The creation and activities of local organizations of the Bund Belarus
The formation of the Bund as the organization was laid union of the circles of the Jewish workers and artisans Russia empire, basis of the organizational structure. Creation of striking funds. Evolution of the organizational structure of the Bund.
|Рубрика||История и исторические личности|
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The creation and activities of local organizations
of the Bund Belarus
The formation of the Bund as the organization was laid union of the circles of the Jewish workers and artisans western provinces of Russia empire. Have them on the basis of traditionally existed in the trades among mutual-aid funds (the Jewish craftsmen - hevres) for the benefit of mass labor movement in terms of economic recovery and encouraging the participation in the struggle to improve their conditions of workers and artisans, as put forward demands to increase wages wages, and shorter working hours, better working conditions were all clear and urgent.
Gradually, the union is "shop" Cass (a profession) in the city, and then the district. Reason for this is was, firstly, the need for financial support for strikers (especially if the strike was prepared in all crafts), and secondly, the desire of the Social Democrats to establish a network of closely related labor organizations, united by one goal. Cash gatherings used the Social Democrats to promote Marxist ideas, and later for the dissemination of revolutionary literature and training facilitators in the working environment.
Benevolent Fund, were also formed on an occupational basis - the shop. They were led by departmental gatherings that solve critical issues and the organization of the strike (which was very timely in the wake of the mass strike movement in the 90's. This has enabled the Social Democrats to use the mass workers' movement for political agitation and klasovogo education workers. Thus began the process of transformation mutual-aid funds to fund the fight, which took place under the influence and direct participation of the Jewish Social-Democrats, which have developed active in the province at the turn of the 80 - 90 years of the XIX century, and was most common in the mid 90's. With the end of the period promotion and transfer of Social Democrats to mass agitation in the working environment. The first such ticket was founded in Vilna in 1888 at chulochnits. [2, pp. 56]. By Remark Martov "became the head of the strike movement, helping to formulate the strikers their demands, the Social Democrats have reached a short AREM noticeable effect on the workers and Masa had to turn fragmented, the private struggle of individual groups of workers in class struggle against the oppressor of his poleiriata mass classes "[4, p.83].
This fund began to struggle not only at the head of the strike movement in the province, but also a center of education workers. Craftsmen fund set up everywhere and the Government as a source of antigovernment propaganda. In 1896, in Minsk acted Booking artisans bench and blacksmith shops of the 50 people on her needs met weekly for 10 kopecks. with the student and 20 kopecks. with apprentice [6, LL 2 on 9 on.]. The same cashier from 1894 existed at the tailors, cobblers, schetochnikov etc. [6, pp. 12 on. - 13 on].
Thus against the background of the strike movement has developed and matured a mass workers' organization, has united a community economic requirements for employers (increased wages, shorter hours, better working conditions, etc.). In October 1897 took place on 1 congress of representatives of 15 cities: Vilnius, Minsk, Warsaw, Dvinsk, Bialystok, Bobruisk, Smorgon, Lodz, Kovno, Mogilev, Gomel, Vitebsk, Odessa, Verzhbolova, Vilkovyshek [5, pp. 199]. Thus was created the Bund.
At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. basis of the organizational structure of the Bund continued to be cash struggle (strike funds). Their primary objectives are: to disseminate among the masses of social democratic ideas, the development of class and political consciousness of workers, improve their economic situation. The transition from propaganda in small circles to the general agitation among the working masses, marked changes in the tactics of the Social-Democrats, the middle 90's. XIX century., Demanded radical changes in prevailing before the work and organization. The reform plan was scheduled for leaders of the movement in Vilna, as follows: 1) the final conversion of shop insurance funds in public resistance (cash counter), etching of them the last remnants of peaceful mutual-aid funds, and 2) direct connection of the Social Democratic Center with these insurers through the permanent collections of prominent figures for each fund "with the center (meeting facilitators), and 3) adaptation of the circles to the problem of making the leaders of the mass movement of workers, so the clubs should be taken only active workers are able and inclined to engage in propaganda; classes in the groups must be free from academic and school nature, closer to life, 4) classes in the groups should be conducted primarily in the jargon, to make possible the participation of all capable of propaganda work of the proletarians [2, pp. 57].
