariness of mental functions, there are reflection, self-control, and the actions begin to relate to the internal plan.
Learning activity is one of the most important factors influencing the formation of self-esteem of children of primary school age, so primary school teacher should know the psychological characteristics of younger students and take into account the individual characteristics of assessment in the learning process, carrying out individual and differentiated approach to learning.
The purpose of this course is to study the features of evaluation and self-esteem of children of primary school age.
The object of study: personal sphere junior student.
Subject of research: assessment of the specifics and self-education of schoolchildren.
1. Explore self-esteem as a psychological category.
2. Identify the factors shaping evaluation and self-esteem of children of primary school age.
3. Produce an experimental study of the problem.
4. Analyze the results.
Based on the tasks the author picked up a few techniques for writing this course work: firstly, this is a theoretical analysis of the psychological and educational literature on the problem under consideration, and secondly, empirical observation, interviews, diagnostic techniques, as well as static methods of data processing.
Chapter 1. The problem of evaluation and self-esteem in modern psychology
1.1 Self-assessment of personality as a psychological category
The concept of self-esteem was included in the dictionary Russian teacher - in the early 80's. But the study of the psychological structure was carried out long ago.
What is self and what role it plays in mental life of children of primary school age?
Self-esteem - is the result, the final product of self-consciousness, is a system of representations of a person about himself, which includes three components.
The first component - the words, usually adjectives, to which we resort to describe the features of his character, the composite personality traits. For example, "sociable", "cunning", "strong", "patient", etc.
The second component - self-esteem, emotional - affective score of the representation that we make about yourself.
The third component - the behavioral response, ie specific actions that can be called as "I" and self-esteem.
According to Robert Burns, self-esteem includes the following three components:
Cognitive component - the presentation of the child about himself, as a rule, seem to him convincing in their opinion, whether they are true or false. Describing some man, we usually resort to using adjectives: "reliable," "sociable," "strong," "conscientious," etc. All these abstract characteristics that are not linked to specific events or situations. As elements of the generalized image of the individual they represent, on the one hand, the stable trend in his behavior, but on the other - the selectivity of our perception. The same thing happens when we describe ourselves: we try to express in words the main characteristics of our self - perception. They can transfer up to infinity, since they include any attribute, role, status, and psychological characteristics of an individual, a description of the property, life goals, etc. The significance of the elements of self and their respective hierarchies may vary depending on the context of life experience of an individual or just a spur of the moment. This kind of self - is a way to characterize the uniqueness of each individual through a combination of individual features.
Estimated component - the qualities that we ascribe to the self, are not necessarily objective, and probably they were not always willing to accept other people. It may be that only age, sex, height, occupation and some other data with sufficient cogency, not cause controversy.
For the most part trying to describe myself, as a rule, there is a strong personality, the estimated time. In other words, self-esteem - is not just a statement, a description of his personality traits, but also the totality of their performance appraisal and related experiences. Even such seemingly objective indicators such as growth or age, can different people have different meanings due to the overall structure of their self-esteem.
If a person has an unattractive appearance, physical disabilities, is socially inadequate (even if it is only a guess) that accompany it in any interaction with the social environment. In this case, to the development of positive self-esteem may cause serious difficulties. Even emotionally neutral at first glance, the characteristics of self typically contain open assessment. Think about any of the characteristics of your self, you are likely in each of them will be able to detect at least a light shade of evaluation, sometimes existing only on the periphery of consciousness.
Man learns the meaning of the evaluation of various characteristics that are present in his self-esteem. In this case, the assimilation of new assessments may change and the importance of lessons before. For example, a student who successfully passing grades, considers himself an apt pupil. He was proud and pleased with myself, because it is recognized by others: his success is the positive reaction of teachers who meet the support of family and generally have a favorable social impact. However, this positive self-esteem can be shaken as a result of failure in examinations, or if in a circle of peers the value of performance will be put into the background with some other values, say sporting achievements. In addition, as they grow older is capable student can find that academic success in themselves do not bring happiness and do not guarantee success in other situations. In this case, the total self-esteem can be reduced, but generally remain positive. Thus, self-esteem is not constant, it varies depending on the circumstances.
