Domestic tourism in Russia

The value of domestic tourism for the Russian economy: an increase in jobs in hotels, restaurants, food industry and transport. Stages of development of domestic tourism in post-revolutionary and Soviet periods. Treatment, athletic and business tourism.

Рубрика Спорт и туризм
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 04.03.2012
Размер файла 20,0 K

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The Hospitality & Tourism Management Department of City Unity College

Course: Introduction communication

Assignment: "Domestic tourism in Russia"

Table of contents

1. Introduction

2. Summary

3. Domestic tourism

4. History of domestic tourism in Russia

4.1 Stages of development of domestic tourism in Russia XIX-XX centuries

4.2 Post-Revolutionary period in the development of domestic tourism in Russia

4.3 The development of Soviet domestic tourism early 30's - early 90's

5. Types of domestic tourism

5.1 Treatment of domestic tourism

5.2 Athletic domestic tourism

5.3 Business domestic tourism

6. Recommendation

7. Conclusion

References

1. Introduction

The relevance of this topic lies in the fact that every year more and more Russians are choosing resorts of Russia. The value of domestic tourism for Russia's economy is primarily associated with the advantages that it brings in successful development. First of all, this increase in jobs in hotels, restaurants and other food industry enterprises, transport and other service industries. Domestic tourism is also a positive effect on the growth of tax revenues to the state budget. In addition, tourism has an economic impact on local economy, stimulating the export of local products.

Thus, the efficient development of domestic tourism can significantly increase the flow of foreign tourists in Russia and, therefore, the inflow of foreign exchange earnings, to ensure the growth of tax revenues, the development of related industries and a substantial increase in employment.

2. Summary

The purpose of this paper is to identify areas of development of domestic tourism in Russia. The object of this study is domestic tourism in Russia. The subjects of the study are features of the development of domestic tourism in Russia, the main trends and forecasts of the growth dynamics of domestic tourism in Russia. In the process of writing the work, used methods such as research, analysis and comparison.

3. Domestic tourism

Domestic tourism - a journey of people within the country of residence. In recent years there has been a marked increase in its popularity. This is associated with the development of infrastructure, recreation, opening new routes, ski slopes, the organization of fresh excursions. Domestic tourism is developed almost everywhere, they engaged in a large number of people for recreation, treatment, and sightseeing or just for fun.

tourism domestic treatment business

4. History of domestic tourism in Russia

Since ancient times, many people went to travel in order to understand the world and open new areas of trade, diplomatic, military, religious and other missions. All of these travelers were in need of certain services from the local population in terms of accommodation, food, recreation, etc. (http://tourlib.net/books_tourism/kvartalnov_tourism1.htm)

Historically, the first enterprises of the tourism industry became a tavern, which enjoyed a dubious reputation. In ancient times, were the main motives for travel trade, education, pilgrimage, treatment. In ancient Greece, were born and sports trips (Olympic Games)

European Society rested on resorts in Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Greece and Italy. To the east in ancient times traveled by camel caravans. We spent the night in tents or barns.

4.1 Stages of development of domestic tourism in Russia XIX-XX centuries

Stages of development of tourism in Russia, this stage of the process of emergence, development and improvement of national tourism. There are five stages:

Enlightenment (until 1890) was characterized by a few examples of tours, cruises, travel, primarily for education and scientific collection of local history and geographical information about the different areas and native land. Tours and excursions have contributed significantly to the implementation of social programs.

The business - started with the development of capitalism in Russia. At this time, not just tourist infrastructure is growing rapidly - restaurants, hotels, transport network, but also begins to develop the tourist market. There are numerous travel agencies, offices, companies, clubs and societies.

Organizational and centralized - began in 1927 and ended in the late 60s. With the emergence in the 1928 Society for Proletarian Tourism began monopolizing tourism. Transfer of tourism and excursions to the jurisdiction of the trade unions even more monopolized situation. Thus the development of tourism has gone very quickly, extensively - through the inclusion of new resources and territories. Thus was formed the largest and cheapest in the world of social and material resources of the economically active tourism.

