Origin and essence of global problems
The essence of an environmental problem. Features of global problems. Family, poverty, war and peace problems. Culture and moral crisis. Global problems is invitation to the human mind. Moral and philosophical priorities in relationship with the nature.
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- Origin and essence of global problems
- Global problems
- Family problem
- Poverty problem
- Culture and moral crisis
- War and peace problem
- Environmental problem
- Global problems is invitation to the human mind
- List of references
In all branches of the human's activity, as a kind of animate nature, problem intensity is observed. This intensity is very actual today. Topicality problems' of contemporary humanity consist in civilization as such able not only self-destruction, but also destroy all milieu of life's magnificence.
In present conditions at a civilization two ways of further history: or to fall into oblivion and to get lost weightless ashes in world space and to carry away with itself all live, or to comprehend all the experience and to pass from the development period "Homo sapiens" to the period "Person Wise". But on many signs the problem of a choice of a way now very few people interests. Global problems have planetary, universal character, infringe on interests of all people of the world, they threaten with degradation and death to all mankind. The majority of problems which today we connect with global problems of the present, accompanied mankind throughout all its history.
First of all, it is necessary to carry to them:
· problem of a preservation of peace on Earth;
· environmental problems;
· preservation of peace;
· overcoming of poverty, hunger, illiteracy;
· food problem;
· population problem.
Also it is only small list of all modern signs of world crisis. All difficulties of mankind were weaved into one confused ball - one problem supplements another and can't exist without it.
global problem nature philosophical
Origin and essence of global problems
Now an increasing number of philosophers, sociologists, historians incline to think that at the present stage of development of humanity the uniform civilization on all planets is formed. Acceleration of this idea in science and public consciousness promoted understanding of globalization of social and cultural processes in the modern world.
What it is necessary to understand as the term globalization of social and cultural processes? The etymological term "globalization" is connected with the Latin term "globe" - that is Earth, the Globe and means all-planetary nature of these or those processes. However globalization of processes is not only their ubiquity, not only that they cover all globe. Globalization is connected, first of all, with internationalization of all public work on Earth. This internationalization means that in present period all mankind is included into uniform system of welfare, economic, political and other relations, interactions and the relations. Thus, in present period, in comparison with last historical eras, the all-planetary unity of mankind which represents essentially new super system connected by the general destiny and shared responsibility steadily increased. Therefore scientists and philosophers consider lawful to speak about formation of a uniform civilization and need of new planetary style of thinking.
Such globalist approach is brightly found in concepts "a post of industrial society", "a technological era" American sociologists D. Bella, Z. Bzhezinsky, A. Toffler, etc. These concepts I focus attention on that fact that any technological revolution leads to profound changes not only in productive forces of society, but also in all way of life of people. Feature of the modern technological revolution connected with information of society, consists that it creates essentially new prerequisites for a universalization and globalization of human interaction. Thanks to broad development of mass media and communications, deepening of division of labor and specialization, the mankind unites in uniform sociocultural integrity. Existence of such unity dictates the requirements to mankind, as a whole, and to the individual.
The level of technical production and all human activity is higher, the there has to be an extent of development of the person, his interaction with environment, from here and new requirements to the personality above: in it high qualification, masterly mastering equipment, limit competence of the specialty have to be combined with social responsibility and moral universal values harmoniously.
However globalization of social, cultural, economic and political processes in the modern world, along with positive sides, generated a number of serious problems which received the name of "global problems of the present": ecological, demographic, political, etc. All these problems are important for the real and future mankind. The concrete analysis of each of them is included in competence of special sciences: sociology, demography, etc. Philosophers concentrate attention world outlook the sense the vital questions, consider these problems from this point of view opportunities and prospects of survival of mankind. And in this aspect the environmental problem moves to the forefront.
What is the essence of an environmental problem? Generally speaking, the essence of an environmental problem consists in distinctly found and going deep contradiction between productive activity of mankind and stability of environment of its dwelling. As the founder of the international research center "Roman club", mankind studying prospect in the face of modern global problems marked out, A. Pechchei: "The true problem of a human look at this step of its evolution consists that it was completely not capable culturally to march in step and completely to adapt to those changes which itself I made to this world".
These changes are a fruit of all cultural and converting and, first of all, productive activity of the person. The artificial environment gradually and inevitably comes on natural and absorbs it and it is one of the major factors, causing statement before mankind, an environmental problem.
In this regard special sharpness for people is gained by a problem of universal distribution in environment of productions and products, first of all, radiation and toxic types. In a year more than 20 tons of industrial and other wastes are the share of each inhabitant of Earth. More than 200 million tons of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen and million tons of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere get to the atmosphere. And it already in the near future can cause atmosphere temperature increase, and after this, increase of level of the seas and flooding of considerable sites of land. As a result, one hundred millions people risk turning into "ecological refugees".
