The significance of supply and demand for the market

A theoretic analysis of market’s main rules. Simple Supply and Demand curves. Demand curve shifts, supply curve shifts. The problem of the ratio between supply and demand. Subsidy as a way to solve it. Effects of being away from the Equilibrium Point.

Рубрика Экономика и экономическая теория
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 31.07.2013
Размер файла 56,3 K

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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ

КРАСНОАРМІЙСЬКИЙ ІНДУСТРІАЛЬНИЙ ІНСТИТУТ

ДЕРЖАВНОГО ВИЩОГО НАВЧАЛЬНОГО ЗАКЛАДУ

ДОНЕЦЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ ТЕХНІЧНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ

Кафедра Соціально - гуманітарної підготовки

КУРСОВА РОБОТА

на тему «Значення попиту та пропозиції для ринку»

Студента 4 курсу ФЕіМ групи ЕПР - 09

Спеціальності «Економіка підприємства»

Грязнова І. О.

Керівник ст. викл. каф. СГП

Білецька Л.Л.

м. Красноармійськ - 2013 рік

ANNOTATION

17 pages, 5 diagrams, 6 references

The object of the investigation is the processes which regulating market relations.

The subject of the investigation is the connection between supply and demand.

The aim of the investigation is to describe the theoretical knowledge of market relations and their regulators - supply and demand. To identify the problems that arises, to propose the solutions.

The practical value is the proposed solution of the problem away from the equilibrium point by using subsidies.

Task:

1. To describe the definition of «supply» and «demand»

2. To analyze influence of supply and demand on market situation

3. To identify the problems that arises.

4. To propose the solutions of the problems.

Key words: SUPPLY, DEMAND, MARKET RELATIONS; MARKET; MICROECONOMYCAL THEORY; EQUILIBRIUM POINT

АНОТАЦІЯ

17 сторінок, 5 рисунків, 6 джерел.

Об'єктом дослідження є процеси що регулюють ринкові відносини.

Предметом дослідження є зв'язок між попитом та пропозицією.

Мета дослідження - розкрити теоретичні відомості ринкових відносин та їх регуляторів - попиту та пропозиції. Виявити проблеми що виникають під час невірного співвідношення та запропонувати шляхи їх вирішення.

Для досягнення мети було реалізовано такі задачі:

1. Розкриті поняття «попит» та «пропозиція»

2. Проаналізовано вплив попиту та пропозиції на ситуацію на ринку;

3. Визначено проблеми які виникають при невірному співвідношенні;

4. Запропоновано можливу стратегію вирішення проблем.

Ключові слова: ПОПИТ; ПРОПОЗИЦІЯ; РИНКОВІ ВІДНОСИНИ; РИНОК; МІКРОЕКОНОМІЧНІ ПОКАЗНИКИ; ТОЧКА РІВНОВАГИ.

CONTENTS

Introduction

Chapter 1. A theoretic analysis of market's main rules

1.1 A theory of price

1.2 Analysis of Markets

Chapter 2. Supply and Demand curves

2.1 Simple Supply and Demand curves

2.2 Demand curve shifts

2.3 Supply curve shifts

Chapter 3. The problem of the ratio between supply and demand. Subsidy as a way to solve it

3.1 Effects of being away from the Equilibrium Point

3.2 Subsidy

Conclusion

Summary

Glossary

References

INTRODUCTION

supply demand market

In microeconomic theory, the theory of supply and demand explains how the price and quantity of goods sold in markets are determined.

In general where goods are traded in a market, prices for goods tend to rise when the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied at that price, leading to a shortage, and conversely those prices tend to fall when the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded. This causes the market to approach an equilibrium point at which quantity supplied is equal to the quantity demanded. Thus, price is seen as a function of supply curves and demand curves.

The theory of supply and demand is usually developed assuming that markets are perfectly competitive. This means that there are many small buyers and sellers, each of whom is unable to influence the price of the good on its own.

The object is the processes which regulating market relations.

The subject is the connection between supply and demand .

The aim of the investigation is to describe the theoretical knowledge of market relations and their regulators - supply and demand. To identify the problems that arises, to propose the solutions.

The topicality is because the supply and demand are the most important regulators in market economy and the determination of the equilibrium point is not completely solved the problem.

