The American Wars of the 20th and 21st century
The American Wars is an extremely complex and controversial topic. The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. The Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard. America in Great War, Korean War and Vietnam War.
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Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
"СИБИРСКИЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ"
INSTITUTE OF PHILOLOGY AND LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION
DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
031202.65 "Перевод и переводоведение"
The American Wars of the 20th and 21st century
Руководитель Danielle Korngold
Студент Liubich Tanya ИЯ1001С
- §1. The United States Armed Forces
- §2. The United States Army
- §3. America in the Great War
- §4. America in the Second World War
- §5. Korean War and Vietnam War
- §6. The Iraq War
"The American Wars of the 20th and 21st century" is an extremely complex and controversial topic. Throughout the 400-year history of the United States, Americans have fought on battlefields both near and far, in clashes both large and small, alone and with allies at their sides. It is impossible to present the history of the United States of America and its relations with other countries without in-depth study of the American Wars - this exactly is the relevance of the chosen research topic. The objectives of this report are to review this topic through its historical background and identify the causes of political, socio-economical and religious contradictions between America and other countries. I have consulted a lot of different resources, which contain detailed information about chosen topic.
§1. The United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military. The President is the overall head of the military, and helps form military policy with the United States Department of Defense (DoD), a federal executive department, acting as the principal organ by which military policy is carried out. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and Cabinet member.  To coordinate military action with diplomacy, the President has an advisory National Security Council headed by a National Security Advisor. Both the President and Secretary of Defense are advised by a seven-member Joint Chiefs of Staff, which includes the head of each of Department of Defense service branches as well as the chief of the National Guard Bureau. Leadership is provided by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.  The Commandant of the Coast Guard is not a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
All of the branches work together during operations and joint missions, under the Unified Combatant Commands, under the authority of the Secretary of Defense with the exception of the Coast Guard. The Coast Guard falls under the administration of the Department of Homeland Security and receives its operational orders from the Secretary of Homeland Security. The Coast Guard may be transferred to the Department of the Navy by the President or Congress during a time of war. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States; the others are the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps.
The history of the United States Armed Forces dates to 1775, even before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States. The Continental Army, Continental Navy, and Continental Marines were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. The Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784, although the founding of the Army is celebrated as occurring on 14 June 1775. The 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies," "provide and maintain a navy," and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces," as well as the power to declare war and gave the President of the United States the responsibility of being the military's commander-in-chief.
Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the United States Navy (established 13 October 1775) and the United States Marine Corps (established 10 November 1775).  The United States Coast Guard dates its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790; that service merged with the United States Life-Saving Service in 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947; it traces its origin to the formation of the Aeronautical Division, U. S. Signal Corps in 1907 and was part of the U. S. Army before becoming an independent service.
The reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time Magazine writer Mark Thompson has suggested that with the Global War on Terrorism, the reserves deployed as a single force with the active branches and America no longer has a strategic reserve. 
§2. The United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U. S.military, and is one of seven U. S. uniformed services. The modern Army has its roots in the Continental Army which was formed on 14 June 1775, before the establishment of the United States, to meet the demands of the American Revolutionary War.  The Congress of the Confederation officially created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 after the end of the Revolutionary War to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The Army considers itself to be descended from the Continental Army and thus dates its inception from the origins of that force.
The primary mission of the army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars by providing prompt, sustained land dominance across the full range of military operations and spectrum of conflict in support of combatant commanders. The army is headed by the Secretary of the Army, and the top military officer in the department is the Chief of Staff of the Army. The highest ranking army officer is currently the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. During fiscal year 2010, the Regular Army reported a strength of 561,979 soldiers; the Army National Guard (ARNG) reported 362,015 and the United States Army Reserve (USAR) reported 205,281 putting the combined component strength total at 1,129,275 soldiers. 