In the late XIX-early XX centuries. in each city with a notable labor movement has established local committees of the Bund. Initially, their role was more of a coordinating and directing: equipment for the study circles of socialist literature and political readings, distributing illegal literature and issue proclamations supporting the strikers with money and formulation of requirements in the strikes, etc. To do this, the committees were needed streamlined communication among themselves and with the Central Committee for the supply of literature, organization of illegal libraries on the ground, a network of safe houses for the organization of meetings. For the Central Committee sets forth the general leadership of the movement, liaison between the local committees, supply of literature and publishing activities [3, pp. 85-86.].
Analysis of the economic situation during the economic downturn of the late XIX century. forced the Bund to its 4 th Congress in 1901 to introduce a limited offensive strikes [1, pp. V]. first place in the activities of organizations out political struggle. As the nature and expanding forms of fighting organization became grow the necessary specialized branches (the editorial group and printing for the publication of proclamations and other revolutionary literature; Red Cross, helping prisoner and exile, etc.).
Evolution of the organizational structure of the Bund was a parallel evolution of the main ideological principles and, accordingly, the goals and objectives put forward by the Bund at the turn of XIX - XX centuries.
Thus, at the head of the labor movement of every city in fact there were two centers - the workers and intellectuals, who possessed a high degree of autonomy. The confrontation of these centers, the reluctance to restructure work circles of education led to the Workers' Opposition in many centers of motion.
But at the beginning of XX century, аs the exhaustion of the prospects for purely economic struggle, anti-government protests intensify political and retaliatory government repression against Zubatovism and impact of such vocational-revolutionary organizations, like Iskra begin centralistic growth trends in the Bund and the corresponding restructuring of its structure. It was expressed primarily in the expansion of the competence of local committees of the Bund and strengthening the leadership role of the Central Committee on the basis of strict party discipline.
At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. basis of the organizational structure of the Bund continued to be cash struggle (strike funds). Their primary objectives are: to disseminate among the masses of social democratic ideas, the development of class and political consciousness of workers, improve their economic situation. The transition from propaganda in small circles to the general agitation among the working masses, marked changes in the tactics of the Social-Democrats, the middle 90's. XIX century, Demanded radical changes in prevailing before the work and organization. The reform plan was scheduled for leaders of the movement in Vilna, as follows: 1) the final conversion of shop insurance funds in public resistance (cash counter), etching of them the last remnants of peaceful mutual-aid funds, and 2) direct connection of the Social Democratic Center with these insurers through the permanent collections of prominent figures for each fund "with the center (meeting facilitators), and 3) adaptation of the circles to the problem of making the leaders of the mass movement of workers, so the clubs should be taken only active workers are able and inclined to engage in propaganda; classes in the groups must be free from academic and school nature, closer to life, 4) classes in the groups should be conducted primarily in the jargon, to make possible the participation of all capable of propaganda work of the proletarians [2, pp. 57].
In the conduct of local committees, and also took over stewardship of the surrounding villages to the city. Under the direct supervision committee meetings were agitators who had carried out the decisions of the Committee. In addition to these institutions, headed by general revolutionary work throughout the city, there were also craft centers for the same work in certain crafts. Thus, the cash gradually replaced the rallies from 80-ies of XIX century. workers' circles, where the Social Democrats trained workers in literacy and аbility to consider, the beginnings of political economy, gradually turned into numerous organization, which became the head of a numerically increased the labor movement. Thus were created the conditions for creating one of the oldest and most influential in the territory of Belarus Social Democratic Party - the Bund.
Sources and literature
1. 1905 in Belarus. Collection of articles, memoirs and Materials, Ed. M. Schulman / Commission CEC of the BSSR in the commemoration of the 20 th anniversary of the revolution. - Mn., 1925. - 131 pp.
2. Buchbinder NA History of the Jewish labor movement in Russia. In unpublished archival material. - L.: Academic Publishers, 1925
3. Report on the Russian Social-Democratic movement to the International Socialist Congress in Paris. History of the Jewish labor movement in Russia and Poland. - Geneva, 1901
4. Martov L. proletarian struggle in Russia. - 2-nd edition, revised and expanded. - Spb., Publishing RG Glagolev, 1906
5. NARB, fax. 60, op. 3, d. 91.
6. NIAB, fond. 705, op. 1, d. 1.
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