The source estimates different views of the individual currently is its socio-cultural environment in which they are fixed in the language of normative values. For example, the word "boring", "fat", "lazy" contain inherent negative evaluation, while the "smart", "bold", "reliable" - positive. Source of evaluative representations of an individual may be the social reaction to some of its manifestations and introspection.
Self-esteem manifests itself in conscious judgments of the individual, in which he tries to formulate its significance. However, as was shown, it is implicitly or explicitly present in any self-description. Any attempt to characterize themselves contain evaluative element defined by generally accepted standards, criteria and objectives, ideas about levels of achievement, moral principles, rules of conduct, etc.
Behavioral component - the fact that people do not always behave in accordance with their beliefs, is well known. Often direct and immediate expression in the behavior of the installation is modified or completely constrained by its social unacceptability, moral scruples of the individual or his fear of possible consequences. For example, a teenager who considers himself a man of firm and severe, can not manifest such qualities of character in relation to their classroom teacher.
Every plant - it's an emotionally tinged beliefs associated with a particular object. Feature of self-esteem as a complex of facilities is only in the fact that the object in this case is itself the installation media. With this samonapravlennosti all the emotions and the estimates are very strong and resilient.
Development and complication of the system self-assessment system of self-awareness continues in the future. It passes through several phases, stages, and each new step adds something new to our 'I', make it more complicated.
Soviet psychologists view self-consciousness of the person as a party, as a product of its development, generated by all her vital functions. Self-esteem, and self-consciousness as a whole, has a social character and is due to social conditions.
Studies show that the criteria by which assess the quality of the individual in society and on which he evaluates the quality of others, and apply them toward himself. Stressing the determination of self-identity social relations, SL Rubinstein wrote: "Public assessment of rights is based with us ... its socially useful work ... on the fact that he represents and what it gives. Therefore, his self-esteem is determined by what he does as a public individual to society. This new ... attitude to work is the backbone on which rebuilds the entire personality psychology, it also becomes the foundation and core of its identity ".
Self-esteem - is a complex dynamic personal education, personal parameters of mental activity. Initial methodological guidelines for researchers self-esteem is the classic situation of Karl Marx that "people first looked like a mirror in the other person. Only treated the man as Paul, to their own kind, man Peter refers to himself as a man. "
According to LI Bozovic, knowledge of another is not only faster than the knowledge itself, but also serves as the source of his and support. Comparison, the comparison yourself with others is a recognized criterion of self-esteem. Comparing yourself with other people in the normal course of business, the man notices a fact that the first notice of others, and as a result of coming to realize their actions and activities, properties and qualities of personality. Occurs a kind of transfer of various properties of the individual. Podmechennyh another man for himself.
This is confirmed by the results of psychological research.
The most important source of self-assessment is the assessment of people around the results of human behavior and activities, as well as directly to the qualities of his personality. According to Bozhovich, public perception has a dual role in shaping student identity. "First, as to the eligibility criteria requirements of his behavior around, she would indicate the person on the nature of his relationship with the environment, and thereby determines his emotional well-being, his behavior and his attitude to himself as the subject of behavior. Second, the public perception helps an individual to allocate a particular quality of the specific behaviors and activities and make it a subject of consciousness assessment of the man himself ".
Formed during the entire life of personality, self esteem, in turn, performs an important function in its development, supports the regulator various activities and human behavior. According to DB Elkonin already have children of preschool age control his behavior becomes an "internal mechanism". The child begins to regulate his conduct through its relation to themselves, their abilities.
Self-esteem depends on their shape (adequate, overstated, understated) can stimulate or, conversely, inhibit the activity of man. Inadequate, low self-esteem reduces the level of social rights claims, fosters uncertainty in their own ability, limits the life prospects of people. Such self-esteem can be accompanied by a severe emotional breakdown, internal conflict, etc. Low self-esteem and harms to society, because people do not fully realizing its power and capabilities, not working at full capacity.
Of human self-esteem depends on the nature of his communication, relationships with others, the success of its activities, further development of his personality. Adequate self-esteem makes a person moral satisfaction. Self-esteem, especially ability and opportunity to the person, expresses a certain level of aspiration, defined as the level of the tasks that the person poses a life and for the fulfillment of which considers itself capable of. Level of aspiration of man and, consequently, the nature of his self-esteem clearly identified in various situations of choice, as in difficult situations and in daily activities in community work. Failure or success of the most acutely experienced in the activities that the person believes themselves to the fundamentals, where he has high aspirations.