Administrative and Regulatory (1969-1990 gg.) - Characterized by rapid development of tourism and at the same time, even faster behind the quality of service standards from the tourism industry in Western countries. Attempts to stimulate the development of tourism administrative measures only exacerbated existing contradictions. The positive results of this period include the increased interest of science to the problems of tourism, the creation of recreational design, the beginning of the formation of a new vocational qualification structure and system of continuous training of tourist areas.

The transition (from 1990) - it also revealed some new trends in tourism sector in economic reforms:

a) changes in the structure of recreational needs and the beginning of the tourist market segmentation;

b) the transition from monopoly to a mixed tourist economy. The active development of small and medium-sized tourism enterprises;

c) the transition to the use of natural resources and cultural heritage on the basis of economic relations;

d) the transition from administrative management functions of the tourist sector to the economic stimulation of the tourist market in the new legislative framework. (http://www.vfmgiutourism.ru/istoriya_razvitiya_turizma_226/index.html)

4.2 Post-Revolutionary period in the development of domestic tourism in Russia

Post-Revolutionary period in the development of tourism can be divided into three stages:

One - 1920-1936 years. the second - 1936-1969 years. and the third - 1970-1980.

The first stage is characterized by the creation of socio-economic conditions for the development of mass tourism social and institutional development sightseeing and tourist traffic. In 1920 created the Joint lecture and tour desk, opened the first six tour stations. In Petrograd in 1921 opened the Research Institute for sightseeing.

During this period, tourist traffic covered the general population and more noticeable discrepancy between the growth of tourist traffic and a tour of available material and technical base, increasingly there is a shortage of experts on tourism.

4.3 The development of Soviet domestic tourism early 30's - early 90's

In the second stage of tourism development in Russia in 1936, reorganized the whole system of tourism in the country, the introduction of new organizational forms of governance. It was also established tourist and excursion control.

In 1962, based on tourist and tour management, a system of tourist boards, which allowed to significantly expand the scope of tourist and excursion traffic in the country.

Established by the Central Council for Tourism and travel tips on the ground had to work on the principles of collegiality and involvement of public assets.

By this time in the country have developed five major systems of dealing with tourist and excursion business: trade union tourism, "Intourist" (Office since 1964, and since 1983 - the State Committee for Foreign Tourism Council of Ministers of the USSR), youth tourism, military tourism and children's tourism with an extensive system of extra-curricular facilities.

An important activity in the early 80s were a study of tourist and excursion options territories, regions, republics and the development of promising schemes for the development of tourism in some regions.

The central tourism courses in 1981 have been converted into Institute of Advanced Training of tourist and excursion staff.

This period of development of tourism in the country is characterized mainly by extensive development of intra-tourism in the USSR, as well as further changes in the governance structure.

In Russia, before the start of the 90s, despite the ongoing proliferation of the main indicators of the tourism industry, the transition to a new quality does not happen. Extensive development of standardization required to provide services that are not allowed to move from the mass tourism of the conveyor to the differential. This gives grounds to speak of. With the third stage of tourism development in Russia ended in the late '80s. Since that time, due to the change of political course of the country, and then transition to new economic conditions begin a new stage in the development of tourism, which has its own specific features.

5. Types of domestic tourism

So, apart from the people for whom travel is a professional necessity (navigators, explorers, scientists, merchants, and later - the priests), there are people who just want to see new lands and new adventures. There was such a thing as tourism.

To date, there are many types of tourism. For travel distance produce local (as a rule, local history) tourism, tourism in the country and international tourism. For purposes can be identified tourism entertainment, educational, health, sports (can also be an element of travel health program, and may be a separate purpose - such as ski tourism).

Most of the various definitions of tourism are reduced to the fact that tourism - a set of relationships, relationships, and phenomena that accompany the travel and stay of people in places other than places of their permanent residence or long-term and not related to their employment.