The task of organizing the U. S. Army commenced in 1775. In the first one hundred years of its existence, the United States Army was maintained as a small peacetime force to man permanent forts and perform other non-wartime duties such as engineering and construction works. By the twentieth century, the U. S. Army had mobilized the U. S. Volunteers on four separate occasions during each of the major wars of the nineteenth century. Currently, the army is divided into the Regular Army, the Army Reserve, and the Army National Guard. The Army is also divided into major branches such as Air Defense Artillery, Infantry, Aviation, Signal Corps, Corps of Engineers, and Armor. Prior to 1903 members of the National Guard were considered state soldiers unless federalized by the President. Since the Militia Act of 1903 all National Guard soldiers have held dual status: as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state and as a reserve of the U. S. Army under the authority of the President.
Various state defense forces also exist, sometimes known as state militias, which are sponsored by individual state governments and serve as an auxiliary to the National Guard. State militias are not part of the U. S. Army and are state government agencies rather than a component of the military.
Although the present-day Army exists as an all volunteer force, augmented by Reserve and National Guard forces, measures exist for emergency expansion in the event of a catastrophic occurrence, such as a large scale attack against the U. S. or the outbreak of a major global war.
The final stage of army mobilization, known as "activation of the unorganized militia" would effectively place all able bodied men in the service of the U. S. Army
§3. America in the Great War
The United States was unprepared for its entrance into the First World War. In April 1917, the American Army numbered only 300,000 including all the National Guard units that could be federalized for national service. The Army's arsenal of war supplies was non-existent and its incursion into Mexico the previous year pointed out the severe deficiencies in its military structure including training, organization, and supply.
When the European continent erupted in conflict in 1914, President Wilson declared America's neutrality. He proposed an even-handed approach towards all the belligerents that was to be maintained in both "thought and deed." The President steadfastly maintained his hope of a peaceful solution to the conflict despite the protestations of those (including former president Roosevelt) convinced that events in Europe would inevitably draw America into the war. In 1916, Wilson campaigned for reelection on a peace platform with the slogan "He kept us out of war. "
Events in Europe altered Wilson's outlook. Germany's campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare, the loss of American lives on the high seas, the sinking of the Lusitania and other ships and the prospect that Germany would not change her policies compelled a reluctant Wilson to ask Congress for a declaration of war in April 1917. Things were not going well for the Allies at the time.russia erupted in revolution in March 1917 and would soon be out of the war altogether. Italy suffered a major defeat when the Austrians captured over 275,000 soldiers in the Battle of Caporetto forcing the British and French to divert troops from the Western Front to keep Italy in the war. The situation remained stagnate on the Western Front - and worse. Mutiny spread throughout the French Army raising the fear that her armed forces may collapse from within. In Britain, the German submarine campaign was so successful that predictions foresaw Britain's collapse within a matter of months. 
The Allies looked to America for salvation with the expectation that the industrial strength of the United States would replenish the supply of war material necessary for victory. In most cases these expectations were unrealistic. For example, the US built no more than 800 airplanes prior to 1917, and yet the French premier called on the US to immediately produce 2,000 airplanes per month. Additionally, the Allies expected the United States to provide an unlimited supply of manpower they could absorb into their beleaguered divisions.
Wilson selected General John J. Pershing (called "Black Jack" after he commanded the famous 10th cavalry in he 1890s) to head the American Expeditionary Force. Pershing left for Europe with a mandate from Wilson to cooperate with Allied forces under the following proviso - "that the forces of the United States are a separate and distinct component of the combined forces the identity of which must be preserved." In other words, there would be no wholesale melding of American soldiers into the British and French armies as the Allied commanders hoped. The United States would fight under its own flag and its own leadership. This proved to be a bone of contention among the Allies for the rest of the war.
America's buildup was slow - Pershing called for a million men, Congress replied it could muster 420,000 by spring 1918. The anticipated cornucopia of military supplies from America never materilaized. For the most part the doughboys fought with equipment supplied by the Allies (including the distinctive helmet provided by the British). American troops saw their first action in May 1918 in fighting alone the Marne River. In September, Pershing ordered an all-out attack in the Saint-Mihiel area of Eastern France. Casualties were high but the attack forced a German retreat that (combined with other Allied offensives along the Western Front) put the entire German army on the run. In early October, the Americans pushed through the Argonne Forest. The German High Command began to crack in the face of the persistent Allied onslaught. General Ludendorff was forced to resign and flee to Sweden, mutiny reared its ugly head among the Kaiser's naval units, and the Kaiser himself abdicated on November 9. On November 11, Germany signed an armistice ending the war.
