Importance of international tourism services in the world market

A specific feature of services. The main form of supply of services abroad. A need for international regulation of trade in services. Operations on foreign tourism. International tourism as a form of foreign economic activity. World Tourism Organization.

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Importance of international tourism services in the world market

A specific feature of services as a commodity is that it has no real form, and acts as a result of a certain activity.

With the market for goods, capital, labor, and there is a world market for services. Market services are varied and fall into separate narrow markets: factoring, transportation, tourism, banking, brokering, etc. In the field of services taken by 40% of foreign direct investment in the world economy.

In the second half of XX - beginning of XXI century. a rapid growth of services, because in countries with developed market economies the high degree of maturity of the economy and high standard of living people. These factors, as the experience of developed countries, and are the reasons for the growth in demand for services.

In the gross domestic product of developed market economies services accounted for 70%, in our country more than 50 %, the number of workers employed in this sector , respectively, 80% and 50 %.

The structure of the U.S. economy differs pronounced postindustrial. Most of the U.S. GDP (79.4 % in 2004) is created in the service industries, which include, above all, education, health, science, finance, trade and a variety of professional and personal services , transport and communications , government services . The share of material production (agriculture, forestry and fishing industry, mining and manufacturing, construction), thus remains 20.6 % of GDP. In agriculture creates about 0.9 % of GDP, while industry accounts for less than 20 % of GDP. [1]

Travel services, unlike goods , are produced and consumed at the same time and do not require storage as well as the majority of services based on an immediate direct contact between their producers and consumers (except for services provided through the Internet and computer technology ) .

Trade in services is closely related to trade in goods, especially the Internet and computer technology and enhances the sale of these goods.

Collar is better protected by the state from foreign competition. And services such as finance and insurance, transportation, communications, science, education and medicine in many countries the public sector realized a significant extent. These services are directly related to tourism and support it. The higher the level of development of medicine, insurance, and communications - the easier it is to organize international travel services.

Not all services can be widely used in the international market, such as utilities, household; but their presence in a particular country can attract foreigners - medicine, education, culture, sports, etc.

Still can not be considered a perfect classification of services and statistics about it . International statistics in accordance with the classification of the International Monetary Fund allocates only four types of services: freight - 10-12%; the remaining 16-17% of transport services ; Tourism - 28-29 % ; other services - 43-44 %. From these statistics, it follows that the market for international travel services covers almost a third of the total. If you trace the dynamics of this market, we can conclude that this market is growing every year.

While the share of other services - banking, insurance, mediation, stock, computer - is growing. According to the International Monetary Fund all kinds of services in 2012 has reached 8500 billion (Export and Import), of which 2,056 billion dollars in 2012 was the share of international tourism services. [7]

Services are growing almost twice as fast as the foreign trade turnover, while the share of services exports in merchandise exports in the global economy is more 30%.

Geography of services is very uneven in the world economy. The ten leading countries accounted for two treti51 % of world exports of services and at the same time, 47.7% of imports of services in these countries, and in the U.S., UK, Germany and France accounted for 31 % of total world exports of services. [5]

Ukraine, CIS countries have large reserves potential for development of tourism services, but export growth interferes with the weak material and technical base of this sphere of activity.

The main form of supply of services abroad is to open branches there, for example, U.S. multinationals produce abroad services in an amount which is twice more than the total services exports from the United States. Particularly active in developing services in knowledge-intensive industries: computers, consumer electronics, etc.

Growing share of developing countries in the provision of services and some of them have become exporters in South Korea - in the field of engineering consulting and construction services; Mexico - tourism ; Singapore, Hong Kong - financial .

In Ukraine there are opportunities for growth based on the development of services, tourism, transport.

But it is necessary to take into account competition from Western Europe. Quoting services - all while significantly hampers the country's ability.

In this regard, there is a need for international regulation of trade in services.

The first regulator - bilateral agreements such as industry (transport, communications), and trade and economic.

Second regulator - multilateral regulation in integration associations. For example, the removal of some restrictions in the EU to reduce the prices for services from 4 to 21 %.

Third regulator - is the basis of international organizations. Usually this specialized intergovernmental organizations such as: International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO); IMO - International Maritime Organization; World Tourism Organization UNWTO; international trade and economic organizations generalist: UNSTAD - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. This is the main organization, and generally engaged in international trade in services more than 40 international organizations. [2]

Operations on foreign tourism - is an activity aimed at providing various types of travel services and products to meet the tourist demand a wide range of cultural and spiritual needs of foreign tourists .