The practical value is the proposed solution of the problem away from the equilibrium point by using subsidies.

Task:

1. To describe the definition of «supply» and «demand»

2. To analyze influence of supply and demand on market situation

3. To identify the problems that arises.

4. To propose the solutions of the problems.

CHAPTER 1. A THEORETIC ANALYSIS OF MARKET'S MAIN RULES

1.1 A theory of price

What is it? The theory of supply and demand is a theory of price and output in competitive markets.

Adam Smith had argued that each good or service has a "natural price." If the price (of beer, for example), were above the natural price, then more resources would be attracted into the trade (brewing, in the example), and the price would return to its "natural" level. Conversely if the price began below its "natural" level.

The modern theory of supply and demand differs from Smith's theory in some important ways. Economists have made some progress in the last 200 years, and great economists such as John Stuart Mill and Alfred Marshall (and many others) have played their part in the growth of the modern theory of supply and demand. Nevertheless, the theory of supply and demand is the modern expression of Smith's great insight into "the natural price." [3]

To make a long story short, before about the 1850's most economists accepted the Labor Theory of Value as the theory of the "natural price." But there were some cases it was not applied to: international trade, for example. John Stuart Mill suggested a "supply and demand" solution for prices in international trade. Other economists extended it to apply to prices in general. [1, 26]

Unlike the "natural price," which is a long-run theory only, the theory of supply and demand is applied in the short run as well as the long.

1.2 Analysis of Markets

Our approach to market theory will be first analytic and then synthetic. To "analyze" something is to take it apart into its components. Common sense tells us that competitive markets work through an interaction of "supply and demand." Alfred Marshall compared the supply and demand sides to the two blades of scissors one won't cut by itself. You have to have both.

Accordingly, we will first "analyze" competitive markets, by discussing demand and supply separately. Then we will try to put them back together (synthesize them) in order to understand the action of competitive markets. [2, 53]

Thus, in the next few pages, we will look at

· demand

· supply

· equilibrium of demand and supply

CHAPTER 2. SUPPLY AND DEMAND CURVES

2.1 Simple Supply and Demand curves

This can be illustrated with the following graph:

Graph 2.1 Simple Supply and Demand curves.

The demand curve is the amount that will be bought at a given price. The supply curve is the quantity that producers are willing to make at a given price. As you can see, more will be purchased when the price is lower (the quantity goes up). On the other hand, as the price goes up, producers are willing to produce more goods. The point where these cross is the equilibrium. This will create a price of P and a quantity of Q since that is where the two lines cross.

In the figure straight lines are drawn instead of the more general curves. See also Price elasticity of demand.

2.2 Demand curve shifts

When more people want something the demand curve will shift right. An example of this would be more people suddenly wanting more coffee. This will cause the demand curve to shift from the initial curve D0 to the new curve D1. This raises the equilibrium price from P0 to the higher P1. This raises the equilibrium quantity from Q0 to the higher Q1. In this situation, we say that there has been an increase in demand which has caused an extension in supply.

Conversely, if the demand decreases, the opposite happens. If the demand starts at D1, and then decreases to D0, the price will decrease and the quantity supplied will decrease - a contraction in supply.

Graph 2.2. Demand curve shifts

2.3 Supply curve shifts

When the suppliers costs change the supply curve will shift. For example, if someone invents a better way of growing wheat, then the amount of wheat that can be grown for a given price will increase. This creates a shift from an original supply curve S0 to a new lower supply curve S1 - a decrease in supply. This causes the equilibrium price to decrease from P0 to P1. The equilibrium quantity increases from Q0 to Q1 as the quantity demanded increases - an extension in demand. Notice that the price and the quantity move in opposite directions in a supply curve shift.

Conversely, if the supply increases, the opposite happens. If the supply curve starts at S1, and then shifts to S0, the price will increase and the quantity will decrease as there is a contraction in demand.

Diagram 2.3. Supply curve shifts

CHAPTER 3. THE PROBLEM OF THE RATIO BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND. SUBSIDY AS A WAY TO SOLVE IT

3.1 Effects of being away from the Equilibrium Point

If the price is set too high, such as at P1, then the quantity produced will be Qs. The quantity demanded will be Qd. Since the quantity demanded is less than the quantity supplied there will be an oversupply problem. If the price is too low, then too little will be produced to meet the demand at that price. This will cause an undersupply problem. Businesses response to both these problems restores the quantity and the price to the equilibrium. In the case of oversupply, the businesses will soon have too much excess inventory, so they will lower prices to reduce this.