Pershing had thrown almost 1.2 million Americans into the battle. Casualties numbered 117,000. With the war over, Americans wished to forget Europe's troubles and return to "the good old days." Congress rejected Wilson's call for participation in the League of Nations. The nation turned inward again. This complacency remained unchallenged until Hitler's grab for European domination some 20 years later. 
§4. America in the Second World War
For the second time in the 20th century, the United States became involved in a devastating world conflict. The mobilization effort of the government in World War II eclipsed even that of World War I. With major operations in both the Atlantic and Pacific theaters, American industries literally fueled two wars simultaneously.
Second World War (often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), was a global war that was under way by 1939 and ended in 1945. It involved a vast majority of the world's nations-including all of the great powers-eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people serving in military units. In a state of "total war", the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by significant events involving the mass death of civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it resulted in 50 million to over 70 million fatalities. These deaths make the war the deadliest conflict in human history
When events began happening in Europe that would eventually lead to World War II, many Americans took an increasingly hard line towards getting involved. The events of World War I had fed into America's natural desire to isolationism, and this was reflected by the passage of Neutrality Acts along with the general hands off approach to the events that unfolded on the world stage.
A number of historical misconceptions circulate about America's role in the Second World War. They include the idea that America began helping Britain only when attacked herself, and that American aid to Britain before that date came in the teeth of pervasive hostility by the American public, stirred up by anti-British `isolationists'. The fact that America was brought fully into the war in December 1941 by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, with Germany declaring war four days later, has created the false impression that America was completely separated from the war before unprovoked Axis aggression reluctantly forced the US into the conflict. Before Pearl Harbour, America began to starve Japan of oil with an oil embargo
This imposed an enormous pressure on Japan which meant that, without huge territorial gains of oil-producing territory, Japan would run out of oil in one month. This embargo had been imposed in a large part in attempt to prevent the Japanese attacking oil-rich British territory in East Asia (what now includes Malaysia and Singapore) and also territories possessed by Britain's ally Holland. Hitler's declaration of war was also the result of American help towards Britain and other allies
This assistance included $14,281 in material aid in the form of Lend Lease prior to Pearl Harbour - $1,082 million going to Britain - and direct military action. President Roosevelt had given orders that any German ship found in the eastern Atlantic should be shot at on sight. This meant the United States had more or less entered the `War of the Atlantic', the crucial battle between Britain and Germany for Britain's key sea routes. Anticipating entering the conflict, the US army grew massively from 267,767 personnel in 1940 to 1,460,998 by mid-1941 - an increase of 446%.83% of Americans wanted Britain and France to win the war against Germany. In the same poll, taken at the beginning of the War in 1939, only 1% would admit to hoping for a German victory. It is of note that the proportion of Americans who did not express support for Britain - 17% - is very close to the percentage of the US population who were substantially of German origin, suggesting that even the dissenting minority was inspired as much by Teutonophilia as by Anglophobia. Initial opposition to American involvement stemmed from the experience of the First World War. 
Initially there had been a strong public consensus that aid to the Allies was unwise (with only 20% supporting this) and this was reflected in government policy. This reflected a massive interwar consensus against American involvement in all wars - and a belief that, as in the First World War, American aid risked dragging the United States into a huge war with disastrous results. The degree of general anti-war sentiment can be seen by the fact that in January 1939 only 43% of Americans wished to defend neighbouring Mexico and 27% Brazil from attack. Support for aid to Britain rose massively as the UK suffered devastating setbacks early in the war and after Norway, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, Belgium and France fell to the Nazis. In June 1940, American opinion was split two-to-one in favour of staying out of the war even if it meant Britain losing. But by November 1940 a majority was in favour of aiding Britain even at the risk of war. By the summer of 1941, half of Americans rejected any negotiation with Germany (with 38% in support). This response suggests that much of the initial lack of support for risking war was based on the view that the Allies could win without American help. The American public consistently believed by margins of 20% or more that there would be a British victory, even during some of Britain's darkest moments in the war - with the exception of a few months in mid 1940 when public opinion was evenly divided. 