International tourism as a form of foreign economic activity has grown tremendously and has become a significant influence on the political, economic and cultural ties between the two countries . The largest contribution to international trade in services makes tourism.

Currently, the tourism industry is one of the fastest growing forms of services in the global economy. According to the World Tourism Organization in 2000 in the world were more than 677 million tourists. At the same time, in 2013 the number of tourists increased to 1.087 billion people. International tourism contributes 7% of total world exports, behind the oil industry and the automotive industry, whose share in this index is 11 and 8.6 %, respectively. At the heart of international tourism development based on the following factors:

- Expansion of business trips and trips with cognitive goals through economic growth and social progress;

- Travel cheaper by improving all types of transport;

- Increase in the number of wage workers and employees in the developed countries and increase their material and cultural level;

- Intensification of work and receiving workers more vacations;

- The development of bilateral and cultural exchanges between the two countries;

- Development of the sphere of transport and technological progress in the field of telecommunications;

- Easing of restrictions on the export of currency in many countries and simplification of border formalities.

International tourism in the world developed very unevenly, which is primarily due to the different levels of socio- economic development of individual countries and regions. The greatest development of international tourism has in Western European countries. The share of this region accounts for over 52 % of the world tourism market. Approximately 23% is in Asia and Oceania, 16% - on America, about 10% - on Africa and the Middle East together. [4 ]

Under the tourism industry means the totality of production, transport and trade enterprises, producing and selling goods and services travel tourist demand.

World Tourism Organization , in its classification identifies countries that are mainly suppliers of tourists - the U.S., UK, Germany , France, China and the countries receiving tourists - Australia, Greece , Cyprus, Italy , Spain, Mexico , Turkey , Portugal , France , Switzerland.

Europe remains a leader in the competitive global tourism.

Country, the level of tourism which is regarded as the highest is Switzerland, and it is not simply this: the country has some of the best hotels in the world, a skilled labor force. And also attracts its visitors beautiful scenery, ecology, safety. In addition, the country is constantly tested various fairs and exhibitions, so it is in this country are often planned business trip.

In second place in Europe after Switzerland is Germany. It is ranked 6th in terms of development of tourist infrastructure, fifth place for heritage and 2nd in terms of volume and nature of international fairs and exhibitions. (For the year of over 600). international tourism service

Received high marks Austria and Italy (In terms of infrastructure development, they tied for first place), In addition, the country ranks 7th in terms of safety of tourists and third place in the ecology.

The top 10 best countries for international tourism and entered Spain. (that it held the palm for many years) . It is on the first place for heritage and the third for fairs and exhibitions. In addition, Spain is considered in 2013 one of the countries with a fairly calm political situation that drove it on this indicator on the 8th place.

With the development of mass organized tourism and its transition to a new model, based on a developed tourist industry and modern means of transportation , there were some changes in the forms of organization of international tourism.

First, significantly increased the number of retail firms offering travel services and travel agents are often deprived of the legal and economic independence.

Secondly, the changed nature of the tourist wholesale companies that have become tour operators offering a full range of services in the form of inclusive tours.

Thirdly, there were large corporations, based on equity of transport, trade , insurance companies and banks engaged in transactions on presentation of travel services to customers .

All of the above categories of firms differ from each other in function and nature of the activities .

Travel agency - is retail firms that act as intermediaries between tour operators and servicing enterprises , on the one hand, and customers - tourists , on the other . Travel agent or organized tours offered by tour operators or engaged in the provision of certain types of individual travelers or groups of individuals , by establishing links with transport companies , hotel companies , tour desk . Sale of tours provided at prices set by tour operators and specified in their prospectuses . For the implementation of inclusive tours travel agent get a certain commission from tour operators (pic. 1) .

Certain types of services is carried out at prices determined by their manufacturers, and for additional services travel agent can set specific margins to retail prices of the manufacturer. Most travel agencies located in the sphere of influence of the major tourist wholesale companies, airline companies, hotel companies and trading firms.

Tour operating company - is primarily a wholesale company, acting as intermediaries between companies and travel agencies tourism industry. They realize tours on their own behalf or through a travel agent directly to customers. During the travel tour operators establish relationships with businesses accommodation, catering, transport, cultural and educational institutions, and a tour desk. Often tour operators on the basis of long-term lease contracts hotels and other accommodation facilities, airplanes, buses, providing maximum load and give significant discounts (pic. 1) .