Self-esteem - the result of constant comparison of what a person observes himself, that he sees in other people, and at the same time so that, as he suggests, see it as others.
Disbursement self can only be done conditionally, since the real process of self-characterized their interaction, and unbroken affection.
The main tools and techniques of self-esteem include: self-observation, introspection, self-report, self-control comparisons.
The most important feature of the junior student self-assessment is its high level. This feature is the age norm for this period of personality development.
1.2 Factors of formation evaluation and self-esteem of children of primary school age
The child was in high school. This leads to a new routine of his day, gives rise to new responsibilities. From the need to learn each day follow many of the changes in the child's life. Need time to get up every day for homework, to bring to school all that is needed for employment. School life requires a child's ability to coordinate its actions with the requirements of teachers, with the routine of school life, with actions and desires of their classmates. Awareness of this new position is the restructuring of the child to much in his daily life. The idea that he was a schoolboy, forcing him to change his behavior in the one or the other. His motives are new - to be a good student, get praise teachers. School and generate new experiences - the desire and expectation of success and fear of failure. Younger pupils concerned about the comments the teacher, and he tries to make efforts to ensure that they were not. Children are usually willing to obey the new regime, agree with the requirements of parents of the regulations about employment, leisure, walks. Admission to the school puts the child in a new position in the family, among others, and change their attitude. The child appeared clear responsibilities - and with it are similar. The changed perception of the child and other people gradually affects the perception of itself.
In his life included new phenomenon: every day he learns, acquires new knowledge, acquire skills, numeracy.
Greatly influenced by his teacher, who gives knowledge. Checks and monitors their implementation, evaluate its validity, put a mark not only knowledge but also for diligence, for the behavior in the classroom and change. Teacher in the life of the younger students have a special place. His authority is recognized implicitly. He entrusted the secrets, joy and frustration.
The new role of the Child places special demands on their daily lives. He has come new ideas about how to behave on the street, what are his duties towards his comrades. However, there are ideas about their rights - the right to carry out any instruction at home, right on the mark for the assignment. Here is a little schoolboy desire to show his new position among the people actually exercise their new rights and obligations should be accounted for parents and educators.
In school the child meets the clear and expanded system of moral demands. Senior monitored to ensure that these requirements are adhered to and assimilated children - this is the way to the formation of their social orientation of the person.
"Appeal to the team" leads to the fact that younger students begin consciously to subordinate their awakening to the overall goals and objectives that stand in front of him and his peers, learns to control his behavior.
Changes in the moral sphere is connected with the emergence of a younger student's own attitudes, relationships, their own requirements and assessments. What changes occur in the junior student self-esteem? With the advent of new activities, with the emergence of new relationships with others in the child there and some new criteria for evaluation of measurements, like their comrades, and himself. Relying on the judgments of teachers, parents and friends, he evaluates himself - against all that is associated with the school. This does not mean that his estimates are correct - it is often the opposite. Score yourself rather speaks about the desires of the child than the actual state of affairs. Child - a first grader can be sure that he is a good student, as introduced in his work a lot of diligence and zeal. He and classmates began to assess not only from the standpoint of how they play during recess, but also in terms of their qualities as the students (who knows - maloznayuschy, active - passive). So in the life of a schoolboy new categories of phenomena and valued accordingly ratings. In the beginning, he realizes it's bad, but in his demeanor, his attitude to the facts of school life, in statements on a particular occasion is clearly identified.
Familiarization with the new phenomena of life around with the facts of human history, works of art with the natural world not only expand the children circle representations of reality. They have formed a definite relation to them.
In the formation of self-junior student huge impact is the role of teacher evaluation. The role of these influences on the formation of self-esteem of schoolchildren revealed in several studies in which the authors indicate the need to take into account the motives of students to teacher evaluation of their actions, reveal the complexity of the relations of students to teacher evaluation and the experiences it has caused, emphasize transforming the nature of educational evaluation, which affects the degree of awareness of the schoolboy's own level of development. The need for clarity, certainty educational evaluation. Even negative (fairly) estimate is more useful for self-esteem than the "vague estimate.