Graph 3.1. Oversupply

3.2 Subsidy

A subsidy is a payment from the government to a firm or individual in the private sector, usually on the condition that the person or firm that receives the subsidy produce or do something, or to increase the income of a poor person. [5]

For our example, we will think of a subsidy for the production of corn. (Some countries have paid subsidies for the production of grain in order to make food cheaper for poor people). Let us suppose the government pays corn farmers a dollar per bushel of corn, in addition to whatever price they get in the marketplace. The graph 3.2 shows the supply and demand for corn. A subsidy per unit of production works pretty much like an excise tax, except in reverse. In particular, we can look at the change from the point of view either of buyers or sellers. In this example, we will look at the subsidy from the point of view of the buyers. From their point of view, the subsidy is an increase in supply.

Graph 3.2

Accordingly, the diagram shows the subsidy shifting the supply curve to the right, from S1 to S2. The vertical distance is the amount of the subsidy: one dollar per bushel. Demand is D, as usual. With supply S1 - before the subsidy is given the market equilibrium price is p1 and the equilibrium production is Q1. With supply S2 when the subsidy is given the market equilibrium price is p2 and the equilibrium production is Q2. We may conclude that a subsidy per unit of production reduces the market price (though not quite by the full amount of the subsidy) and increases the production of the item subsidized.

CONCLUSION

How are we to understand the market for a good such as beer, potatoes, or cheese? Common sense can tell us that the supply, demand, price and quantity produced are interdependent, but how do they depend on one another? The most general and important answer to that question in modern economics is encapsulated in the "Supply and Demand" model.

We have defined "demand" as a relation between the price of the good and the quantity consumers want to buy. Similarly, we have defined "supply" as the relation between the price and the quantity that producers want to sell. When we put these two concepts together, we identify the market "equilibrium" with the price and quantity at the intersection of the demand and supply relations -- that is, a price just high enough that quantity demanded is equal to quantity supplied, and the quantity corresponding to that price.

In a wide variety of historic and current examples, we find that we can explain changes in quantities and prices as the equilibrium of supply and demand, with shifts in demand or in supply causing changes in price and quantity. The changes in price and quantity are coordinated in ways that can be understood and predicted, if we understand the theory of supply and demand.

The object is the processes which regulating market relations.

The subject is the connection between supply and demand .

The aim of the investigation is to describe the theoretical knowledge of market relations and their regulators - supply and demand. To identify the problems that arises, to propose the solutions. The topicality is because the supply and demand are the most important regulators in market economy and the determination of the equilibrium point is not completely solved the problem.

The practical value is the proposed solution of the problem away from the equilibrium point by using subsidies.

SUMMARY

The theme of this course paper is the significance of supply and demand for the market. It has topicality because the supply and demand are the most important regulators in market economy and the determination of the equilibrium point is not completely solved problem. The object is the processes which regulating market relations. The subject is the connection between supply and demand .

The aim of the investigation is to describe the theoretical knowledge of market relations and their regulators - supply and demand. To identify the problems that arises, to propose the solutions.

The practical value is the proposed solution of the problem away from the equilibrium point by using subsidies.

In microeconomic theory, the theory of supply and demand explains how the price and quantity of goods sold in markets are determined.

The theory of supply and demand is important in the functioning of a market economy in that it explains the mechanism by which most resource allocation decisions are made.

The theory of supply and demand is usually developed assuming that markets are perfectly competitive. This means that there are many small buyers and sellers, each of whom is unable to influence the price of the good on its own.

If the price is set too high, then the quantity demanded is less than the quantity supplied there will be an oversupply problem. If the price is too low, then too little will be produced to meet the demand at that price. This will cause an undersupply problem. Businesses response to both these problems restores the quantity and the price to the equilibrium. As a way to solve this problem we can use a subsidy.

A subsidy is a payment from the government to a firm or individual in the private sector, usually on the condition that the person or firm that receives the subsidy produce or do something, or to increase the income of a poor person.