Thus, any kind of tourism in one way or another brings informative and entertaining elements, in contrast to, for example, from the professional tours and expeditions, whose main objective - perform a specific job. The desire to see and learn something new, and still is the main motive of tourist travel. That's why tourism is closely linked to the level of civilization.

5.1 Treatment of domestic tourism

Medical tourism is the inner journey undertaken in order to rest and recreation of children, adolescents, youth and adults. This is one of the most popular domestic tourism. Medical tourism involves the movement of residents within the state borders. One of the most popular types of treatment in Russia is the treatment of mud. This method of treatment, prevention of diseases of the body with therapeutic mud of various origins in the resorts. Also popular method is the treatment of healing springs.

Even the ancient Greeks and Romans used the thermal springs and the places with a favorable climate to improve their health. Arriving at the resorts are not only sick but also healthy people who wanted to relax and to have sufficient funds. Times have changed, but the motivation to travel remained the same. The healing properties of natural factors, as before, attracting patients to the resort area. Streams of tourists for therapeutic purposes are not as numerous as the mass of wanting to relax and have fun, but they are growing rapidly. The bright feature of this type of holiday is that at these resorts people come oldest age group, when exacerbated by chronic disease or weakening the body is unable to cope with daily stress at work and at home. The main goals of treatment and health tourism are recreation, restoration, rehabilitation, treatment.

5.2 Athletic domestic tourism

Type of leisure, active and targeted forms of physical training and exercise training, such as swimming, jogging, cycling, etc. The main objective - ensuring the capacity to deal with the chosen sport.

With the availability of sports and health tourism are engaged in children, as well as all segments of the population, including mass - young people, students, intellectuals, teachers, doctors, businessmen, state and municipal employees.

Unlike other sports, sports tourism requires a minimal cost, since the training process itself, and the routes are in the environment, does not require expensive stadiums and special sports halls. Sports tourism - not just a national sport, a social movement that combines sports, spirituality, patriotism, the slogan which is "spiritually-Sport Nature"

Sports tourism - is a national sport in Russia, reflecting the national traditions of Russia. Sports tourism in Russia are engaged in up to 3 million people. Development of sports tourism in Russia is engaged in tourist and sports union of Russia and its Technical Committee - The Federation of Sports Tourism in Russia, which combine more than 70 collective members of the Russian Federation. For sports tourism include visits to active participation in sporting events and trips, which are passive participation in sports competitions.

Fans of sports facilities: in contrast to active leisure tourists, athletes all the attention focused on the competition. For them, sport is very important - their hobby. They are not afraid of physical activity. An example of active participation in sport: Mrs. L. sent in the Carpathian Mountains, to engage in skiing, passive participation: football fan goes on all the major events of his football club. Tourism is perfect in that one finds in it what he wants. Some people like the mountains, some of the river, someone who likes to relax on the beach, and others - to test themselves for strength. Strained nerves and desire for competition, too, strangely enough, can help a person reduce fatigue. This is gaining strength around the world, and especially in Russia, sports and adventure tourism. More and more people want to see the beauty of the underwater world, go down the mountain slope on skis, and even jump with a parachute. In Europe, for example, this type of tourism started to develop rapidly and become a mass tourism in the late 80s early 90s. And here, in Russia, from the mid-90s. Despite the fact that this kind of tourism every year becoming more popular, tourists mostly prefer these, as before, popular forms of tourism as sightseeing tourism, educational tourism, beach tourism, and others (for example, a survey conducted by among residents of Moscow, showed that only 8% of respondents would like to relax extremely). And all because the majority of tourists do not know that includes a sports tourism, where you can go (and in fact you can not even travel outside the city) and how much it all costs. Depending on the season different winter and summer tourism. Seasonal classification of forms of tourism shows fluctuations in the demand for tourism services throughout the year. The time at which occurs the maximum number of trips, called tourist season, travel during the recession - the off-season. Tourist seasons in different regions may not coincide.