Internalizing the process of training and education specific norms and values, the child begins under the influence of value judgments of others (teachers, peers) to act a certain way as the real results of its training activities, and to yourself as a person. With age, he is more definitely distinguish between their actual accomplishments and what he could achieve, having a certain personal qualities. So the student in the educational process of forming plant to assess its capabilities - an essential component of self-esteem.
In the self-assessment reflected that the child learns about himself from others, and his own increasing activity aimed at understanding their actions and personal qualities.
Children in different ways relate to the tolerance of errors. Some of them, doing the job, carefully check it, others immediately give the teacher, others long overdue work, especially if it is control, afraid to let her out of hand. To the comment the teacher students react differently. Some are asked not to indicate where the error, and give them opportunity to find it and fix it. Others unconditionally agreeing with the teacher, humbly accept his help. Still others immediately try to justify reference to the circumstances. Attitude to mistakes, for their own blunders, shortcomings only in academics but also in behavior - most important indicator of self-identity.
Most naturally, as already noted, respond to errors in their work, children with proper self-esteem. They are usually even with the interest on their own looking for the error: Children with low self-esteem if they offer themselves to find a mistake, usually silently reread the work several times, nothing in it changing. Often they just throw up their hands and refuse to question themselves, arguing that still did not see it. As already mentioned, the child's self-esteem is reflected not only his attitude toward the already achieved but also how he wanted to be, its aspirations, hopes.
Self-evaluation of the child is found not only in how it evaluates itself, but also in how it relates to the achievements of others. Children with high self-esteem does not necessarily praise themselves, but they are willing to deny everything that others do. Students with low self-esteem, in contrast, tend to overestimate the achievement comrades.
A child is born into this world with some attitude. Like all the other features of personality, his self-esteem develops in the process of education, in which the main role belongs to the family and school.
Children with high self-esteem differed activity, desire to achieve success in both teaching and social work, and in games. Quite different behavior, children with low self-esteem. Their main feature - the self-doubt. In all its endeavors and affairs, they are just waiting for failure.
During the educational process in school is gradually increasing criticality, demands on himself. First-graders mostly positive assessment of its training activities, and failures associated only with the objective circumstances. Second graders, third graders in particular are currently more than critical, making the subject of evaluation is not only good but also bad things, not only the successes but also failures in the study.
Gradually increases and the independence of self-evaluation. If self-esteem of first-graders are almost entirely dependent on the ratings of their behavior and performance of teachers, parents, students second and third grades assessed in more independently, making it as we have said, the subject of critical assessment and evaluation activities of the teacher (always whether he is right, whether the objective ).
Throughout the school, already within the primary school, meaning a mark for a child varies considerably, while it is in direct connection with the motives of teaching, with requirements that he presents himself to the student. The child's relationship to the assessment of his achievements all the more and more associated with the need to have perhaps a more reliable representation of himself.
Consequently, the role of school assessments is not limited by the fact that they need to work on the cognitive activity of the student. Assessing the knowledge, the teacher, in essence, simultaneously evaluates the personality of its opportunities, its place among others. It is well perceived assessment of children. Focusing on the evaluation of teachers, they rank themselves and their comrades as honors average. Weak, or nestaratelnyh diligent, responsible or irresponsible, disciplined or undisciplined.
The main trend in the development of self-esteem is the gradual separation of the child or other qualities of the individual activities and behavior, generalization and comprehension of their first as behaviors, and then as a relatively stable personality traits.
The development of self-esteem in children, according to PT Chamaty, takes place in two phases: the first children, evaluating themselves, are limited mainly to evaluate their actions and deeds, and the second within the scope of self-assessment included the internal state and the moral qualities of the individual. Formation of a second, higher stage of self-esteem begins in adolescence and continues throughout life as the accumulation of social experience and to further intellectual development.
But the formation of a child a certain range of values ??is, of course, not only in school. The child draws them from books, from interviews with their relatives, their sources of information such as radio and television.
Part count carries a child for himself - an assessment of behavior and personality traits. Already after the first half of a first grader has a fairly distinct criteria for evaluating results of educational work. In this case revealed a pattern - first, the child formed the evaluation criteria and their application in relation to others, and then - and not in full uniform - to themselves.
Most children can and at the end of first year predrazobratsya as a man who find themselves in certain forms of behavior: strong, agile, quick, polite, rude, etc. But he finds it difficult to assess quality, which shows the inner relation of man to other people. Rate yourself in this regard, first grade is even more difficult. In regard to some of the qualities he generally finds it difficult to answer, and for those about whom he might have something to say, reveals the subjectivity and imprecision.