Most of America's political leadership wanted to aid Britain and her allie. Three days before the 1940 Presidential Election, the two main candidates declared: "Our policy is to give all possible material aid to the nations which still resist aggression across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans” (Roosevelt) and "All of us - Republicans, Democrats and Independents - believe in giving aid to the heroic British people. We must make available to them the products of our industry” (Willkie).
Franklin D. Roosevelt (U. S. President 1933-1945) obviously supported the military and other aid he pioneered. Wendell Willkie, the Republican candidate for President, owed his nomination in large part to his strong support for aiding Britain. In 1940, the Republican field for the Presidential nomination was dominated by former New York gubernatorial candidate Thomas Dewey (who was unclear in his foreign policy stances) and Ohio Senator Robert Taft (who was largely, though not entirely, anti-interventionist). Wendell Willkie was a minor candidate with less political experience than any twentieth century Republican candidate save General Eisenhower. However, his support for `interventionism' was enough to sweep Willkie to the nomination over both Dewey and Taft. Nonetheless, after receiving the Republican nomination, Willkie somewhat shifted his tone on intervention, and of the two Roosevelt was clearly seen as the more likely to help Britain, with one 1940 poll finding 82% of Americans believed Roosevelt would sell naval vessels to Britain with 42.3% believing that Willkie would do so. Willkie does not appear to have benefited from this shift. Roosevelt faced low popularity levels in the late 1930s owing to domestic issues, but by 1940, election polls showed that foreign policy was Roosevelt's greatest strength in the campaign.
The `isolationists' should not necessarily be understood as anti-British. America had only once before sent troops to Europe and isolationists sought to avoid the sort of commitments that they believed (with good cause) could lead to a massive war with Germany and (with less justification) that the United States could lose such a war. `Foreign orientated groups', whether communist or Nazi, were extremely marginal among isolationists. After the declaration of War, any residual Anglophobia had no effect, with only one member of Congress (a progressive pacifist) voting against war. Charles Lindbergh, America's most prominent isolationist, declared that had he been in Congress "I certainly would have voted for a declaration of war”. After Pearl Harbour, the leading isolationist group America First had closed down within four days and opinion polls showed a consistently large majority in favour of the war, with no organised anti war movement. During the Second World War, America was significantly influenced by and conscious of British opinion. For example British pressure played at least some role in America prioritising the German front of the war even though it was Japan that had attacked America. More than 400,000 Americans gave their lives during the war.
Strong American support for Britain has continued since the Second World War both among political elites and the general public. In February 2006, a BBC World Service poll found that Americans gave a higher rating to Britain's effect on the world than to the United States', with Americans believing that the United States was good for the world by 63% to 30% - and that Britain was good for the world by a 71% -14% margin. his enormous confidence was based on a long history - of which perhaps the most important was the events of the Second World War.
american war korean vietnam
§5. Korean War and Vietnam War
The decision to engage in war in Vietnam and Korea had its ideological root in the Truman Doctrine which found clear expression in MacNamara's so called "Domino Theory". America reasoned that if first Korea and then Vietnam fell to communists, many other nations in proximity would be at risk. The US refused to have a policy of appeasement which had allowed Hitler to fortify Germany leading to WWII. In both Vietnam and Korea, America fought the forces of communism to keep nations free from Soviet control. This was the goal throughout the presidential administrations of Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson. Although both wars were fought for the same reasons, the nature and circumstances of each war were quite different
Many similarities exist between the Korean and Vietnam Wars. The main reason America fought each of these wars was to keep independent nations from succumbing to communist control. If America allowed soviets to take Korea and Vietnam, other parts of Asia would be at stake. Each case demonstrates a battle between democracy and communism. As one Vietnam veteran said, "the Korean and Vietnam Wars were fought against an ideology, not an individual you can point your finger at." Ho Chi Minh began as a nationalist fighter and only turned to communism in order to support his aims. 