Global problems of the present and, first of all, sharp aggravation of an environmental problem, set for mankind the task of search of new ways of development, reorganization of the relations with environment.
Our century became an eyelid of global problems. Global problems - it is set of the most pressing vital questions on which progress and survival of mankind depends: the ecological crisis generated by catastrophic on the consequences by invasion of the person in the biosphere; accruing exhaustion of not renewable natural resources, prompt growth of population in the poor countries and sharp falling of birth rate in the countries developed.
Now to all these troubles anthropological accident was added still: damage of a gene pool and as a result of it is emergence of the increasing number of mentally retarded and physically defective children. It is caused also by environmental pollution, including radioactive, and growth of consumption of alcohol, and destruction of the best people of society. The huge damage was caused to a gene pool by war, hunger and repressions: the first the best perished always, the most initiative, and the most talented.
Global problems are called so because there is no country in the world which they anyway wouldn't concern - and still because to solve them it is possible only by common efforts of all countries together.
The international terrorism which threatens all civilized mankind became one more global problem. Behind spikes in violence, murders of hostages, explosions of houses with people in the different countries stands, probably, the whole branched organization financed by large industrial groups or even by the whole states. Fight against the international terrorism became the most important global problem of the present, for its decision all democratic states of the world unite now.
Modern mass media became a global problem. The television and radio not only distributed information, but were also the powerful tool of cultural education of the people. But for the last 20 years in all developed countries such system of mass communication in which everything is centralized and monopolized was created.
Earlier different groups of people in the different countries could interpret the events in own way. Now all information streams extend worldwide in essence from one center and most often give the distorted interpretations of the events. The vast majority of communication streams is made or controlled by narrow group of media oligarchs. Global society actually passed to owner's huge "factory of dreams". For example, the American way of life becomes dominating for the whole world. The American cinema which is broadcast by all TV companies of the world, costs not much (why it is bought by all), and the maintenance of it "cultural consumer goods" - almost entirely blood, violence, continuous murders, etc.
For the huge mass of people the whole world is concentrated on the TV screen. Without television no ideas exist, no politicians function, any social movements are unknown if aren't shown on the screen. Now policy - it that passed through the TV screen. Our concern in a crime rate or ecology is directly connected with in what volume these subjects are touched by mass media, first of all television. Our idea of the importance of some event that is of its “eventness” besides arises thanks to its demonstration by TV channels. In this sense not only certain politicians "become" television; television the policy becomes. All these is very disturbing symptoms of modern process of globalization.
We live during an era of mass functioning of the developed simulyars system. Simulyar - it is such copies or similarity which force out itself the original, become more important than the original. The object of advertizing, for example, has very remote relation to a "real" subject, to sell which the businessman tries. Buying it, we buy not so much a subject, how many its images. Objects of our aspirations (and, respectively, purchases) have very remote relation to our real requirements. Society as though ceases to exist seriously, symulyars, game, phantoms absorb everything. Probably, it testifies to the end of human history - if people don't find forces to find or open new global meanings of the existence and mission.
Family is society mini-model. Without family and family education, family care of the child wouldn't be societies, or the states, ethnos. How social systems what would drill changed was carried by over people - the family always remained.
The family historically changed. During a matriarchy era when the power belonged to the women, everyone knew the mother, but nobody knew the father, instead of a family there were so-called chaotic sexual relations. Then the power passed to the man, and the father became interested in, that precisely the nobility, who his children whom to transfer the economy, the house. There was a pair family. It wasn't fastened yet by laws and easily broke up and again was formed.
With the advent of the state and the right there were laws and on marriage, and gradually in Europe the monogamous family - one man and one woman started developing. However in some Muslim countries still, especially in villages, there are polygamous marriages. Under Muslim laws to the man about four wives are allowed to have, in some countries it is even more. In Nepal in the first half of the XX century the family was under construction by the opposite principle: one wife could have to five husbands. But in the majority of the countries the monogamous family became stronger and remains. The family brings up and develops feeling of mutual coherence of people, their ability to serve each other. The family is living in one house - it, according to L. Gumilev, an example of social system.
It should be noted that the family and now evolves, and, apparently, for the worse. At the beginning of the XX century for Europe the big family was typical, all lived together: parents, parents of parents, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc. Now the typical family - is parents (the father and mother) and one - two, at most three children. Children, having hardly become adults, try to leave as soon as possible a family and to get the house, to live independently. In the West countries it in general became the rule: the son or the daughter, having reached majority, separate and live, trying not to depend economically on parents, and parents aren't torn by it to help, considering that they have to make the way in life in life.