Constantly confronted with the estimates of the educational work and classmates, younger students begin to understand to some extent in their own abilities and educational opportunities. He develops a certain level of claims on the assessment of writing, oral responses, etc. Initially, the level of claims is sustainable, but then this level should be set at what is characteristic that it is sufficiently differentiated, depends on what the child is and how much it is for him significant.
Often, students there is a clear overestimation of their strength and capabilities. May receive a sense of conceit: unduly exaggerating its capabilities, student poses a problem, execute it can not. Inflated self-esteem is in contradiction with the assessment by other people, meets resistance band and can cause conflict in relationships with its members. In addition, multiple collision inadequate, excessive self-esteem with failures in practice gives rise to serious emotional breakdowns. Explicit re-evaluation of their capabilities are often accompanied by internal self-doubt, which leads to acute feelings and inappropriate behavior.
Internal conflict may cause a discrepancy between:
a) self-esteem and grades, which give a person the other people;
b) self and ideal self, which seeks to people.
In the formation of an adequate self-junior student may encounter the following problems:
The problem of growth: a student suffers from the fact that her height 170 cm It is above all in the classroom. The board goes hunched. Stooping. Each output - suffering. A child thinks in images. His self objectively and figurative. He sees himself among others the way his image has developed the "I". And if this image is endowed with negative traits, then conduct themselves, augmented by "bloated" and curved parts, very, very unattractive. This is a self-painted his own imagination ugly model gives the child physical pain.
The problem of appearance: it happens so that the child look after yourself: does not like his looks, hates their abilities - in general, weary of himself. This kind of reflectors negativism - a phenomenon quite frequently. And this negativity is born on the verge of positive qualities - a dissatisfaction. With the development of the individual junior student whiter accurate is his knowledge of himself, more correctly samoorientatsiya, improved ability to understand their abilities and capabilities, there is a desire to act in certain situations, relying not on the assessment of surrounding, and on their own self-esteem. At what self-esteem is not only more reasonable, but also captures a wider range of qualities.
Thus, the main factors influencing the formation of self-esteem of children of primary school age are estimated impact of teachers, parents, and their relation to training activities.
Learning activity is one of the most important factors influencing the formation of self-younger students, so the primary school teacher should know the psychological characteristics of younger students and take into account the individual characteristics of self-esteem in the learning process.
psychological school evaluation study
Chapter 2. An experimental study of characteristics evaluation and self-esteem in children in primary school age
2.1 Diagnosis of self-esteem of junior pupils
Our study was conducted among schoolchildren of the second class. Children age 7-9 years. In the class of 21 students.
The purpose of this research: to study the features self-school-age children.
The object of study: personal sphere junior student.
Subject of research: self-esteem especially younger students.
Problem diagnostic work:
1. find diagnostic tools
3. treat the results
4. arrange study protocols
5. develop recommendations for parents and teachers.
Methodology aimed at identifying quantitative level of self-esteem.
Material: calculator card with a set of words that characterize the individual personality traits.
The experimental part of the experience carried out in the audience. The experimenter gives the subjects of stimuli and asked to select the five qualities which, according to the test, characterize the ideal personality. The subject chooses from a list proposed by the qualities of a specified number of words and the amounts of these two series. The first row is a set of personality traits of the ideal test is the most important for the ideal. Further written as an ideal in descending order of their relevance to the subject. In the second row examinee writes that quality which, in his opinion, developed from him the most. Then, just as in the first row, the subject writes the quality of the self as the decreasing degree of their development at home.
Results: After filling in the two series is calculated rank correlation coefficient of Spearman and concludes on the quantitative level of self-esteem. Formula: R = 1 - (6 / a * (a -1)) * b, where a - is the number of qualities, and b-is the sum of squared differences. It must be borne in mind that the coefficient of less than 0.35 corresponds to the low self-esteem, from 0,35 to 0,7 - average and more than 0,7 - corresponds to a high level of self-esteem.
Technique Dembo - Rubinstein: based on direct estimation of students a number of personal qualities, such as health, ability, character, credibility with peers, ability to do many things with his hands, looks, self-confidence. Surveyed offered at the vertical lines mark the level of development of certain characters they have these qualities and the level of claims, ie, level of development of these same qualities that would satisfy them.