5.3 Business domestic tourism

With the development of the business rather popular form of domestic tourism have become professional business travel. This category may also include congress tourism - travel to training seminars, trainings and refresher courses. Already, tour operators not only provide accommodation and catering business travelers, but also provide services for the collection of materials on the economic and financial aspects of the market, potential trading partners, and organize business meetings. Without a doubt, with the further development of business, business, domestic tourism and its infrastructure will develop dynamically.

Business (business tourism) - the most rapidly developing area of modern tourism. In fact, the combination of business visits to the inspection capabilities of the host country and short rest was used for a long time, but as an independent and highly profitable form of tourism is a trend emerged in the 80-90th years of XX century. Especially popular business tourism has in recent years, and this service sector is constantly increasing

Seminars and workshops are organized for specialists in various industries. They may take the form of lectures, round table, etc. Perhaps visiting profile enterprises. For example, a seminar entitled "Production of sparkling wines" includes familiarization with the production of sparkling wines in France, visiting factories, as well as tasting. At the end of seminars usually diplomas, certificates.

The most dynamic segment of business travel - congress - exhibition tourism. There is growing interest in symposia, conferences, meetings, seminars and exhibitions and fairs. Businessmen and academics taking part in forums to get the latest information, meet with colleagues and change views with them, negotiate, aside from the usual situation, and to join the proposed cultural program.

Tourism is an important source of the welfare state. It can be viewed as a system that provides every opportunity to get acquainted with the history, culture, customs, spiritual and religious values of this country and its people, and giving income to the state, not to mention the fact that this system is "fed" a lot of physical and legal persons, one way or another connected with the provision of tourist services. (http://www.turpohod.org/biblioteka/sklad/kafedra21.htm)

Modern tourism is varied shapes, forms and varieties. The form of tourism is related to the tourist border crossing the country. In this release the internal tourism (ie trips within their own country) and international tourism (travel to tourist purposes in other countries).

Every year, business, cultural and scientific relations between regions and countries are becoming closer. Business plays an important role. The development of national economy and its integration into the global market, too, are unthinkable without the development of the sphere of business tourism. Business communication, exchange of technology and information, the search for new markets, find partners for investment and joint projects to promote companies through PR-campaigns, staff training and implementation of corporate culture - all this is business tourism, as a sudden it did not sound. And yet, business tourism - is one resource integration and development of companies through participation in exhibitions and congresses, through business education.

Business tourism is one of the leading and fastest growing industries in the global economy. During his unprecedentedly rapid growth of business tourism is recognized as an economic phenomenon of the twentieth century.

6. Recommendation

The main objective of public policy in the field of tourism in Russia in accordance with the development of tourism in the Russian Federation is the creation of a modern high-performance and competitive tourist area. In Russia, where the tourist industry began to develop actively only in the last ten years, the achievement of this goal requires the development of modern economic strategy to promote the tourism product in the domestic market.

7. Conclusion

Tourism - that branch of human existence, which depends on the level of civilization of the existing vehicles - their speed, convenience and safety - the proposed range of entertainment. Just a year ago came a fundamentally new form of tourism - the space. According to newspaper reports, the Americans, despite the recent tragedy of space shuttle "Columbia" are going to continue business in the field of space tourism, developing a special design for the space shuttle into orbit delivery of new space travel and reduce the cost of such travel. In more familiar to us, "Earth" tourism, specifically - in its international branches are observed active processes of trans nationalization and globalization, largely mediated by the integration of the European Community. Gradually, from the "elite" Tourism has become a pastime popular type of holiday, and today it plays such an important role in the lives of many people that turned into a unique world's largest industry.

Thus, the history of tourism development cannot be considered either complete or non-viable at some point: it is closely intertwined with the history of mankind, how to define it (as has already been linked above), and defining it as itself, and the development of tourism impacts on the economy , social and cultural environment and international contacts of the country.

Business tourism is one of the leading and fastest growing industries in the global economy. During his unprecedentedly rapid growth of business tourism is recognized as an economic phenomenon of the twentieth century.

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