Another similarity between Vietnam and Korea is that each of these nations became split between the communist north and democratic south. North Korea and North Vietnam were connected to communist China and received supplies, ammunition, and support from them. South Korea and South Vietnam on the other hand, favored democracy. The United States gave weapons, supplies, and military advisors to South Korea and South Vietnam, which soon led to troops actually fighting in each of these wars. Another common characteristic is that both wars ended in negotiations. Neither side won out right like they did in World War II. In Korea, a cease-fire was called and a demilitarized zone was made between the two hostile borders. In Vietnam, under the Paris peace treaty, both sides agreed to a cease fire and America agreed to pull out all military personnel, while North Vietnam agreed to release all American POWs. Although communist North Vietnam quickly violated this treaty and attacked South Vietnam after the US pulled out, both the Korean and Vietnam wars ended in some concessions for both sides. This demonstrates the cold war stale mate between the Soviet Union and the United States. Each side feared the other but neither side achieved a decisive victory.
Another factor, although often overlooked, is that both leaders of the democratic countries were Christians. Both Dien Bien Phu of South Vietnam and Syngman Rhee of South Korea followed Christ. Perhaps this did not have a great impact on the countries while at war, but it has certainly had a huge impact now. Korea is now a hub of Christianity. Nearly 25% of it's population professes to be Christian and it sends out more missionaries per capita than any other country. Pastor Paul Yonggi Cho in South Korea has the largest Christian church in the world. In contrast to South Korea where Christianity flourishes, Christians in Vietnam are relatively few in number. They have had to deal with an oppressive communist government which outlawed Christianity altogether. However, Christians are gaining support in Vietnam due to a less oppressive government. 
The Vietnam and Korean wars also differ in many aspects. The fundamental difference between the two wars was in the outcome. The United States and other democratic nations protected South Korea from the communists, while it lost to them in South Vietnam. Much of this had to do with the way in which each of these wars were fought. In Korea, communists tried to defeat the US with sheer numbers. North Korea could not defend themselves effectively, so China sent more than a million troops. General Douglas MacArthur wanted to expand the war into China. Each side fought most of their battles on open ground. This gave America the strategic advantage because of its superior air power and more technologically advanced weapons. Battles tended to be quick and fierce, resulting in an effective campaign for the Americans that drove the communists back to the original line of division. Vietnam on the other hand, resorted to guerilla warfare given its smaller fighting force and environment. The Vietnamese had previously built some underground tunnels in their resistance movements against the Japanese and then the French. They expanded on this network of tunnels and made a huge network stretching more than 250 kilometers. Most of these tunnels were invincible from American air attacks and were sometimes built right under US military stations. For months, Americans could not figure out how enemy fire came right into their camp. Finally, when the military realized the problem, they went into the network of tunnels, but often got lost, ambushed or ran into booby traps. Another reason why America lost Vietnam and not Korea, was that the Vietnamese turned the war into a "people's war". The Chinese mainly fought the US in Korea without much popular support from the people. In Vietnam, however, everyone joined the war effort. One motto of the communist Vietnamese was, "If the truck is struck, tear down the walls of your house." Americans had no way of telling between neutral civilians and Viet Cong supporters. This is one of the main reasons why America could not defeat the Viet Cong.
The difference in the fighting methods of each war gave rise to sharp differences in casualties.54,000 American soldiers died in Korea and the war ended within three years. In Vietnam, however, 58,000 soldiers perished over a course of ten years. The Korean War was characterized by short bursts of fighting whereas Vietnam tended to be long and drawn out. Because of the psychological impact of this, their was an enormous difference between how the veterans of both wars were received back in the USA. The timing and ideological justifications for the wars also contributed to the differing moral support the US troops received.