Happy families, that is true originally, in heart - much less than thinks. Literally it is the rarest exceptions, but they are, and, looking narrowly there and here, now it is possible to learn such family. It is the oasis, the thrown live grain among dead fabric of marriage, it doesn't hurry anywhere to anybody doesn't "gather" and to itself "waits" for nobody. In it there is any own light, heat, poetry. Often it are silent families, that is all exclamatory or, at least, all fussy is excluded from them, their members "dig" the friend about the friend, that is occupied everyone with the business, but "about" each other, by all means in physical almost a contact. Such families are brought down in "small group" here is both light, and warmth of live character: it even is noticeable by not concentration, usual lack of "magnificence". Long and attentively studying their mental warehouse, always it is possible to notice that - whether in instincts, in guesses or in any warm atmosphere of breath - but their "religiousness" and "sanctity" of marriage is advanced slightly further, than ordinary, and a little deep into. For example, at them the religious feeling of children - religious feeling of the birth is noticeable. It affects in the note informing about "family addition", in a way of the invitation to "christening", is imperceptible - but with any solemnity in all this, at all absent in passive families where the birth almost also disappears, it makes same "awkwardness", as well as wedding. Without light of religion in mysterious "uses" of the life, people uncontrollably began to rot in them, and the "European" civilization, only "European", uncontrollably blurs from "passive" marriage simply in prostitution. There is no fire, there is no mysterious and burning fire of the pulling together person in "marriage" - it is so obvious and it is obvious only in Europe, with its beginning "degeneration"! We from within grew cold, the gulf in myself the sacred center and on a place sacred to it sacrifices having arranged dumped sewage. Here knot of European civilization, our philosophical defects, and griefs of our day.
The share of the population of developing countries on our planet makes 4/5 from all population, and to the middle of the XXI century will make 9/10 (forecast). These numbers are very disturbing!
They testify to obviously unsuccessful situation in the modern world. The vast majority of the population of developing countries has no normal living conditions. The economy of developing countries strongly lags behind a level of production of the developed countries, and it isn't possible to reduce a gap yet.
The housing problem is very sharp: 3/4 population of developing countries live actually in insanitary conditions, 250 million people live in slums, 1,5 billion people are deprived of elementary medical care. About 2 billion people have no opportunity to use safe water for health. Over 500 million people suffer from malnutrition, and 30-40 million annually die of hunger.
But what their backwardness prevents developing countries to overcome? The reasons on it are a little.
First of all, it must be kept in mind that it is the agrarian countries. Over 90% of country people of the world but as it is paradoxical fall to their share, they aren't able to support even themselves as population growth in them exceeds a gain of production of the food.
Other reason needs to master new technologies, to develop the industry, a services sector, and demands participation in world trade. However it deforms economy of these countries.
One more reason of lag of developing countries - use of traditional power sources (physical force of animals, wood burning, and different organic chemistry) which in view of their low efficiency, don't allow is increasing significantly labor productivity in the industry, on transport, in a services sector, in agriculture.
Still there is also such reason, as a complete dependence from the world market and its environment. Even in spite of the fact that some of these countries possess huge stocks of oil, they aren't able to control completely a situation in the world oil market and to regulate a situation in own favor.
Today development of productive forces and the welfare environment of society are impossible without increase of an education level of all people, without mastering modern achievements of science and technology. However the necessary attention to them demands large expenses and, of course, assumes existence of pedagogical and scientific and technical shots. Developing countries in the conditions of poverty can't solve these problems properly.
All large number of people in the world realizes that problems of the developing states, promptly comes to a history proscenium.
The destiny of these countries as now becomes obvious, concerns not only them. And business isn't simple in our compassion, and in impossibility not to empathize their burdens, in difficulty to reconcile to scandalous social injustice.
Elimination of lag of developing countries is necessary for all, including to the developed countries. It in many respects and, perhaps, even in the main thing defines destiny of mankind.
The political instability caused, first of all, by low level of economic development, constantly creates danger of emergence of the military conflicts in these regions. Now in the conditions of the complete world and promptly increasing availability of the perfect weapon they can have any, and even tragic consequences for other countries and for all mankind.
Poverty and low level of culture with inevitability involve the uncontrollable growth of the population.
Culture and moral crisis
Any difficult phenomenon of public life can't be estimated unambiguously "well" or "badly", as in it maybe that and another. A lot of things depend on criteria of an assessment. So, in spiritual culture of any society two equally real shapes differ: shape of stability, harmony, unanimity, and shape of changes, conflicts, intensity and unresolved problems. It should be meant in the analysis and an assessment of a condition of culture of any society, including ours.