A subsidy per unit of production works pretty much like an excise tax, except in reverse. In particular, we can look at the change from the point of view either of buyers or sellers. In this example, we will look at the subsidy from the point of view of the buyers. From their point of view, the subsidy is an increase in supply.

In a wide variety of historic and current examples, we find that we can explain changes in quantities and prices as the equilibrium of supply and demand, with shifts in demand or in supply causing changes in price and quantity. The changes in price and quantity are coordinated in ways that can be understood and predicted, if we understand the theory of supply and demand.

РЕЗЮМЕ

Тема даної курсової роботи - значення попиту і пропозиції на ринку. Вона має актуальність, оскільки попит і пропозиція є найбільш важливими регуляторами в ринковій економіці та визначення точки рівноваги не повністю вирішена проблема. Об'єкт - процеси, які регулюють ринкові відносини . Предметом є зв'язок між попитом і пропозицією.

Метою дослідження є опис теоретичних знань ринкових відносин і їх регуляторів - попиту та пропозиції. Виявлення проблем, яка виникають та запропонувати рішення.

Практична цінність полягає у запропонованому рішенні відхилення від точки рівноваги за допомогою субсидій.

У мікроекономічної теорії, теорії попиту та пропозиції пояснюється, як ціна і кількість товарів, проданих на ринках визначаються.

Теорія попиту і пропозиції відіграє важливу роль у функціонуванні ринкової економіки, вона пояснює механізм, за допомогою якого більшість рішень про розподіл ресурсів зроблені.

Теорія попиту і пропозиції діє, як правило, за умови, що досліджувані ринки абсолютно конкурентними. Це означає, що є багато дрібних продавців і покупців, кожен з яких не в змозі впливати на ціну товару на самостійно.

Якщо ціна встановлена занадто високою, то величина попиту менше, ніж обсяг пропозиції то виникає проблема надлишку. Якщо ціна занадто низька, то занадто мало буде вироблено для задоволення попиту за цією ціною. Це призведе до проблеми дефіциту. Підприємства хвилюють обидві ці проблеми, тому вони встановлюють кількість і ціну до рівноважного. Для того, щоб вирішити цю проблему, ми можемо використовувати субсидію.

Субсидія - це виплата з боку уряду, для фірми чи фізичної особи в приватному секторі, як правило, за умови, що особа або фірма, яка отримує субсидії буде виробляти або щось робити, для збільшення доходів бідних людей.

Субсидій на одиницю продукції досить багато, як акциз, але у зворотному напрямку. Зокрема, ми можемо подивитися на зміни з будь-якої точки зору, покупців або продавців. У цьому прикладі ми будемо дивитися на субсидію з точки зору покупців. З їхньої точки зору, субсидія є збільшення пропозиції.

У широкому спектрі історичних і поточних прикладах, ми виявляємо, що можемо пояснити зміни обсягів поставок і цін, рівноваги попиту та пропозиції, із змінами попиту або пропозиції, що викликають зміни в ціні й кількості. Зміни цін і кількості координуються таким чином, що можна зрозуміти і передбачити їх, якщо ми розуміємо, теорію попиту і пропозиції.

GLOSSARY

Curves

Криві - графіки

Consumer

Споживач

Demand

Попит

Economics

Економіка

Equilibrium point

Точка рівноваги

Market

Ринок

Microeconomics

Мікроекономіка

Production

Виробництво

Supply

Пропозиція

Subsidy

Субсидії

Solution

Рішення

Trading

Торгівля

REFERENCES

1. AP APO System Administration by Liane Will. Principles for effective APO system Management. SAP press. 2007.

2. Lisa Knight, Meadow Glade Elementary, Battle Ground, WA. Supply and demand. 2004.

3. McConnel C.R., Brue S.L. Economics: Principles, Problems and Policies.-14 th ed.-Boston etc. : Irwin: McGraw-Hill, 1998.

4. Samuelson P. A., Nordhaus W. D. Economics.- 16 th ed.-Boston etc.: Irwin: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

5. Slavin S.L. Economics: a Self-Teaching Guide. - New York etc.: Wiley, 1988.

6. Walstad W. B., Bingham R. C. Study Guide to accompany McConnell and Brue Economics. - 14 th ed. - Boston etc.: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

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