Instructions: Anyone who appreciates their abilities, capabilities, character, intelligence, etc. The level of development of each quality of the human personality can be divided to represent a vertical line, the lower point of which will symbolize the lowest development and the top - the highest.
The form drawn by seven lines. They represent: the mind, abilities, character, credibility with peers, ability to do many things with his hands, looks, self-confidence.
Below each line is written, what it means. On each line below (-) mark, how do you assess the development of hosting the quality of your personality at the moment. After this, a cross (x) mark, at what level of development of these qualities, the parties would you be satisfied with themselves or feel proud of ourselves.
Treatment outcomes: treatment is for 6 scales. Each response is expressed in points.
The dimensions of each scale of 100 mm. In accordance with these responses, students receive a quantitative characteristic.
1. For each of the six scales is determined by: a) the level of claims - the distance in mm from the bottom of the scale ("0") to mark the "x" and b) the height of self-esteem - the distance in mm from the bottom of the scale of the sign "-".
2. Take the average performance self-esteem and level of aspiration for all six scales. Mean values ??of parameters are compared with the table:
Low Medium High
The level of claims to 60 60-74 75-100
Self-esteem up to 45 45-59 60-100
Next technique aimed at identifying the emotional self-esteem, author AV Zakharov.
Material: the drawings to run subtests.
The experimenter presents the subject figure and asks him to perform a task relevant subtests.
Proceedings of experience:
Subtest number 1. Imagine that shown in the figure a number of circles - is its people. Specify where you are.
Subtest number 2. Large circle - it is your ego. Small circles - this is your family, friends and teachers. Show me where there will be a father, mother, grandmother, grandfather, brother (sister), teachers, friends.
About the father
Others - friends
Subtest number 3. Here's the picture your parents, teachers, friends. Put a cross (point) where you are visiting.
Subtest № 4. Put an end to that place circle where you are you.
Subtest number 5. Imagine that you are in the bottom row. Which of the two circles will be you?
Treatment results: Subtest number
1. Norm for the child is an indication of the third or fourth round to the left. In this case the child to perceive features of their "I-way", aware of its value and accept yourself. When referring to the first circle is overestimated, while pointing out the circles on the fifth low self-esteem.
2. allows you to define the relationship with relatives. While lying on top recognizes excellence and admits the pressure of this man for themselves. Exerts pressure on the located at the bottom, feels his superiority over him.
3. determines the social interest (whether the child feels himself included, accepted in the human world), as well as the degree of closeness with one or another category of people. If you have a child outside the triangle, we can say that he feels rejected or is not interested in social contacts.
Subtest № 4. Determining the degree of self-centeredness. For preschool children characterized by high self-centeredness (location in the center of the circle). An older child should be reasonably self-centered.
Subtest number 5. Individualization. Reveals the awareness of its similarity (with an indication of the left circle) or its uniqueness (right circle).
2.2 Analysis of the results of studies self-esteem of children of primary school age
To study the psychological characteristics of self-esteem of junior school children to identify children at risk we used the following methods:
1. Methodology aimed at identifying quantitative self-esteem.
2. Investigation of self-assessment methodology Dembo-Rubinstein.
3. Methods aimed at determining the level of emotional self-assessment (written by A. Zakharov).
Analysis of the results presented in tables.
Investigation of self-assessment methodology Dembo-Rubinstein.
Children were handed forms, which were already lines are drawn, each of which has already been signed. Students have noted a corresponding icon:
At what level of development of these qualities, the parties they would be satisfied with themselves or feel proud of yourself (x);
How do they assess the development of hosting the quality side at the moment (-).
The study was conducted in a calm atmosphere. Time for performance was given 25 minutes.
When processing into account indicators of self-esteem. As a result of this technique, we can conclude that 16 people inflated self-esteem, which is 89%, in 2 patients - average (11%). Students with low self-esteem is not revealed.
The following method is aimed at identifying the emotional level of self-esteem.
Children were given forms that contain 5 assignments (5 subtests).
To fulfill the children were given 25 minutes. The study was conducted in a calm atmosphere.