Today the scanty part of the state budget is spent for culture. Many centers of culture are closed, without having opportunity to cope with financial difficulties. The majority remained not to die away absolutely instead of bearing to people art and creativity, are compelled to be engaged in commerce.
Revival and further cultural development and moral is the most important condition of updating of our society. But the culture doesn't stand still, it constantly changes. From there is a question: what culture to us should be revived?
To answer a question is not simply as can seem at first sight. After all in one society there is no uniform "true", "correct", "ideal" culture. It is impossible from the cultural heritage, developing for eyelids, to delete something, to leave something only for ideological reasons. As a rule, life itself selects the most valuable in moral and esthetic sense of work. Most often idealization of the past takes place when don't want or aren't able to estimate modern achievements really.
Presently the new, humane tenor of life based on the best national traditions of the past and the present, still shy, but forces the way through, rejecting all that prevented people to develop their inner world, to improve everyday life, to create under laws of beauty and moral purity.
Problem of protection and preservation of a cultural heritage of the past which has incorporated universal values, - is a problem all-planetary, features is having in everyone country. For our country this problem is particularly acute most. Fight against the religion, accepted in the 30th years of last century character of natural disaster, poured out in mass destruction of churches, in the next years the part of the Chinese city wall, Red gate, etc. D. Likhachev were demolished at the same time noticed that to known limits of loss in the nature are reparable. Otherwise business is with culture monuments. Their losses are, as a rule, irreplaceable because monuments of culture are always individual, each monument collapses forever.
By means of the latest developments of a scientific and technological revolution, mass media the cultural wealth which has been saved up by mankind, becomes more available, but each person still needs "to touch" them to become spiritually richer. All the matter is that the one, who looks for in culture only an entertainment, without having found it, easily finds substitute. The culture will organize human life, the culture of society consists from this that it is necessary to know and in what it is necessary to trust his members to work in the mutually acceptable way and to play socially significant roles. The culture, moral are created by people, in culture are trained as she isn't given genetically, each generation reproduces it and transfers to the following generation. As a result of assimilation of cultural values, beliefs, norms, rules and ideals there is a formation of the personality and regulation of her behavior. Therefore revival of cultural and moral values - is one of significant problems of any society, the people, and the state.
War and peace problem
The person always was at war with himself. From the point of view of natural regulation is an absurdity, but the fact! From the 3500th year B. C. there were 14530 wars. And only 292 years people lived without the conflicts.
Ideas put forward in the book "About War" Karl von Clausewitz are very interesting, in my opinion. Brought up under the influence of the German school of philosophy, and especially Hegel, he developed the theory about war and about influence of policy on it.
War, according to Clausewitz, is the act of violence, aiming to force the opponent to execute someone's will. The violence works inventions of arts and opening of sciences to resist to violence. In the XX century the civilization "gave birth" to the new monster - the nuclear weapon.
The problem of war and peace turned in global literally before our eyes, and first of all as a result of sharply increased power of the weapon.
Today one only nuclear weapon it is saved up so many that its explosive force in some thousands of times exceeds power of the ammunition using in all wars which were waged before.
The nuclear charges which total power in some million times exceeds the power of the bomb dumped to Hiroshima are stored in arsenals of the different countries. And after all from this bomb over 200 thousand people were lost! 40% of a square of the city were burned to ashes, 92% were spoiled to incognizance. Fatal consequences of nuclear bombing are felt still by thousands people.
Very large amount of explosives is the share of each person now only in the form of the nuclear weapon. If people had so much food, how many all types of weapon and explosives exist on a planet!. This weapon it is possible to destroy many tens times any life on Earth. And after all today already and "usual" means of warfare is quite capable to cause global damage and to mankind, and the nature. Besides it must be kept in mind that technologies of conducting wars evolves towards the increasing destruction of civilians.
What waits mankind if it is untied even if local war with application of the most modern means of its maintaining?
As experts consider, use of the modern weapon will bring, at least to 100 - to multiple excess of number of victims among civilians in comparison with a death toll of military.
Thinkers of various eras condemned wars, passionately dreamed of an everlasting peace and developed various aspects of a problem of a universal peace. Many of them paid and pay attention generally to its ethical aspect. They believe that war of aggression is immorality generation that the peace can be achieved only as a result of moral re-education of people in the spirit of mutual understanding, tolerance to various religions, elimination of nationalist remnants, and education of people in the spirit of the principle "all people - brothers".