Constitute the basis of tourism firms organizing trips and selling vouchers and tours , as well as firms that organize the movement of tourists , providing them with housing , information and other services. Tourism enterprises work culture, trade, sports (pic. 1).

 

pic. 1. Basic steps for the organization of tourist services

Legend: 1 - asking tourists opportunities for implementation of tourist trips and buying rounds; 2 - 1 for the treatment of essential tour ; 3 - direction required tours travel agency ; 4 - Order the required number of beds in hotels , transportation , restaurants , etc.; 5 - tourists visiting tourist facilities and service .

Travel Corporation - are large enterprises that combine participation by a wide range of companies representing various kinds of tourist services. They pretty much cornered the market and become a powerful cross-sectorial production and business systems, including enterprise wide variety of industries, serving the tourist trade , transport , banking, insurance and other companies selling tours through an extensive network of tour operators and travel agencies in different countries.

Equipped with the latest automated systems of control and communication allows them to quickly learn and meet the needs of tourists. Most successful companies have achieved similar in countries with developed economies. In France, for example, the share of the 13 largest corporate travel accounts for 50 % sold tours in Germany three largest travel corporation TUI, Nekkerman ITS and concentrated at 70 % of the market.

Along with the large corporations now have been widely developed accommodation facilities that provide services to tourists not only by their placement, but also a wide range of other services, such as meals at the restaurant of the hotel, providing rooms for meetings, purchase tickets for transportation, call taxis, excursions, banquets, trade.

The largest hotel complexes are combined using automated control systems and distribution of hotel stock in the so -called " chain " ' that allows you to quickly and accurately account for each individual transaction and with minimal time to make the hotel reservation , transportation, without delay, give the whole settlement and documentation make payments . In total , there are about a hundred of these hotel chains . Leading from them - Holiday Inn, Sharaton, Hilton.

A feature of the present stage of development of international tourism and changes in its organizational forms is the penetration in the tourist transport business, shopping, banking, industry, insurance companies. Transport companies offer both individual services and self-developed tours based hotel base. Such firms are organizing service based business relationships with hotel and other businesses under the usual conditions of the tour operator. Trading firms have been actively engaged in the implementation of tourism services around since the early 70s . This applies mainly to large retail concerns and trade costs firms. Department stores began to calculate prices for tours to calculate only the minimum profit that was possible due to the immense capital trading firms. This approach has allowed traders firmly on the international tourism market.

Industrial firms, representing primarily the industry, serving the tourist business, began to acquire and include in their structure travel companies. Rapidly increased penetration of banks and insurance companies in the sphere of international tourism through the acquisition of all or part of the controlling shareholder. Gift cards issued by banks, unlike credit and debit plastic that are legal tender , are not intended to pay , but give their holders the right to a wide variety of discounts . In the world there are several global systems discount cards.

On the world market relatively recently, a new type of tourist accommodation - timeshare. This is not a sale of real estate and not the standard hotel accommodations, but something in between - ownership, limited use of time. Per unit of time is taken one week.

Timeshare industry has been steadily growing since the early seventies. With the popularity of timeshares and varied industry itself . If the formative years , it attracted mostly small businesses , now it involved corporations such as "Hilton", "Marriott", "Disney", "Sheraton", "Barratt" "Vamli" Currently timeshare is one of the fastest growing industries in the leisure industry . Currently timeshare is one of the fastest growing industries in the leisure industry. It is considered the most modern technology in the field between tourism and real estate. [6]

Implementation of international tourist operations implies a certain relationship between tourists - consumers of tourist services and travel companies - their producers and distributors , as well as past relationships with various organizations ( banks , transport and insurance companies , etc.) , providing a response to this kind of international services.

That interpretation of the concept - " foreign tourist " - means any person visiting another country for any purpose other than professional activity remunerated in the country. Usually people who have come for a tour, rest, medical treatment, sports activities, to relatives, with business and scientific purposes.

Rapidly growing business tourism. Tourism growth due to higher living standards of people in many countries, the development of infrastructure (transport, hotels) , increasing trend towards economic and cultural rapprochement of the countries and peoples.

Many countries, especially small ones, are actively connected to other tourism -related industries with service people.

The greatest number of tourist trips in the world takes place between developed countries with market economies. In Western Europe, about 20 tourist wholesale companies are holding 80% of the sale of tours. [3]

International tourist services - is an activity aimed at providing the conditions necessary for the implementation of operations on foreign tourism.