Vietnam and Korea differed greatly during the wars, but their distinctions have grown even farther apart. Even the differences between North Korea and South Korea are huge. Vietnam has finally gotten its economy on track again after discarding communism. South Koreans enjoy abundance and a flourishing economy. North Koreans starve every day. It is easy to conclude from these examples that communism fails to provide prosperity for the people. Almost every county in the world has abandoned communism because its failure to produce social and economic success. 
§6. The Iraq War
The Iraq War was a conflict that occurred in Iraq from March 20, 2003 to December 15, 2011. Also this war is known as the War in Iraq (also referred to as the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, or Operation Iraqi Freedom by the United States military).
There were several reasons for war including following ones-
- The United States and the world have a duty to disarm a rogue nation like Iraq.
- Saddam Hussein is a tyrant that has demonstrated a complete disregard for human life and should be brought to justice.
- The people of Iraq are an oppressed people, and the world has a duty to help these people.
- The oil reserves of the region are necessary to the world's economy. A rogue element like Saddam threatens the oil reserves of the entire region.
The war in Iraq can be divided into two distinct stages. In the first stage US and coalition forces quickly advanced on Baghdad. The regime of Saddam Hussein quickly fell and the US began to administer Iraq directly. The second stage has lasted from the middle of April 2003 until December 15, 2011. In that time the US helped the Iraqis elect their own government. In the meantime US forces were attacked both by supporters of the old regime as well as groups affiliated with Al Queda. To make matters worse violence soon developed between the Shites and Sunnis in Iraq. Today over three years later virtual civil war exist between the Shites and Sunnis.
Prior to the war, the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom claimed that Iraq's alleged possession of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) posed a threat to their security and that of their coalition/regional allies. In 2002, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1441 which called for Iraq to completely cooperate with UN weapon inspectors to verify that Iraq was not in possession of WMD and cruise missiles. The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) found no evidence of WMD, but could not verify the accuracy of Iraq's declarations regarding what weapons it possessed. Lead weapons inspector Hans Blix advised the UN Security Council that while Iraq was cooperating in terms of access, Iraq's declarations with regards to WMD still could not be verified. 
After investigation following the invasion, the U. S. - led Iraq Survey Group concluded that Iraq had ended its nuclear, chemical, and biological programs in 1991 and had no active programs at the time of the invasion, but that they intended to resume production if the Iraq sanctions were lifted. Although some degraded remnants of misplaced or abandoned chemical weapons from before 1991 were found, they were not the weapons which had been the one of the main arguments for the invasion.
Some US officials also accused Iraqi President Saddam Hussein of harboring and supporting al-Qaeda, but no evidence of a meaningful connection was ever found. Other proclaimed reasons for the invasion included Iraq's financial support for the families of Palestinian suicide bombers, Iraqi government human rights abuses, and an effort to spread democracy to the country.
The invasion of Iraq led to an occupation and the eventual capture of President Hussein, who was later tried in an Iraqi court of law and executed by the new Iraqi government.  Violence against coalition forces and among various sectarian groups soon led to the Iraqi insurgency, strife between many Sunni and Shia Iraqi groups, and the emergence of a new faction of Al-Qaeda in Iraq.