Analyzing the results obtained, we can draw the following conclusion: in 2 students' high self-esteem, a 9-and 7 medium - low. That is according to this method a high level of self-assessment in only 12%, average - 50%, while the lowest 38% of the students. You can also say that 61% of students in the 2 "B" class recognized its similarity to the other, but 39% consider themselves as unique.
In the learning activities the teacher should pay attention to a group of children with high self-esteem and a group of children with low self-esteem.
Recommendations were developed by teachers working with children with high self-esteem:
In organizing extra-curricular activities to include students in group work, learning to listen to others, bring a sense of empathy, appreciating the work, showing both positive and negative aspects; substantiate the assessment.
Recommendation of a teacher working with children with low self-esteem: Do not bring a child to excessive demands, do not use words that demean the dignity of man, ie, evaluates performance, not personality; engage students in teamwork, the organization of extracurricular activities to assign students to positions of responsibility, to offer educational activities in the creative nature of the job.
Analyzing the current literature, it should be noted that the central feature of any individual is a self-assessment, which consists of the following components: cognitive, evaluative, behavioral.
Part and parcel of the assessment is self-esteem, which is defined as the assessment of personality itself, its appearance, the place among other people, its qualities and capabilities.
The main factors influencing the formation of self-esteem of children of primary school age are estimated impact of teachers, parents, and their relation to training activities.
In the development of practical work carried out a diagnostic study for students of the second class using the following methods:
1.Metodika aimed at identifying quantitative level of self-esteem.
2.Issledovanie self-evaluation by the method of Dembo-Rubinstein.
3.Metodika aimed at determining the level of emotional self-assessment (written by A. Zakharov).
The results showed that out of 18 students of the class: students at 2 high self-esteem, a 9-average and 7 - is low.
High self-esteem is the age norm for children of primary school age.
Since the learning activity is an important factor influencing the formation of self-assessment, the teacher must know the individual characteristics of self-esteem and integrate them into the learning process.
1. Aleksandrov B. A. Methodology reflection of conceptual schemes, the search and decision. Barnaul - 2006 - 218 sec.
1. Beloborodov O.R . The influence of social environment on the development of self-esteem. - Moscow - 2005 - 320 sec.
2. Vasiliev Z.P Wise commandments of folk pedagogy. - MM - 2004 - 98.
3. Kolmogorov and R. Man among men. - MM - 2007 - 240 sec.
4. Lyapkin A.I. Self-assessment of the student. - MM - 2003 - 210 sec.
5. Musikhina D.A. Wisdom of education. - MM - 2005. - 240.
6. Slobodchikov V.I. Formation of self-concept, the magazine Elementary School »№ 3, 2002, pp. 56-58.
7. Shakhov I.P. Workshop on laboratory work rate psychology - Voronezh, 2008. - 220 pp.
8. Elkonin D.B. Introduction to developmental psychology. M., 2004 - 159
9. 10. Jacobson SG Formation of H-potential positive, as a method of regulation of behavior, № 3, 1997 - with. 23-27.
10. Yaroshevsky M.G, Antsyferova L.I. The development and current state of foreign psychology. , 1974.
Размещено на Allbest.ru
The study of harm to children from watching American cartoons. Problem of imitating negative or mindless characters from cartoons. Leading role of American cartoon industry in the animation history. First steps in the progress of a child’s development.
эссе [16,3 K], добавлен 11.04.2013
Unhealthy food, lack of sleep, passive lifestyle, related works. Survey, Passive Lifestyle, Lack Of Sleep, Nutrition. How often pupils have negative feelings. Teachers' complaints. Can we do to reduce these negative displays of pupil’s behavior.
курсовая работа [25,5 K], добавлен 18.05.2015
Research of negative influence of computer games with the elements of violence and aggression on psychical development of children and teenagers. Reasons of choice of computer games young people in place of walk and intercourse in the real society.
доклад [15,3 K], добавлен 10.06.2014
Theoretical basis of a role plays as a teaching aid. Historic background of game origin. Psychological value of a role plays. The main function and principles of game organization. Gaming technique. Classification of role plays. Advantages of a game.
курсовая работа [50,7 K], добавлен 26.04.2013
Диагноз проблемы и оценка ситуации, выявление альтернатив, оценка альтернатив, окончательный выбор, реализация, контроль и обратная связь. стрессовые и критические ситуации. Проект приказа о проведении деловой игры в банке.
реферат [12,8 K], добавлен 13.03.2004