Our general House - mother Earth is rather close. Length of its circle on the equator a little more than 40 thousand kilometers, a surface - 510 million km, from them less than a third - land. The sum of consumption of natural resources in kilocalories on each person per day made in prehistoric times - 2-4 thousand, now in the USA - 200-500 thousand. Meanwhile amplitude of demographic growth of mankind such is that at the time of the Roman Empire it made 150 million people, in ninety years - with 1840 on 1930 - the world's population grew by billion and on as much for the last five years. To the middle of the XXI century population will reach a point of 13 billions people. In total 11% of a fertile surface of Earth were for the last half a century destroyed, and it is more, than the total area of India and China.
Recently very often statements reach that for hunger, in the future mankind the World Ocean and it is capable to rescue "inexhaustible natural resources". But the World Ocean already now suffers from civilization influence. In blue chasm oil products, synthetic fibers, vegetable fossils are annually thoughtlessly dumped.
Today it is obvious that generators of such deplorable condition of the biosphere are the organizational and economic mechanisms of unlimited activism caused by appetites of an increment of the capital or thoughtless planning of "buildings of a century".
In the philosophical relation future is, eventually, vulnerable and developing present. Therefore, present intolerable rates of development are that it is possible to call peculiar "the abuse transferred to the future" which with a decupled force will be reflected in our descendants.
The same, who justifies nature destruction by need of increase of welfare of society, need to remember that improvement of the personality is impossible at the expense of the nature, and has to be accompanied by improvement of the nature.
Defining further strategy of development of humanity and the civilization, new moral and philosophical priorities in relationship with the nature, it is necessary to remember that the biosphere existed before emergence on Earth of the person, can exist and without it. But the person without biosphere can't exist is an axiom. Means, performance of the principle of joint development of the biosphere and society is demands from the person of a known regulation in the actions, certain restrictions.
Global problems is invitation to the human mind
It is impossible to leave them. They can be overcome only. And to overcome efforts of each person and each country is in rigid cooperation for the sake of the great purpose of preservation of opportunity to live on Earth.
The history of evolution of life on Earth is a history of death of a huge number of animal species and plants which occurs as a result there is a discrepancy between the developed organisms' adaptation forms to environment and most this Wednesday. Today, we are witnesses of how the mankind inevitably goes by the end.
We can't ignore today, possibility of self-destruction of mankind so disturbing us. The future is opened before people. For this it is necessary to fight, and it in many respects depends on us.
Human activity and as its products are, more than ever, sated today with scientific knowledge, reason. Biotechnology development, robotics, laser equipment, development of atomic and thermonuclear energy, creation of new constructive materials, technical use of high-temperature superconductivity, computerization of all our life open huge prospects in the solution of the problems facing modern society.
The world, undoubtedly, became more saturated diverse communications and the relations, at the same time and stressful situations. Dynamism, intensity of activity of people as in the nature, and the social environment, its escalating power and scales create unprecedented before, problems new to mankind.
Life expectancy of people decreases, quality of life worsens, the number of heart, cancer, allergic diseases increases; ominously AIDS epidemic extends; more often cases of pathology of mentality meet; the quantity of the hereditary diseases worsening a gene pool of mankind increases; the huge number of people becomes victims of accidents at the enterprises, on roads; and as quality of the food worsened because of chemicalization; around the world international tension is sharply fueled; uncontrollably the crime grows.
Whether it is possible to claim, what presently people became more moral and happier than before? No. Never before people tested such alarm for the life and didn't feel as unprotected as now!
Each of the countries fought against the difficulties, without realizing that fact that the world entered a strip of huge general crisis, to leave from which in general it is impossible, without having understood global nature of danger, without having mobilized people of Earth for overcoming of its "difficulties". Only high-quality shift in all human thinking and behavior could break off this vicious circle of problems.
Whether so remains at the person though a hope gleam what it will sometime say goodbye to Global problems?
Global problems of the present are complex and comprehensive. They are closely bound among themselves, with regional and national and state problems. In their basis - the contradictions of the global scale mentioning bases of existence of a modern civilization. The aggravation of these contradictions in one link conducts to destructive processes as a whole, generates new problems. Permission of global problems becomes complicated as well that level of management of global processes is still low from the international organizations, their understanding and financing from the sovereign states. Strategy of a survival of the person on the basis of the solution of global problems of the present has to bring the people to new boundaries of civilized development.
List of references
1. http://kazbook. narod.ru/knigi/21/25. htm
2. http://works. tarefer.ru/91/100775/index.html
3. http://www.bibliofond.ru/view. aspx? id=577230
7. http://promeco. h1.ru/stati/index. php? page=26
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