For tourism services , which are very diverse, include: movement of tourists to the destination country and different modes of transport ; tourist accommodation ; providing tourists feed; meet the cultural needs of tourists ; satisfaction research interests tourists - participation in congresses, symposia , conferences ; satisfaction with the business interests of tourists - participation in trade fairs, exhibitions , talks , etc. ; sale of souvenirs , gifts, greeting cards , albums, slides ); paperwork , passports, visas , etc.

Tourists can either be provided certain services of their choice, either a complete set of services - inclusive tours.

The tour includes:

- A set of services for accommodation , transport, food tourist and excursion services , as well as guide service and other amenities depending on the purpose of travel ;

- Tourist trip on a specific route within a specific timeframe, to ensure comprehensive services in the areas of housing, travel, health and cultural services;

- The primary unit of the tourism product for sale, realized as a whole, the product of labor tour.

In information about the tour , as a rule, shall include: the name and details of tour operators and travel agents , tourist information ; country ( tourist center ) to which a tourist ; means of transport ; conditions of supply and tourist accommodation ; start and end date of the tour ; stay program in the afternoons ; Passport and visa formalities ; medical insurance ; minimum acceptable number of tour participants ; maximum possible time of cancellation of the tour ; retail price of the tour ; compensation for non-compliance with the terms and conditions of the program of stay of tourists .

All this gives a complete description and additional information, provided in the form of brochures, catalogs, brochures, leaflets, posters, price lists.

The main activities include the following stages:

- Aviation - a journey organized tourists developed routes using air transport;

- Bus - a journey organized tourist groups on developed routes with buses;

- Railway - a journey organized tourist railway transport;

- Information (infotour) - tour, specially organized tour operator for travel agents in order to familiarize them with the admission requirements and tourist services on the proposed program;

- Combined - a journey using two or more modes of transport. [3]

A definite place in the international exchange of education plays. Most often there is an interaction between students, teachers, scientists of high school. The exchange of experience, information , teachers, researchers, graduate students , and students ; conduct joint research.

At the beginning of the XXI century. outside their countries enrolled more than 1 million students, two-thirds of that number - students from developing countries and Eastern Europe. More than 350 thousand foreign students studying in the United States , Britain, West Germany . In universities and institutes of Ukraine also trained thousands of foreign students. In the international exchange involving health , physical education and sports. Services are provided mainly on a commercial basis. In this practice, the creation of a network of clinics leading medical companies in different countries.

Since tourism is closely linked to the export of services for conducting various cultural events : art exhibitions , performance ensembles , actors on tour ; sale of films , cassettes and LPs with video and music recordings .

The largest exporters of films: United States, France, Italy , Russia, Britain , Germany, Japan, India , Hong Kong.

Wide variety of forms, functions, types of international tourism services can characterize and classify using the classification of events from the international tourism.

International tourism, taking into account the various features can be classified as follows:

- In the form of tourism - individual, group, family;

- In function of tourism - the recovery, developing, and entertainment;

- For the purpose of travel - resort, scientific, business;

- The method of - organized, disorganized, [ 3]

- The content of the tour - overview (multidimensional); History , including : Local History , archaeological, ethnographic , historic military ; production , including production and historical, production , technical, production orientation , architectural and urban planning ; literature , including literary and biographical , historical and literary , literary ;

- The composition of participants excursions - for incoming tourists, adult audience, children, urban and rural population, organized groups of single users;

- The place of the tour - city, country, museum;

- The shape of the event - extras (participants simultaneously move along the route 10 - 20 buses) , walk , lecture, performance ;

- According to the method of transportation - pedestrian, traffic.

Difficulties foreign tourism development in Ukraine are: poor quality of service in catering and hotels , the lack of hotel rooms and comfortable transport, unpreparedness of many objects to demonstrate their foreign visitors , the weak development of tourism by showing national customs and way of life.

At present, the tourism companies the task of recovery and create the service sector foreign tourists. The most promising tourism databases should be considered historical monuments of Kiev, Lviv, health centers in Carpathian and Crimea.

Sources

1 . http:// www.ru.wikipedia.org/ « U.S. GDP"

2 . http://www.wto.org/

3 . http://www2.unwto.org/

4 . “2013 International Tourism Results and Prospects for 2014 UNWTO”

5 . “Leading exporters and importers in world trade in commercial services, 2012 WTO”

6. E.F. Prokushev - “Foreign economic activity” , 2007

7. E. Byrkova “I\nternational tourism market : the main trends in 2013“

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