In June 2008, U. S. Department of Defense officials claimed security and economic indicators began to show signs of improvement in what they hailed as significant and fragile gains. Iraq was fifth on the 2008 Failed States Index, and sixth on the 2009 list. As public opinion favoring troop withdrawals increased and as Iraqi forces began to take responsibility for security, member nations of the Coalition withdrew their forces. In late 2008, the U. S. and Iraqi governments approved a Status of Forces Agreement effective through January 1, 2012. The Iraqi Parliament also ratified a Strategic Framework Agreement with the U. S.,aimed at ensuring cooperation in constitutional rights, threat deterrence, education, energy development, and other areas. In late February 2009, newly elected U. S. President Barack Obama announced an 18-month withdrawal window for combat forces, with approximately 50,000 troops remaining in the country "to advise and train Iraqi security forces and to provide intelligence and surveillance".  General Ray Odierno, the top U. S.military commander in Iraq, said he believes all U. S. troops will be out of the country by the end of 2011, while UK forces ended combat operations on April 30, 2009. Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki has said he supports the accelerated pullout of U. S. forces. In a speech at the Oval Office on 31 August 2010 Obama declared "the American combat mission in Iraq has ended. Operation Iraqi Freedom is over, and the Iraqi people now have lead responsibility for the security of their country. "Beginning September 1, 2010, the American operational name for its involvement in Iraq changed from "Operation Iraqi Freedom" to "Operation New Dawn." The remaining 50,000 U. S. troops were designated as "advise and assist brigades" assigned to non-combat operations while retaining the ability to revert to combat operations as necessary. Two combat aviation brigades also remain in Iraq. In September 2010, the Associated Press issued an internal memo reminding its reporters that "combat in Iraq is not over," and "U. S. troops remain involved in combat operations alongside Iraqi forces, although U. S. officials say the American combat mission has formally ended."  On October 21, 2011, President Obama announced that all U. S. troops and trainers would leave Iraq by the end of the year, bringing the U. S. mission in Iraq to an end. On December 15, 2011, U. S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta officially declared the Iraq War over, at a flag lowering ceremony in Baghdad.
For a long time America took part in social, ethnic and religious conflicts and wars, that had a significant influence on the development of different countries.
From the American Revolution of the late 18th century to the Iraq War in the early 21st, these conflicts have shaped the country's policies, influenced its culture, defined its borders and cost thousands of lives. Wars in these centuries, with the exception of WWII, have all been based on the expansion of Empire, but with the modern twist of multinational capitalism. Americans have gone to war to win their independence, expand their national boundaries, define their freedoms, and defend their interests around the globe.
 Title 10 of the United States Code
 "Organization Chart of the Joint Chiefs of Staff". JCS Leadership. Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
 John Whiteclay Chambers, ed., The Oxford Guide to American Military History (1999).
 Jeremy Black, America as a Military Power: From the American Revolution to the Civil War (2002)
 "14 June: The Birthday of the U. S. Army". United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 2011-07-01. an excerpt from Robert Wright, The Continental Army
 Army FY2010 Demographics brochure. US Army
 Ions, Edmund, Woodrow Wilson - The Politics of Peace and War (1977);
 Kennedy, David, M., Over Here: The First World War and American Society (1980).
 Iriye, Akira (1987), The Origins of the Second World War in Asia and the Pacific
 Casey, Steven (2001), Cautious Crusade: Franklin D. Roosevelt, American Public Opinion and the War against Nazi Germany
 History Place, The Vietnam War January 27, 1973 http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html
 Frank E. Smitha, The Korean War http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch24kor.html
 Wanda Anderson, Waltrip High School, Korean and Vietnam - Different Wars, Same Policies
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 Thomas E. Ricks (2006) Fiasco, The American Military Adventure In Iraq. Penguin
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Theodore Roosevelt as the Twenty-Sixth President of the United States and passionate hunter, especially of big game. The original member of the American Institute of Arts and Letters. Electing him to the Assembly of New York State, governor of New York.
презентация [772,8 K], добавлен 12.11.2013
Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States. His campaign to represent Illinois in the United States Senate with his victory in the March Democratic Party primary. 30 interesting facts about him. Barack Obama and Nursultan Nazarbayev.
презентация [1,1 M], добавлен 20.02.2014
The period from 1799 to 1815 is often referred to as the "Napoleonic Wars". These years and the two following decades became one of the most difficult episodes of the British history. Great Britain after Waterloo. The Reform Bill. The Poor Law of 1834.
реферат [21,2 K], добавлен 23.10.2002
The national monument Statue of Liberty. History of the Statue of Liberty. Symbol of freedom of the American people, of the United States and a symbol of New York City as a whole. Large-scale campaign to raise funds. Restoration of the monument.
презентация [747,3 K], добавлен 13.01.2016